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The Kingdom of Egypt (Egyptian Arabic: المملكه المصريه) is an African state. Between 1914-1920 it was know as Sultanate of Egypt. Until 1932 it was a British protectorate and member of the Imperial Commonwealth Federation.
Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, mandate of Palestine and Confederation of Arab States to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, British East Africa to the south and Italian Libya to the west. It surrounds the Suez Canal Zone.
In 1920 the UK established new conditions of the Protectorate of Egypt that held since 1914. Egypt would enjoy full autonomy with the exception of five "reserved" areas: foreign relations, communications, the military, the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and Suez Canal Zone. The new conditions came has blow for nationalist groups that campaign and lobbied for a full independence. The government was divided has the negotiations held in the Paris Peace Conference did not give full control of foreign affairs to Egypt and made impossible a membership to the Confederation of Arab States has propagated by some ministers. Some delegates formed the Wafd Party, has opposition to the protectorate.
The Egyptian Crisis of 1931 jeopardized the Suez Canal Zone. The brief occupation of Suez was repulsed by a joint force of the Imperial Commonwealth Federation (ICF). However riots in Alexandria and other parts of Egypt forced the King to accept a Government of the Wafd.
The British government, on recommendation the High Commissioner, called on negotiations of the status of Egypt. The Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1932, approved by the British Parliament and Imperial Council, establishes the full independence of Egypt and sponsors its membership in the League of Nations, ends the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium and awards the North Sudan to Egypt, withdraws all British troops from Egypt, except those necessary to protect the Suez Canal and its surroundings, supply and train Egypt's army and assist in its defence in case of war.
The 1932 Constitution, that replaces the 1921, establishes a constitutional monarchy, in favor of the parliament (the 1921 text gave a wide range of discrete powers to the King such as the right to dissolve parliament without consultation).
- the Head of State is the King of Egypt and Sudan.
- the government is in charge of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. hey are accountable to the parliament, which has the right to move a no confidence vote.
- The legislative resides in an House of Representatives wholly elected, for a 5-year term. the Senate has three fifths of the members elected, and the rest appointed. Both chambers have equal competences, with some exceptions. The House of Representatives can be dissolved by the King, previous advice or recommendation of the Cabinet.
The main Egyptian parties are:
- Wafd Party ("Delegation Party"; Arabic: Hizb al-Wafd حزب الوفد). It is a nationalist liberal political party in Egypt. It is Egypt's most popular and influential political party. The Wafd was instrumental in the development of the 1923 constitution, and supported moving Egypt from dynastic rule to a constitutional monarchy, where power is wielded by a nationally-elected parliament.
- Ittihad Party (Union Party), the main royalist party, who advocate for closer ties with the ICF
- Hizb al-Umma (Umma Party/People's Party), a moderate nationalist party
- Watani Party (National Party), a Islamic-conservative, nationalist party
- Young Egypt Party, a nationalist party, mostly famous for its paramilitary organization, the green shirts.
- The Egyptian Communist Party, banned by law.
- National Republican Party, banned by law
Cotton constituted 90 percent of Egypt's exports. The main enterprises are sugar and cotton processing and cigarette manufacturing. After the Great Economic Crisis of 1930, a slow and constant industrial development started. In part helped by tariff policies and internal investment. The main areas of development are food processing, such as rice milling and sugar refining, and textile production, including cotton ginning and production of linen and woolen fabrics. Trade between ICF and Egypt as governed by tariff agreements that usually benefit Egyptian raw cotton, textiles and sugar and ICF industrial goods.
The Armed forces of Egypt consist of:
- Royal Egyptian Army
- Royal Egyptian Navy
- Royal Egyptian Air Force (REAF)
1It includes Egypt (1,002,450 sq km) and North Sudan (1,886,068 sq km). Until 1932, it did not include Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (2,505,813 sq km).