The year is 1856. David Wilmot, the man behind the Wilmot Proviso, announces that he is running for president, in the wake of the important Dred Scott Trial.
After Wilmot announces that he is running for President, Wilmot becomes the clear candidate among the Republicans. At the Republican convention, Wilmot is chosen as the Presidential candidate, and Abraham Lincoln is chosen as his running mate. Then the American Party chooses Millard Fillmore. The Democratic Party sees many major candidates. Stephen Douglas, James Buchanan, Robert M.T. Hunter, and William L. Lancey are all considered highly likely. However, in response to the nomination of Wilmot, the Democrats do not go for the Northerners Buchanan and Douglas, especially because they are less extreme towards slavery. After many ballots of Yancey in the lead, Robert M.T. Hunter is chosen as a sort of Dark Horse candidate, with John C. Breckinridge as his running mate. In the election, Fillmore wins Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and California, for a total of 49 electoral votes, due to his more moderate views. Wilmot wins New England, New York, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa, for 125 electoral votes. This leaves 122 electoral votes for Hunter. Nobody wins a majority, so it goes to the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives votes for Hunter to be the president.
Northern Secession and Civil War
Early Years (1856-1857)
Immediately after the election of Hunter, Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner, Pennsylvania Senator David Wilmot, and Pennsylvania Senator Thaddeus Stevens co-author a set of bills. One would end the internal slave trade, another would ban slavery in all newly adopted states, and one would allow for some rights for black people, especially marriage. Only one of them passes congress, and it is easily vetoed by Franklin Pierce. In December 1856, Massachusetts becomes the first state to secede. In January, new Maine governor Hannibal Hamlin agrees to secede from the union. When Hunter takes office, he agrees to send troops to Massachusetts and Maine. Before the troops arrive though, Massachusetts sends militia members to take Fort Independence, which was being stationed by a small amount of Union troops. Massachusetts won the battle.
As Hunter asks states to send volunteers to fight the rebellion, New York, the most important American state, secedes. Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Vermont all follow, with eight states having seceded by the end of March, 1857. The South then begins its invasion of the North, and immediately meets the main force of the North, in the Battle of Point Marion. The Battle ends up being a minor Southern victory, and the South begins pushing into Pennsylvania. Just one month later though, the North wins the Battle of Garard's Fort, prompting a Union retreat (remember, the Union is the South).
In April, New Jersey secedes, and the Northern states hold their constitutional convention in Boston. They make a temporary constitution very similar to the US constitution, although it has some minor changes (they expected to finalize it after the war). The only major change is that slavery is banned in all states. The constitution names the country the Federated States of America (also known as the Federation), and the capital becomes Albany, New York. On April 27th, two days after the constitution is signed, Ohio joins the Federation, after Salmon P. Chase pushed for secession. On April 30th, with the Republican Party being the only real party in the country, a convention is held to effectively chose a President. The main candidates were David Wilmot, Thaddeus Stevens, William Seward, and Charles Sumner. Thaddeus Stevens is chosen as the first President of the Federation, and Hannibal Hamlin is chosen as Vice President. The next day, Illinois secedes, prompting Indiana to secede, which it does five days later. One week later, Michigan and Wisconsin seceded too, making the border the Mason-Dixon line and the Ohio River.
In the Eastern Front, there is a common stalemate, where minor offensive victories cost major casualties, and prompt eventual defensive victories. Union general Robert E. Lee decides to make a major invasion of central Pennsylvania, focusing on capturing Harrisburg. Meanwhile, a New Jersey Regiment "liberates" Wilmington, Delaware, and Delaware secedes in August. In early October, 1857, the first giant battle of the war occurs, the Battle of Gettysburg. After five days of fighting and extreme casualties in the bloodiest battle of the war, the North fends off the invasion of Pennsylvania once and for all.
The Western Front saw more fighting towards the end of 1857, with the Union focusing more on gaining control in the west. In August, the Battle of Cincinnati was a Union victory, allowing an invasion of Ohio. In November, the Federation forces on the Western Front managed to fend off an attempt a capture of Columbus by winning the Battle of Middletown, and forced a mass Union retreat. In December, before the Union forces cross back over the Ohio, they destroy Cincinnati, and kill its residents, especially on a Christmas Day massacre.
