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Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American jurist and politician, who served as the 35th President of United States (1957-1965), the 34th Vice-President of United States (1949-1957) under Thomas E. Dewey, and as the 30th Governor of California.
While he is generally regarded as a moderate Republican by today's standards, he was seen as being to liberal during the 1956 campaign and often came in conflict with the more conservative wing of the party. In order to appease this wing, Warren chose Illinois Senator Everett Dirksen as his Vice President for the 1956 election. With a booming economy, and with the legacy of the popular Thomas E. Dewey on his back, Warren was handily elected over Adlai Stevenson to succeed Dewey. In winning the 1956 election, Warren became the first sitting Vice President since Martin Van Buren to be elected President.
Warren's presidency would be characterized by civil rights and foreign policy. During his tenure as Vice President, he spoke out in support for the Brown v. Board of Education ruling in 1954. Despite segregation being ruled as unconstitutional, many southern states refused to integrate their schools. When the Arkansas National Guard was called in by Governor Orval Faubus to resist integration, Little Rock Mayor Woodrow Wilson Mann asked Warren to send federal troops to enforce integration and to protect a group of nine black students who had been enrolled at Little Rock Central High School (the Little Rock Nine). This would eventually lead to a court ruling where the states could not ignore the Supreme Court's decisions.
With a Progressive-Republican coalition in control both houses of Congress, Warren's civil rights initiatives were easily passed (though there were two of the longest filibusters in American history by Democratic Senators Strom Thurmond and Richard Russell Jr.). Warren would work closely with Texas Senator Lyndon B. Johnson and Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey (who would go on to be the Progressive Party's nominee in 1964) in getting the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and the Voting Rights Act of 1963 passed.
In regards to foreign policy, Warren was at first reluctant to send anything more than a Military Assistance Advisory Group to assist South Vietnam and ARVN. Following his reelection in 1960, Warren finally gave in to political pressure and began sending troops to Southeast Asia.