The Kingdom of Egypt is a North African nation based along the Nile River, much like its predecessors, the Egyptian Empire of antiquity and the Ottoman province of Egypt. The Kingdom was nominally independent from 1805 until 1835, as it initially lacked recognition. From 1835 until the 1940's, the Kingdom of Egypt operated as the preeminent North African power and was regarded by European states as the most modern, liberal and Westernized Arab state, thanks in part to the exiled Hapsburg elites present in Egypt, similar to the influence of exiled Germans on Mexico as well as influence from the French in Sinai. Following the French Civil War, the Turks reaffirmed power over Egypt, at one point threatening to annex it if it did not denationalize the Sinai Canal. In 1960, following the Black Sea War, the Kingdom was once more made fully independent with its diplomatic ties to the Turks forcibly severed by France.
Egypt has a population of about 80,000,000 people and is a constitutional monarchy, with King Abbas Hilmi III currently the reigning monarch. The nation is the region's preeminent Arab power, as the Arabian Caliphate has often been wracked by conflict and the Turkish Empire is more Turko-European. The capital of Egypt is Cairo. Egypt also is home to the Sinai Canal, one of the most important trade routes in the world.