Middle War (1858-1859)
After the Cincinnati Massacre, the North manages to convince some northern states that hadn't yet seceded that the South was the aggressor. On January 1st, 1858, Iowa and Minnesota secede. In January, they would be followed by North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Oregon, California, Idaho, and Montana all seceded, some as territories. In February, Nevada seceded, and in May, Wyoming seceded. The South had a new strategy with the war. They were now cut off from the Pacific Ocean, but they planned to capture Davenport, Iowa, which was a key crossing of the Mississippi River and was right next to the important Fort Armstrong. Union troops on the Western Front headed towards Davenport, while Union ships blockaded the city and the crossing. The Battle of Davenport would be the the other main battle of the Western Front (along with Middletown), and it would again be a Federation victory.
The Eastern Front continued to see stalemates. Northern ships blockaded Norfolk, a key port and access point for trade in Richmond. Further secession of Western states and Federation victories in the Western front prompted the North to launch an invasion into Maryland. Only 70 miles away from Washington, the North begins by sending a small force to attempt to invade heading towards Baltimore. As they were defeated at Monkton, the next day, the actual invading force went from Western Maryland, taking Hagerstown and Frederick in the fall of 1858. In the Winter, they would hold still, and build up forces, as the Union knew that any winter attack would be extremely costly.
As Robert E. Lee believed that the final invasion would occur in mid March, Grant's forces invade in February, trying to catch the South off guard. This just causes more losses for both sides. At the Battle of Rockville, there is an extremely bloody one day battle, which ends in a small Southern victory. As the Southern troops push North, the Federation troops fight back at Clarksburg. A second stalemate was reached in the Eastern Front, and it would remain for the rest of the war. The North would try to choke the South into giving up, by blockading the ports of Charleston, Norfolk, Pensacola, and New Orleans. The naval supremacy was tactically important, but it caused European countries to be angry. Both economies began to cripple.
Political battles occurred in the border states of Kentucky, Missouri, and the region of Western Virginia. The Union was very focused on not allowing states south of the Ohio river to try to secede. Their focus on West Virginia and Kentucky would allow Missouri to secede, which it did in October. However, Missouri had a very strong Unionist faction, and remained with congressmen in both the Union and the Federation. In early 1858, Federation Secretary of State William Seward asked Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Russia, and the Netherlands to recognize the Federation. None of them do. In mid 1859, the Federation sends two retired political figures from the North to attempt to make peace with the South. The North does not have any recognition to use in its favor, and the attempt fails.
End of War (1860)
On both sides, 1860 was a campaign year. In the Union, the Conservative Party and Confederalist Party had branched off from the Democratic Party. The three parties were different in their views of the Civil War. The Democrats renominated Robert M.T. Hunter, but John C. Breckinridge loses in the vice presidential nomination to Jefferson Davis. The Conservatives chose William L. Yancey as their presidential candidate, and John J. Pettus as his running mate. The Confederalists chose Francis W. Pickens as their Presidential candidate, and Isham G. Harris as his running mate. This competition and campaign would change the course of the end of the war.
Similarly, elections were coming in the North. Thaddeus Stevens had become mentally taxed by being President during the war, and announced that he would not run for re-election. The two main parties (Republican and Democrat) would both nominate a ticket. The Democratic ticket was Stephen Douglas and Lewis Cass, while the Republican ticket ended up being John Bingham and Hannibal Hamlin.
As the war continued, a lot of the fighting occurred in Missouri and Maryland. As the South's economy began to cripple due to lack of trade with the North, Greenback money, and blockaded ports, public support began to turn against Hunter. Francis W. Pickens, Governor of South Carolina and Presidential candidate from the Confederalist Party, had his state hit the hardest by the economy, due to the blockade of Charleston. Pickens, though extremely pro-slavery, made the party platform allow specific states to make peace with the North. With pressure from declining favor for the war and possible loss of federal power, Hunter had no choice but to promise peace if re-elected.
Hunter was, however, focused on securing some more states. Hunter sent troops to occupy Delaware and ensure that it would remain a slave state. Hunter also scrapped all invasion attempts of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and focused on Missouri. When the Federation won the significant Battle of Boonville in Missouri, Secretary of State William Seward was finally able to negotiate a deal with Russia. The deal included a Northern payment of $8.4 million by 1865, in exchange for Alaska and recognition. Though the deal was considered extremely overpriced, it would pay off in the short term and the long term.
