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Egypt has a long and complex history, dating back to the very beginning of human civilization. Over time, indigenous rule over Egypt ceased to be and Egypt was ruled by a variety of cultures and empires. Following the eruption of the Yellowstone caldera, Egypt returned to indigenous rule after the British withdrew.
Following years of single party rule, Egypt emerged as a constitutional monarchy with a functioning democracy by the end of the 20th century. Egypt is a nuclear weapons state and has a basic space program. Egypt is typically ranked the strongest Muslim nation in the world, even more so when its rivals of Turkey and Saudi Arabia collapsed.
Ancient Egypt has a vibrant history from the dawn of man. Egypt was one of the first civilizations to emerge, and it would prove to be one of the more powerful and influential states in the eastern Mediterranean for centuries. The culture of ancient Egypt has inspired and fascinated many throughout the years.
Egypt was eventually conquered by Alexander the Great, and following the Greek dynasty of the Ptolemies, Egypt fell to the Roman Empire. Egypt would remain part of Rome until its conquest by the Muslim Arabs in the 700s A.D.
Egypt soon rose to prominence once more as a dominant power in the Muslim world, and under the leadership of Saladin managed to drive the Christian crusaders from the Levant.
By the 1700s Egypt was a part of the Ottoman Empire, the strongest Muslim nation the world had ever seen. As the Ottomans began to decline in power, Egypt began to take more and more autonomy for itself, eventually becoming independent under the Muhammad Ali dynasty that originated in Albania.
Egypt was subjected to British influence and control ever since the Suez canal was opened, and the British occupied sections of Egyptian territory, such as the Sudan and the Canal zone.
The eruption of the Yellowstone caldera did little to Egypt. Food was readily available due to the fertility and length of the Nile River, while prior British investment in the nation had given the nation an advanced infrastructure. The food riots that affected other nations were a rare occurrence in Egypt.
Following the collapse of the British Empire, British forces were told to evacuate from Egypt and move to other areas to better support the other parts of the Empire. Egypt allowed Britain to use the Suez to evacuate their population on the condition that the Suez and Sudan are returned to Egypt upon its conclusion. This had happened by 1945, and both the Suez and Sudan were transfered to Egyptian rule. Palestine was also transfered to Egypt, as Britain had no real way of defending it.
The food grown from Egypt proved able to supply much of the region with food, making the food wars less drastic in the Middle East. The military was called in to cull refugees once the government established a limit to immigration in order to properly ration food. Regional flooding was also a problem due to increased rainfall and snow melt further south.
First Middle East War
The continued expansion of Egypt proved to be too much of a threat to Egypt's neighbors, who resolved to limit the growth of Egypt as well as supply themselves with food. The signing of a trade cartel with Iraq to determine the prices of food and to control the market proved to much for the cartel's neighbors.
Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Syria invaded Egyptian and Iraqi territory in 1947. Although able to hold its own for a short time, Egypt began to fall on the defensive as rebellions in its territory drew forces away from the front. Egypt was unable to maintain its control of its more rebellious territories, even more so when Iran entered the war and invaded Iraq. Over time, North Yemen joined its ally Saudi Arabia, while South Yemen, already a target of North Yemeni aggression, joined as well.
By 1950, it was clear to all participants that the war was unsustainable. The other states were running out of food to keep their armies and populations in check, while Egypt and Iraq were hard pressed on all fronts. The Treaty of Jerusalem was signed in order to bring peace to the Middle East. In the treaty, Egypt lost the provinces of Sudan and Darfur, both of which gained independence. Turkey, Syria, Iran, and Saudi Arabia all became closely allied with each other and rivaled the Egyptian-Iraqi Cartel.
Second Middle East War
Since the war, relations between the nations warmed, with Egypt and Iraq shipping food to other nations in the region. The war also increased the popularity of the monarchy, which was already extremely popular due to the seizing of British territory.
However, over the next decade tensions would continue to simmer over unresolved territorial disputes. The two Yemens were unable to create a tenable peace, Syria and Turkey still disputed the Hatay region, while Iraq still claimed the Khuzestan region of Iran.
