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Modern Egypt began in 1770, when the expanding Funj Empire of Nubia conquered the Roman province of Egypt. In 1821 a revolution started by the Greco-Coptic middle class overthrew the Funj rulers and installed a Greek dynasty in their place. Nubia nevertheless remained part of the kingdom and still is today, despite the current insurgency fighting for independence.
There is currently a movement in Nubia which supports greater autonomy or independence for the region. An attempt to achieve this by military means was carried out from 1974-1998, but was eventually crushed by the central government in Alexandria. There are still a number of active terrorist groups which have carried out several bombings of major targets over the past few years. Nevertheless, very few Nubians support using violent methods, and peaceful negotiations are currently ongoing to try and resolve Nubia's status once and for all.
Similar movements secured the independence of Kush and Kanem in the second half of the last century.
Almost all Egyptians are at least bilingual in Greek and Coptic. Coptic, which is descended from the native Egyptian language, is the first language of most people north of Nubia, while Greek, which was introduced during the periods of Hellenistic and Roman rule, is the main language of education, the media, business and government. Greek is also the main first language in Alexandria, Damietta and a few other cities in the Nile delta.
Other languages, such as Nubian, are spoken further south.