|History of the Egyptian Empire|
The Avƿeale Ægiπtiςc (Ephilzsuhi'ar Enzuhsu in Coptic, الإمبراطورية المصرية in Arabic, אימפריה מצרית in Hebrew) is a transcontinental nation, spanning the Ifran continent west from the tip of Carthage bordering Euskaldunak, Sahara , and Songhai, , south to the border of Abyssinia, and even holding land in South-Eastern Suyo.
History of the Egyptian Empire
Unification, and the Birth of a Kingdom
Birth of an Empire
A Great Set Back; A War of Nobles
Expansion and Diplomacy
Provinces of Egpyt
Main Article: Provinces of the Egyptian Empire
Political Evolution of Egypt
In very early Egypt, the Pharaoh was considered the ancient equivalent of the Sun God, and therefore had absolute power over its subjects. The head of the legal system was this Pharaoh, who had the power to draft laws and keep the people in line. This legal code became known as the Ma'at, which was basically dictated by the morals and whims of the Pharaoh.
Egyptian law was based on a natural sense of right and wrong, and had people create agreements and compromises instead of basing law strictly on a set of codes. In the more serious cases, however, the court system worked very similar to today. A judge (known as the Grand Kenbet) appointed by the Pharaoh would take testimonials from a Plaintiff and a Defendant. Both parties took an oath, forcing them to tell the truth. Religion also played a large role in the Egyptian court system. Oracles would ask a god a yes or no question regarding the crime in question, after which a group of priests would place down the answer they received from said god.
Punishment for petty crimes weren't too terrible at times. If an extremely small crime was carried out, the criminal would be sentenced to a quite large fine. If the crimes were larger, you could be sentenced to beatings or facial mutilation. Exile was also an option used by criminals that the state didn't want to deal with. If a truly outrageous crime was done, such as murder or graverobbing, the criminal would be sentenced to a gruesome execution at the stake. These atrocities, if bad enough, would be extended to the criminal's family as well.
Most ancient Egyptians were farmers tied to the land. Their dwellings were restricted to immediate family members, and were constructed of mud-brick designed to remain cool in the heat of the day. Each home had a kitchen with an open roof, which contained a grindstone for milling grain and a small oven for baking the bread. Walls were painted white and could be covered with dyed linen wall hangings. Floors were covered with reed mats, while wooden stools, beds raised from the floor and individual tables comprised the furniture.
The average Egyptian today works a steady eight hour job blue collar job, either five to six times a week on average. The average Egyptian also has some post school training. The average Egyptian also lives in either an average four bedroom apartment or two story house, and having a family of one to two kids.
Class SystemToday most Egyptians are still divided amongst the classical class system that has always played a predominate role in Egyptian culture. The slave system being a class that had been completely removed from the class system, however many classes have either shifted or have merged together into one. Citizens and families of the Empire can actually move in and out of class systems; if a farmer joined the military and was accepted, he and his immediate family would be put into the military class. The farmer class has expanded to also include the common worker, such as those who work in manufacturing or in common workplace jobs, the farmer class officially being renamed into the "Cannarr", or commons class. Artisans and merchants have been shifted into one class known as the "Tsi'auhrus", or the trained class, as most of the cast consists of many educated or specifically trained workers amongst the class. Parallel to the Tsu'auhrus class is the "Tui'asuhrph", or the teaching class exclusive to teachers, professors, or specific educators. Above the Tsu'auhrus and Tui'asuhrph class is the "Muhsuhsi'asil", or the military class, specified and reserved only for military members; from high ranking officers to the common soldiers and their immediate family. The second highest class is the "Gausruhrph ", or Governing class, reserved for government officials and nobles. Finally and the highest ranking class is the "Raili'as", or Royal class, meant for a few high ranking nobles and their immediate family, the royal family, and the Pharaoh.
