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Edward II & VII of Portugal and England (Hapsburg's Unite)

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Edward II & VII of Portugal and England
Timeline: Hapsburg's Unite

King of England and Ireland
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Duke of Brittany

January 1, 1637 - August 25, 1661
April 9, 1642 - August 25, 1661
April 5, 1645 - August 25, 1661

Predecessor: Elizabeth I of England And
John IV of Portugal
Successor: John II & V
Born: June 14, 1604
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon
Died: August 25, 1661

Edward II & VII (January 1, 1637 -August 25, 1661) became King of England and Ireland on January 1, 1637, and was crowned on February 2 at the age of 33. Then he became King of Portugal and the Algarves on April 9, 1642 and was crowned on October 13 at the age of 37. His mother was Elizabeth I of England, while his father was John IV of Portugal, his parents were cousins. He was the first monarch of the Royal household of Avis-Tudor (though technically it was 'Hapsburg-Avis-Tudor',) though he was also the seventh monarch in the Tudor dynasty and the ninth monarch in the Avis dynasty.

During Edward's reign England and Portugal grew much closer ties due to the personal union and the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance of 1373. Also from a war with France the combined force of an English and Portuguese Armada along with Spanish help led to the re-conquest of Calais and also the conquest of Brittany.

Reign

Early Years

Edward first gained the throne in England after his mother Elizabeth died in 1637. He brought much Portuguese culture to England, though respected England's culture. Edward was fluent in both languages and loved both nations.

'Act of Freedom'

During Edward's reign the 'Act of Freedom' was created by him. Edward was a cultured and fair man as well as a great military leader, and he believe people had the right to do what they wanted. Also due to the support years before for 'Dudley's Rebellion' he realized there were a lot of Protestants in England as well that wanted to have equal rights. So in 1640 he passed the 'Act of Freedom', this gave all Christian religions in England equal rights, Catholics and Protestants alike. Also a small section of the act declared that Jews would be allowed back into England since their expulsion by Edward I in 1290.

Personal Union

After Edward became King of Portugal, he was King of both England and Portugal (along with the Algarves and Ireland,) this led to a personal union between the two nations. During this personal reign the two nations grew much closer to each other. Edward even went so far as to create a flag and Coat of Arms for the united countries, and though they weren't fully united, the two countries were often referred to as the 'United Kingdoms of England and Portugal.'

3 Years War

The Three Years War was a conflict between the nations of England, Portugal and Spain on one side, and France on the other in the years 1642-1645. The war was led by Edward and was to regain lost land in France for England mainly. The war went on for 2 years without any major developments, then luckily a battle was won by the 'Hapsburg Forces' in Navarre. This led to the eventual capture of the Kingdom of Navarre by the Spanish forces. This loss of land and morale led to the capture of Calais and Brittany (which was renamed Little Britain.) Eventually the war ended with a peace treaty through which Edward's fourth child, Alfonso, was married of to Henrietta Maria of France.

Anglo-Portuguese Relations

Under King Edward both England and Portugal developed much closer ties, and both cultures began to integrate, with English customs appearing in Portugal and visa-versa. This along with the long standing friendship and alliance since 1372 led to the two countries becoming much closer, and this set the foundations for a political union in future.

Marriage

In 1619 Edward was married to Elisabeth of France and a year later the couple had a child. A girl who was named Elizabeth after Edward's mother. They proceeded to have 5 more children, only one of which died early in it's life. They had 3 sons, of which the eldest was John.

Name Birth Marriage Death
Elizabeth of England May 7, 1619 James VIII of Scotland May 8, 1650
John II & V April 22, 1620 Anna Catherine Constance of Austria June 6, 1688
Philippa of England June 14, 1621 John II Casimir Vasa April 6, 1672
Alfonso of Portugal July 16, 1623 Henrietta Maria of France August 3, 1680
Isabella of Portugal September 18, 1630 Louis XIV of France January 12, 1651
Mary of Brittany November 30, 1634 Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy December 24, 1664

Legacy

After Edward died, he left two peaceful nations for his heir, John to look after. He also left him a Monarchy that was respected throughout Europe after the 3 Years War.

Edward had also left two nations that were nearly at a full political union, with culture being shared, trade booming between the capitals and a shared flag and coat of arms.

Edward is also known to be a cultured and fair man as well as a great military leader.

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