Arab rebels in the Hejaz, financed and trained by Iraq, regularly attacked Saudi military positions in the late 1940s. Saudi Arabia believed that Egypt and Iraq had financed and trained the rebels. Due to this, Saudi Arabia cut off relations with the two, also shutting off access to much of its food supply.
Turkey became reluctant to involve itself in the affairs of the region due to the dispute over Hatay as well as conflicting interests in Kurdistan and the Aegean. This culminated when Turkey cut off relations with Syria and focused its attention elsewhere for the time being.
War broke out in 1955 when North Yemen invaded South Yemen, an ally of Egypt and Iraq. Egypt and Iraq declared war on Saudi Arabia and Syria soon after in order to protect their ally. War with Iran was held off in order to deal with their enemies one at a time.
Egyptian and Iraqi forces were able to easily crush Syria's forces between them, while Saudi Arabia was unable to match the number of enemy forces. Iran decided to cut its losses and stay out of the war, instead preferring to resolve the Khuzestan dispute diplomatically and focus on other conflicts.
The war was a conclusive victory for Egypt and Iraq, who in the Treaty of Mecca were able to reverse many of the setbacks caused by the first war and also weaken its regional rivals.
Egypt continued to grow in power and size over the next few decades. Egypt's ally Iraq was able to gain both Khuzestan and Hatay with Egyptian support. Egypt expanded its control to the shores of Lake Chad through the use of trade and military outposts.
When Italy collapsed in the early 1960s, Egyptian forces invaded Italian North Africa to protect the Muslim population there and to maintain the Egyptian monopoly of food exports. Egypt also supported Ethiopian and Somalian uprisings that threw off Italian colonial rule.
The Italian Empire collapsed in the face of civil war and colonial rebellion. Egypt gained new allies in Somalia and Ethiopia, as well as annexing Italian North Africa.
This was not to last, however, and Ethiopia began aiding the state of Sudan, one of Egypt's sworn enemies. Furthermore, the regions of Fezzan and Tripolitania yearned for independence, something that Egypt was reluctant to offer.
Egypt faced considerable political turmoil in the late 1960s, when mass protests and riots in the region led to the changing of political structures. The Sultan was stripped of considerable power, while the Wafd party monopoly was broken by the upcoming Ba'ath party, who also gained considerable influence in the Middle East. Tripolitania and Fezzan were granted independence by the end of the decade.
Darfur was recaptured and annexed following considerable border skirmishes. The country was reintegrated into Egypt after a deal was negotiated with the ruling sultan.
Egypt is a constitutional monarchy, in which the Sultan holds only marginal power. The power of the Sultan was reduced in the Middle East Revolutions in 1964. The government also has a parliament and a large variety of political parties. The two leading political parties are the right-leaning Wafd party and the left-leaning Ba'ath party.
The administrative regions of Egypt are called governorates, of which there are thirteen:
- Lower Egypt
- Middle Egypt
- Upper Egypt
There were also four historical governorates, all of whom are now independent:
- Sudan (Unrecognized)
Egypt has a strong relation with Mesopotamia. The two nations are both monarchies, major food exporting nations, and have fought alongside each other in many wars. Egypt has also supported Mesopotamia in its many territorial disputes.
Egypt also has strong relations with the Hejaz, Yemen, and Tripolitania, all of whom are Egyptian allies.
The Egyptian military is one of the largest, strongest, and most well equipped militaries on the planet. The Egyptian military expanded to occupy former British territory after the eruption and have since carried Egyptian rule to many different regions of the Middle East, from Yemen to Sudan to Tripolitania.
By law, Egypt favors no religion, but the vast majority of Egypt is Muslim. There are also smaller communities of Judaism and Coptic Christianity.
Following the collapse of Greece, some Greeks decided to flee to Egypt and settled in Cyrenaica and Alexandria, bringing Greek Orthodox Christianity as well.
Religious revival movements in the 1990s created small communities of Kemetism (Egyptian Polytheism) and Hellenism (Greek Polytheism).
The official language of Egypt is Egyptian Arabic. Other languages that are spoken include English, Hebrew, Lebanese, Greek, Nubian, and a variety of Berber languages.