With a major European country recognizing the Federation, and following a successful Northern naval battle at Mobile Bay, Hunter's support begins to waver. After realizing that the best ting for the country is to make peace, Hunter announces that he will attempt to make peace with the North, and he will not run again. While scrambling, the Democratic Party quickly chooses John C. Breckinridge as the replacement Presidential candidate, and Jefferson Davis remains the Vice Presidential candidate.
In Baltimore, Hunter, Stevens, and other politicians meet to negotiate peace. Hunter is more focused on the land, while Stevens is more focused on the ideas. Hunter agrees with Stevens' proposal to have neither side keep the name of the United States of America, as they divided. The South would become the Confederate States of America, and the North would remain the Federated States of America. The Northern Democrats force Stevens to allow Missouri to ultimately choose which country it will join via referendum. They agree to let Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, and some territories be Southern, while California, Nevada, Oregon, and the Northern territories remain Northern. Finally, they agree to not have any military patrolling of the Ohio River, which would be a shared river for trade and a border.
In the Northern elections, Bingham and Hamilton win easily, taking over three-quarters of the electoral vote. The North also admits Washington in as a new state so that they can reach Alaska easily. In the South, Conservative William L. Yancey wins the election, and begins to put in pro-slavery laws. Bingham finalizes the constitution, outlawing slavery in all states granting citizens to black men, and right to vote to black people. Both sides begin recovery, happy that they got what they wanted.
Immediate Recovery (1861-1864)
Bingham focuses on establishing complete self independence as a country, and establishing the fundamentals. Now an actual country, the Federation established embassies in France, Britain, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium, Japan, China, Brazil, and more. The government was sure to focus on rebuilding from the damage of the war. The Federation also established a gold standard currency, called the Federal American Dollar. Bills featured figures including Thaddeus Stevens, John Bingham, Abraham Lincoln, Salmon P. Chase, Ulysses S. Grant, David Wilmot, and Charles Sumner. They would also dedicate a national cemetery at Middletown, and the Confederacy would later do the same at Rockville.
Missouri's referendum was an important topic, especially for the economy. St Louis was an important city for industry and trade. It would provide a major industrial boom for the south which would make it less dependent on its European allies and able to raise the prices for cotton. It would make the North in complete control of the Missouri River, and make trade and travel to the west much easier. Missouri eventually voted to join the Confederacy, and the Confederacy's economy quickly recovered.
The Federation was now faced with a tough task. Albany had been the temporary capital during the war, and was central at the beginning of the war, but a more central city was required. They also wanted to model the city after Washington DC, in that it would be on the border of two states separated by a river. Many proposals were made, and the frontrunner seemed to be Dubuque in Iowa. However, the Iowa legislature voted against giving up land. Lyman Trumbull, a senator from Illinois, proposed the construction of a new capital city to be in Illinois along the Wabash River. The Illinois legislature and Federation congress agreed, and they decided on a location at a nice bend in the river. Construction began of a capital city, to be named Stevensburg. The Federal House, the Capitol Building, the Treasury, the Supreme Court building, and the Vice Presidential quarters were all planned to finish construction in 1870. Residential buildings would also be constructed. By 1872, the city would be completely finished, and in early 1873, the new President and congress would move to Stevensburg.
The Confederacy was focused on the economy. Now that their ports were open, they continued trade with Britain, France and Spain, and began to invest in the navy. The Confederacy was not very physically harmed in the war, other than in Missouri and Maryland. They four countries established an informal alliance, which would eventually become known as the Quadruple Entente. The Federation had issues finding allies, and was required to sell its manufactured goods mainly to Latin America, Japan, China, and Russia. They would not find any ally for many years.
As the North and South were beginning to recover and establish competent governments, the South faced an incredibly important Supreme Court case, the first in a line of many, to be known as the Recovery Cases. In the outstanding case of Hodge v. Smith, which basically was a redo of Marbury v. Madison, and was about mainly the issue of judicial review. Supreme Court Justice West Hughes Humphreys wrote the winning opinion, voting in favor of judicial review, but stating that as a result of the Treaty of Baltimore, the Confederacy did not adopt any of the precedents or rulings from the United States, and the United States ceased to exist. It also said that all federal laws of the US were adopted, as were the constitution and amendments. The ruling was accepted six to three.