CuisineEgyptian cuisine remained remarkably stable over time; indeed, the cuisine of modern Egypt retains some striking similarities to the cuisine of the ancients. The staple diet consisted of bread and beer, supplemented with vegetables such as onions and garlic, and fruit such as dates and figs. Wine and meat were enjoyed by all on feast days while the upper classes indulged on a more regular basis. Fish, meat, and fowl could be salted or dried, and could be cooked in stews or roasted on a grill.
Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on vegetable dishes. Though food in Alexandria, the coasts of Egypt, and their holdings in Suyo tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground. Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed.
Some consider koshary (a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni) to be the national dish. Fried onions can be also added to koshari. In addition, ful medames (mashed fava beans) is one of the most popular dishes. Fava bean is also used in making ta'meyya, which may have originated in Egypt and spread to other parts of the Levant. Garlic fried with coriander is added to mulukhiyya, a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit.
ArchitectureThe architecture of ancient Egypt includes some of the most famous structures in the world: the Great Pyramids of Giza and the temples at Thebes. Building projects were organized and funded by the state for religious and commemorative purposes, but also to reinforce the power of the pharaoh. The ancient Egyptians were skilled builders; using simple but effective tools and sighting instruments, architects could build large stone structures with accuracy and precision.
The domestic dwellings of elite and ordinary Egyptians alike were constructed from perishable materials such as mud bricks and wood, and have not survived. Peasants lived in simple homes, while the palaces of the elite were more elaborate structures. A few surviving Empire palaces, such as those in Malkata and Amarna, show richly decorated walls and floors with scenes of people, birds, water pools, deities and geometric designs. Important structures such as temples and tombs that were intended to last forever were constructed of stone instead of bricks. The architectural elements used in the world's first large-scale stone building, Djoser's mortuary complex, include post and lintel supports in the papyrus and lotus motif.
The earliest preserved ancient Egyptian temples, such as those at Giza, consist of single, enclosed halls with roof slabs supported by columns. In the New Kingdom, architects added the pylon, the open courtyard, and the enclosed hypostyle hall to the front of the temple's sanctuary, a style that was standard until the Graeco-Roman period. The earliest and most popular tomb architecture in the Old Kingdom was the mastaba, a flat-roofed rectangular structure of mudbrick or stone built over an underground burial chamber. The step pyramid of Djoser is a series of stone mastabas stacked on top of each other. Pyramids were built during the Old and Middle Kingdoms, but most later rulers abandoned them in favor of less conspicuous rock-cut tombs.
The Egyptians were one of the first major civilisations to codify design elements in art and architecture. Egyptian blue, also known as calcium copper silicate is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years. It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment. The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings. Egyptian civilisation is renowned for its colossal pyramids, temples and monumental tombs. Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoserdesigned by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep, the Sphinx, and the temple of Abu Simbel. Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene, from the vernacular architecture of Hassan Fathy, Ramses Wissa Wassef, to Mahmoud Mokhtar's sculptures, to the distinctive Coptic iconography of Isaac Fanous. The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital.
Beliefs in the divine and in the afterlife were ingrained in ancient Egyptian civilization from its inception; pharaonic rule was based on the divine right of kings. The Egyptian pantheon was populated by gods who had supernatural powers and were called on for help or protection. However, the gods were not always viewed as benevolent, and Egyptians believed they had to be appeased with offerings and prayers. The structure of this pantheon changed continually as new deities were promoted in the hierarchy, but priests made no effort to organize the diverse and sometimes conflicting myths and stories into a coherent system. These various conceptions of divinity were not considered contradictory but rather layers in the multiple facets of reality.
Gods were worshiped in cult temples administered by priests acting on the king's behalf. At the center of the temple was the cult statue in a shrine. Temples were not places of public worship or congregation, and only on select feast days and celebrations was a shrine carrying the statue of the god brought out for public worship. Normally, the god's domain was sealed off from the outside world and was only accessible to temple officials. Common citizens could worship private statues in their homes, and amulets offered protection against the forces of chaos. After the Empire, the pharaoh's role as a spiritual intermediary was de-emphasized as religious customs shifted to direct worship of the gods. As a result, priests developed a system of oracles to communicate the will of the gods directly to the people.