Hodge v. Smith caused Yancey to have massive power. He was now able to set many precedents, which would become key to the future of the country. He began by announcing the Yancey Doctrine, which was essentially the Monroe Doctrine. Yancey also attempted to pass a law which would install slavery into all states. This would pass congress, but the Supreme Court would find this unconstitutional. The South made its 13th Amendment, requiring states to permit slavery. Out of this vote, Western Virginia, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware, Tennessee, and Kentucky would all develop a large amount of supporters for a new anti-slavery party, to be called the Freedom Party.
Yancey then attempted to increase the number of Supreme Court justices to 11, mainly so that he could add in two more of his own appointment. When the bill to increase the number passed, the Confederalist Party was opposed to the bill, stating that he was doing it to abuse his power. As a result, Zebulon B. Vance, the governor of North Carolina and an avid Confederalist, would sue the Confederacy. In the second major Recovery Case, Vance v. Confederate States, the Supreme Court ruled to clarify their ruling in Hodge v. Smith. The ruling, made by justice Daniel Ringo, stated that since the constitution was adopted, congress had the right to change the number of justices. Furthermore, since all justices were required to be approved by congress, Yancey was in no way abusing his power. Yancey chose Roger Atkinson Pryor and Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar.
The North did not deal with these legal battles because they dealt with them in their new constitution. They included the already existing amendments in their constitution, but added in the banning of slavery, allowing black citizenship, and allowing black vote. Most of what the North required was dealing with the basic criminal, procedural and tax laws that were a common part of American law. In the South, however, Congress voted on 30 different amendment proposals, twelve of which passed congress. One restricted congress from forgiving debt, one restricted the amount of taxes the federal government can collect, one restricting congress from placing tariffs for the sole purpose of protecting local industry, one allowed specific states to shut off trade with foreign countries, one restricting the spending abilities of congress, one requiring all laws to relate to just one topic, one which dealt with trade via rivers and waterways within the borders of one or multiple states, one making the president have a one term limit but six year terms, one laying out citizenship and age required for Supreme Court justices, one allowing people to freely travel between states with or without slaves (to combat Dred Scott-type issues), one making an absolute majority required for states to join the Confederacy, and one which clarifies that slavery is also legal in all territories. The most important two that were not approved were one that would have banned slavery and one which would have permitted the foreign slave trade.
These amendments were the main issue heading into the 1864 Confederate election. The Conservatives nominated incumbent William L. Yancey with John J. Pettus as his running mate. The Confederalists chose Zebulon B. Vance, with Joseph E. Brown as his running mate. The Democrats chose Jefferson Davis, and Thomas J. Semmes as his running mate. The new Freedom Party chose Andrew Johnson, with Joseph Holt as his running mate. The election did not give any party a majority, but gave the Democrats a plurality. The House of Representatives, with the old congress, had nearly no representatives from the Freedom Party. Instead, the Democratic party got all of those votes, causing the Democratic Party and Jefferson Davis to win.
The North also had Presidential elections in 1864. However, the Republican Party had split into the Radical Party and the Republican Party. The Radical Party renominated John Bingham for President, and chose George S. Boutwell as his new running mate. The Democrats chose Thomas A. Hendricks with George H. Pendleton as his running mate. The (moderate) Republicans chose Henry Jarvis Raymond for President and Democrat Benjamin Butler as his running mate, to try to attract Democratic voters. The Democrats won only Indiana and New Jersey, the states of their two candidates. In the end, John Bingham won re-election, but his Radical Party lost majority in both houses (though they maintained a plurality in the House of Representatives). The Republican Party gained control of the senate.
With Yancey about to leave office, his main focus was to ensure that the Democrats could not pardon any prisoners of war. Yancey successfully passed a bill which prevented certain prisoners of war from being pardoned. Former Federation Brigadier General Benjamin Alvord would sue the Confederacy, as the President has the right to pardon according to the constitution. In Alvord v. Confederate States, another Recovery Case, the Democratic-leaning Supreme Court ruled seven to four that the President may prevent the pardons of specific people, so long as they were imprisoned prior to the signing of the Treaty of Baltimore, following the Battle of Fort Independence, and congress approves of the prevention. The case also was the first time that the Confederate Supreme Court heard a case involving a Federationist suing. The ruling would clarify this, and state that any Federationist who has presided in the Confederacy for five or more years may sue. The final pardon ruling would be countered by yet another amendment proposal.
Middle Recovery (1865-1868)
In March 1865, Jefferson Davis was sworn in as President and John Bingham was sworn in for a second term. Davis, unable to pardon many Federation generals, found a loophole in the ruling in which he was allowed to trade captives. Bingham was generally opposed to exchanging prisoners of war, but his secretary of state and congress were not. a majority of prisoners of war on both sides would be returned home by 1870. Yancey then sued Davis, claiming that this was against the ruling, but in Yancey v. Davis, the court ruled six to five in favor of Davis. Davis then managed to continue to raise the number of Supreme Court Justices, and an additional two justices were approved by Congress after he promised the Confederalists a Confederalist judge. Francis W. Pickens filled that role, while Robert B. Hilton was chosen as the other justice.
In late 1865, Confederate ambassador to Russia, Richard Snowden Andrews, negotiated an informal alliance and trade deal between Russia and the Federation, following up on the deal which William Seward made with Russia during the Civil War. Just 11 years later, in 1876, the deal would become an official alliance. This alliance's main goal was to counter the economic and political power of the Confederate-British-French-Spanish alignment, and the alliance would try to recruit large but new countries such as Germany, Italy, and Meiji Japan.
In 1865, the Confederacy began to ratify amendments. The 14th Amendment would be ratified, which clarified that slavery is legal in all territories. In July, they would ratify the 15th Amendment which ensured that all people could travel freely between states with their property. In November, the 16th Amendment would pass, giving citizenship and age requirement for all Supreme Court Justices. Finally, in December 1865, the 17th Amendment was passed, which restricted the amount of taxes that the federal government could collect, to increase states' rights. More amendments would soon be ratified, ending up with a total of ten new amendments, which would be called the Confederate Bill of Rights.
As Italy and Germany slowly began to unify, the Federation began to trade with the two countries. As this occurred, though, the Austro-Hungarian Empire became scared of the massive informal alliance between Germany, Russia and Italy, its three bordering countries, and they would begin to militarize, which also prompted their industrial advancement. This would also cause global militarization, in constant fear of war.
In the Confederacy, Davis began to focus on the economy. He passed the National Banking Act, which established a national bank, changed the people on currency (including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, John C. Calhoun, Robert E. Lee, and James Monroe), put the Confederacy specifically on the gold standard, and made a specific fortress designed to be a vault for a stash of gold key for the currency. This vault would be at Fort Hawkins in Georgia.
In June 1866, the 18th Confederate Amendment passed, requiring the number of Supreme Court justices to be 13. Later that year, the 19th Amendment was passed, restricting the amount of taxes that congress could levy. Davis further improved the navy by increasing spending to keep up with Federation navy, and built a new Army Academy at Fort Blount, Tennessee.
In early 1867, Jefferson Davis offered the federation to sell a strip of land in northern Missouri. The land's people were extremely anti-slavery, and the sale of the strip would keep a constant border line as the one between Kansas and Nebraska. Also, this was a political maneuver to gain money to improve the image of Davis and decrease the number of members of the Freedom Party. The Maryville Purchase, named for the town of Maryville within the strip, marked the first example of border changes between the two countries. Davis hauled in $300,000 worth of gold to start the new gold vault. Davis, seeking even more money for Freedom Party land, also sold the "Rod" (OTL Northwestern panhandle of West Virginia) to the Federation for $125,000 in gold.