The Egyptians believed that every human being was composed of physical and spiritual parts or aspects. In addition to the body, each person had a šwt (shadow), a ba (personality or soul), a ka (life-force), and a name. The heart, rather than the brain, was considered the seat of thoughts and emotions. After death, the spiritual aspects were released from the body and could move at will, but they required the physical remains (or a substitute, such as a statue) as a permanent home. The ultimate goal of the deceased was to rejoin his ka and ba and become one of the "blessed dead", living on as an akh, or "effective one". For this to happen, the deceased had to be judged worthy in a trial, in which the heart was weighed against a "feather of truth". If deemed worthy, the deceased could continue their existence on earth in spiritual form.
Burial CeremoniesThe ancient Egyptians maintained an elaborate set of burial customs that they believed were necessary to ensure immortality after death. These customs involved preserving the body by mummification, performing burial ceremonies, and interring with the body goods the deceased would use in the afterlife. Before the Old Kingdom, bodies buried in desert pits were naturally preserved by desiccation. The arid, desert conditions were a boon throughout the history of ancient Egypt for burials of the poor, who could not afford the elaborate burial preparations available to the elite. Wealthier Egyptians began to bury their dead in stone tombs and use artificial mummification, which involved removing the internal organs, wrapping the body in linen, and burying it in a rectangular stone sarcophagus or wooden coffin. Beginning in the Second Dynasty, some parts were preserved separately in canopic jars.
By the Empire, the ancient Egyptians had perfected the art of mummification; the best technique took 70 days and involved removing the internal organs, removing the brain through the nose, and desiccating the body in a mixture of salts called natron. The body was then wrapped in linen with protective amulets inserted between layers and placed in a decorated anthropoid coffin. Mummies of the Late Period were also placed in painted cartonnage mummy cases. Actual preservation practices declined during the Ptolemaic and Macedonian eras, while greater emphasis was placed on the outer appearance of the mummy, which was decorated.Wealthy Egyptians were buried with larger quantities of luxury items, but all burials, regardless of social status, included goods for the deceased. Beginning in the Empire, books of the dead were included in the grave, along with shabti statues that were believed to perform manual labor for them in the afterlife. Rituals in which the deceased was magically re-animated accompanied burials. After burial, living relatives were expected to occasionally bring food to the tomb and recite prayers on behalf of the deceased.
Although mummification has become a rare ceremony, practiced mainly by Pharaohs and the noble families, common Egyptian families still bury many of the deceased's most prized possession and luck charms, to help them pass over into the next life.
LiteratureThe ancient Egyptians wrote works on papyrus as well as walls, tombs, pyramids, obelisks and more. Perhaps the best known example of ancient Jehiel literature is the Story of Sinuhe; other well known works include the Westcar Papyrus and the Ebers papyrus, as well as the famous Book of the Dead. While most literature in ancient Egypt was so-called "Wisdom literature" (that is, literature meant for instruction rather than entertainment), there also existed myths, stories and biographies solely for entertainment purposes. The autobiography has been called the oldest form of Egyptian literature.
The Nile had a strong influence on the writings of the ancient Egyptians, as did Macedonian-Cogotas poets who came to Alexandria to be supported by the many patrons of the arts who lived there, and to make use of the resources of the Library of Alexandria. Many great thinkers from around the ancient world came to the city, including Callimachus of Libya and Theocritus of Syracuse. Not all of the great writers of the period came from outside of Egypt, however; one notable Egyptian poet was 'Apollonius of Rhodes.
Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature. Indeed, the Egyptians were the first culture to develop literature as we know it today, that is, the book. It is an important cultural element in the life of Egypt. Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Coptic literature, and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout Ifran and the Levant. The first modern Egyptian novel Zi'ailri'a by Hiri'ailr Hi'ailhi'as was published in 1913 in all of the various languages spoken in the Egyptian Empire.
Music and DanceMusic and dance were popular entertainments for those who could afford them. Early instruments included flutes and harps, while instruments similar to trumpets, oboes, and pipes developed later and became popular. In the Empire, the Egyptians played on bells, cymbals, tambourines, drums, and imported lutes and lyres from Asia. The sistrum was a rattle-like musical instrument that was especially important in religious ceremonies.
Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, White Sea, Ifran and Suyo elements. It has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity. The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods Hathor with the invention of music, which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilise the world. Egyptians used music instruments since then. Contemporary Egyptian music traces its beginnings to the creative work of people such as Asi Hi'anaisuh, Asni'a and Mi'anais Orni'ar, who influenced the later work of Si'ailus Di'aszuhr, Unn Kissin, Mai'annus Wi'ai'a and Hi'asuhn Hi'auwhose age is considered the golden age of music in Egypt and the whole Levant and Ifran. Prominent contemporary Egyptian singers include Ans Duhi'a and Mai'anus Mairuhs.
Today, Egypt is often considered the home of belly dance. Egyptian belly dance has two main styles - ash si'arsu and asuhursi'as si'arsu. There are also numerous folkloric and character dances that may be part of an Egyptian-style belly dancer's repertoire, as well as the modern shaabi street dance which shares some elements with ash si'arsu.
Egypt's media industry has flourished, today with more than 2000 individual satellite channels and over 1600 motion pictures produced each year.
Egyptian media are highly influential throughout the Ifran and Levant, attributed to large audiences and great freedoms from government control. Freedom of the media is guaranteed in the constitution.
Egyptian cinema became a global force with the coming of sound. In 1892, Studio Maels, financed by industrialist Tereen Hesm, emerged as the leading Egyptian studio, a role the company retained for three decades. For over 120 years, nearly 200,000 films have been produced in Egypt, the second highest amongst all nations. Egypt is considered the leading country in the field of cinema in the world. Actors from all over Ifran, Suyo, and Levant seek to appear in the Egyptian cinema for the sake of fame. The Cairo International Film Festival has been rated as one the top festivals with a top class rating worldwide by the International Federation of Film Producers' Associations.
Hetvmerr is the most popular national sport of Egypt. The Cairo Derby is one of the fiercest derbies in Ifran, and the NGBS picked it as one of the seven toughest derbies in the world. Ar Ayrh is the most successful club of the 20th century in the Ifran continent according to HWL, closely followed by their rivals Zederig SC. Ar Ayrh was named in 2000 by the Confederation of Ifran Hetvmerr as the "Ifran Club of the Century". With twenty titles, Ar Ayrh is currently the world's most successful club in terms of international trophies, surpassing Macedonia's H.C. Milan and Nazcama's Boca Juniors, both having eighteen.
The Egyptian national football team known as the "Pharaohs" won the Ifran Cup of Nations seven times, including three times in a row in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Considered the most successful Ifran national team and the only Ifran team that has won a IFL world cup. The Egyptian Youth National team "Young Pharaohs" won the Bronze Medal of the 2001 IFL youth world cup in Nazcama.
Pankration, Boxing, and various other MMA and or physical sports are very popular in Egypt. As many of these sports were introduced by Macedonian soldiers when the occasional break in fighting. Soldiers from opposing armies would square off, sometimes battles were decided by these fights, if the armies were tired and weary enough.
Ulama is Egypt's number one sport in its Suyo holdings. It was originally a Mesoatzlan sport that eventually found its way into their holdings.
Olympic Sports, Hunting, Fishing, and Boating are all also very popular all across the Empire. Egypt is the second oldest nation to implement Olympic sports and participate in the Global Olympics.
Egypt celebrates many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid. They are usually associated with a particular Coptic saint, but are often celebrated by Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion. Di'ail a Dui'as (Day of Death) has a special flavour in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights (local lanterns known as fawanees) and much flare that many Ifran, Suyo, Levant, and various other tourists from the region flock to Egypt to witness during Di'ail a Dui'as. The ancient spring festival of Sham en Nisim has been celebrated by Egyptians for thousands of years, typically between the Egyptian months of Paremoude (April) and Pashons (May). The Egyptians even honor various Islamic and Hebrew holidays.