As the new congress war sworn in, The Freedom Party now claimed seven senators and 27 representatives. Missouri, Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware all had at least one congressman who was a member of the Freedom Party. However, in July, John Brown, an avid Northern abolitionist who had been upset about the Civil War, traveled to Washington, DC in the hopes of assassinating Jefferson Davis. Brown, along with 11 other conspirators, were going to kill President Jefferson Davis, Vice President Thomas J. Semmes, and Secretary of State Albert Pike. John Brown would not do any of these assassinations, but instead oversee the operation and lead an attack to liberate slaves in the District of Columbia. Brown successfully freed 17 slaves and killed two slave owners, but was captured by Confederate military officers. The conspirators were unsuccessful in killing President Davis, after he had a last minute change of plans. They did, however, manage to kill Pike and greatly wound Semmes. Of the 12 conspirators, nine would be captured, and one killed. Semmes resigned two days later, and had his arm amputated while living with another bullet in his stomach. Davis could not get congress' support for any of his nominated candidates.
Davis, surviving the assassination attempt, ensured that Brown would be executed. Furthermore, Davis created the Secret Service, a federal agency for bodyguards of government officials. Davis continued by promoting two constitutional amendments, which would both pass in late 1867. The 20th amendment passed in September, allowing specific states to shut off trade with foreign countries (aimed at the federation), and the 21st amendment, detailing the line of succession, including the appointment of a vice president by the new president, so long as the new president was approved by Congress.
The Confederate Party Politics soon caused passing laws to be very difficult. With four parties having major representation in Congress, each of them opposed each other in different ways. This restricted the ability of the government to pass laws and caused every party to not have much power. This was a further issue as Zebulon Vance, the effective leader of the Confederalist Party, urged the Confederalist congressmen to vote against every bill except those which specifically gave less power to the federal government. However, a large wing of the party opposed Vance's vehement states' rights lobbying, and began to outnumber his supporters. Vance further argued that Jefferson Davis sought to give all of the power to the federal government, and polarized the party. The people who opposed Vance ended up generally moving to the Conservative Party, and Vance's followers were mainly non-existent in the federal government. The Confederalist Party began to slowly die down.
As the Confederate elections drew close, the four main confederate parties nominated candidates. The Democrats renominated Jefferson Davis, and chose James Lawrence Orr as his running mate, to try to win over the Conservative state of South Carolina. The Confederalists chose Zebulon B. Vance, with Joseph E. Brown as his running mate. The Conservatives chose Senator Louis T. Wigfall, with William P. Miles as his running mate. The Freedom Party chose Francis Preston Blair Jr., and Joshua Hill as his running mate. In the election, the Freedom Party won 45 electoral votes, the Confederalist Party won no votes, the Democratic Party got 40 electoral votes, and the Conservative party won 33 electoral votes. With no party winning a majority, the House of Representatives was forced to decide. The house chose Jefferson Davis to be re-elected.
In the North, there was also an election. Prior to the election, though, the Radical Party agreed to merge with the Republican Party. The Radical Party had better leaders, but the Republican Party had more support. The Democrats chose John A. Logan as their Presidential candidate, with Francis Kernan as his running mate. The Republicans chose Salmon P. Chase as their presidential candidate, with Lyman Trumbull as his running mate. Chase easily won the election, and helped embrace the end of the Recovery.
Late Recovery (1869-1870)
Davis soon proposed another constitutional amendment, focusing on changing the procedures for Presidential elections. The amendment first stated that the term of a President would be six years long instead of four, but that he would be limited to one term. Furthermore, the new congress would be sworn in on February 4th, while the President would be sworn in on March 4th. Before February 4th, if no party won a majority, parties could decide to merge their tickets, with the Presidential candidate for one ticket becoming the running mate in a joint ticket. Both Vice Presidential candidates would be guaranteed cabinet positions. Between election day and February 1st, two parties could merge their tickets if it meant the joint ticket would win the electoral vote. If this did not occur, then the congressmen would vote on the winning ticket, with each congressman getting one vote. Of the parties receiving electoral votes, the one receiving the lowest amount of congressional votes would be eliminated until only one ticket remained. Any tie in the final ballot would be broken by the House of Representatives. Any tie in the House of Representatives (achievable by abstaining) would go to the ticket which won the most electoral votes. Any further tie by the ticket which won the most states, and finally by the last Vice President. This amendment passed in June 1869, and he agreed to cut his second term in half to abide by the six year term rule.
In the North and South, railroads were becoming a major business in both countries. Railroads were also helping to boost both economies. Jefferson Davis then decided to fund some of the tax money to the department of transportation, in the hopes that railroads would boost the economy and help industrialize the south. Davis was in charge of pioneering the government owned railroads, and helped industrialize the country. Davis became a congressional hero after he decided to return three-quarters of the money that was earned by the railroads to the program, while one-quarter would go to the government to spend. This allowed Davis to spend even more money on the recovery of the military, especially the navy.
In August 1869, the final Confederalist congressman died, causing the party to be restricted to governors and state legislatures. The Confederalists agreed to merge with the Conservatives, as the Conservatives were focused on the radical expansion and protection of slavery and states' rights. Meanwhile, former Vice President Thomas J. Semmes died after his health becoming increasingly worse from wounds.
With Japan undergoing the Meiji Restoration, the Federation was quick to establish an embassy in Edo and trade with Japan. The Federation found another major trade partner in Brazil, which would provide a lot of agricultural products. The Federation now had a trade sphere including Japan, Brazil and Russia (and would soon include Germany and Italy). The North also opened up trade to Mexico.
In the South, a new Presidential election was held in 1870. The election would be the first one to choose a president for the next six years. This also marked the end of the Confederalist Party, as they did not nominate a ticket, but instead had merged with the Conservative Party. The Conservatives wanted to nominate Daniel M. Frost as their Vice Presidential candidate. However, the Democratic Party sued, claiming that it was unconstitutional because he was born in New York. The Supreme Court ruled that anyone who was born in the Federation post secession could not be President, but he could because he was born in the United States. The Conservatives chose former Attorney General, Secretary of State, Secretary of War, and Senator Judah Benjamin, with Daniel M. Frost as his running mate. The Democrats chose general Jubal Early for President, and Senator James Chestnut Jr. as his running mate. John B. Henderson was the Freedom Party candidate, with John S. Carlisle as his running mate.
The Freedom party won 38 electoral votes, The Conservatives won 48, and the Democrats won 32 electoral votes. With no party winning a majority, the new policy was first tested. The natural coalition was between the Democrats and Conservatives. The Conservatives, having won a plurality, were not very lenient towards Democratic demands. This was worse due to Daniel Frost's grudge held against the Democratic Party after being sued. He did not want Jubal Early to become Vice President, and refused to become Secretary of War, or even the next supreme court justice. The Democrats secretly held meeting to maybe form a coalition with the Freedom Party, But the Freedom Party was mainly focused on restricting slavery, including banning all slave trading. With no coalition formed on February 1st, the Conservative Party finally agreed to let James Chestnut Jr. be Vice President, Jubal Early as Secretary of War, and Daniel M. Frost as Secretary of State. On February 3rd, the agreement was finalized, but the Freedom Party sued to the Supreme Court. They argued that Early was required to be the Vice President. The supreme court agreed, and ruled that Early would become Vice President. As a result, Chestnut was assigned to be the Secretary of War. The coalition was reached, and Benjamin would be the President.
The Golden Years
Westward Industrialization (1871-1877)
As Benjamin took office, he began to focus on railroads. Benjamin continued Davis' system of funding future railroads with past railroads, thus centralizing the railway system. This was the first real government owned, collectivized business. As Benjamin began to focus on Westward expansion and improvement of railways, he also built some connecting the Confederacy to Mexico. Furthermore, cities began to establish themselves along the railroads, as they were stopping points where a person could spend the night.
Benjamin hoped to build one railroad that would connect New Orleans to Santa Fe. This project was going to take the majority of his term, but Benjamin hoped that it would help industrialize Texas and the Territories of Arizona and New Mexico. From New Orleans, the railway would go to Houston. From there, it would go to Austin. From there, it would stop in El Paso, and then in Mesilla, then finally in Santa Fe. However, in building the railway through New Mexico, the Confederacy would be encroaching on some Native American Tribes. What would ensue is a war with many Native American tribes and pueblos in New Mexico, especially Apache people. The natives would lose, see severe casualties, and be forced to relocate to the panhandle of Oklahoma.
Similar things would happen in the North. In 1872, the Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Shoshone all made an alliance, and agreed to fight any American settlers. In 1873, a private railway company began to scout out possible sites for railroads, and seven Americans were taken hostage. After Chase refused to meet their demands of an independent native nation, to be encompassing Wyoming, Chase ordered war with them, and they would be defeated only after major Federated casualties.