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After the death of Georges Boulanger in 1900, the French State came under a silent bloodless coup by part of general Édouard Drumont. While France returned to Legitimisme officially after the rise of Drumont, there was no true change of the state of affairs of the French government until the coronation of Carlist contender Charles XI, at which point the government changed from that of a populist military dictatorship to a diarchy, led by Drumont and the King. The Restoration continued until the Autumn Revolutions of 1920, which led to the French Quadrumvirate of Jean-Baptiste Marchand, Laurent Enjolras, Charles Thénardier and Philippe, Duc d'Orléans. The Drumontian Restoration was an extremely conservative and aristocratic government, following several of the right wing tendencies of the droites-boulangistes, but ignoring many populist ideologies of the boulangistes blancs, such as secularisation. This would eventually lead, together with wartime austerity, to public opinion turning against Drumont and overthrowing him.
Drumont established his monarchy on the legs of aristocratic support, as seen by the cabinets of Kings Charles XI and Jacques I, almost entirely made up of the highest classes of French society, and the highest levels of the military. Drumont established conservative social policies throughout the nation, especially in regards to anti-Semitism. The Jews were deprived of many rights (as were those belonging to Masonic orders or affiliating to the blancs boulangistes or the radical republicans; the electorate to the shadow puppet Parliament was further reduced, to less than half a percent of the population; and the military was increased in size and powers.
Originally, Britain and Germany hoped that Drumont, less populist and demagogic, would lead to the calming down of tensions between the two major power blocs in Europe. However, soon enough these hopes would turn to ash, as the arms race with the two powers increased heavily. The French Navy attempted to contest the Imperial Navy and the Royal Navy, while the army attempted to be larger than the Kaiser's troops. Military spending of France during the Drumontian period increased by 75% from the spending during the Boulangist State (which had itself increased military spending some 275% from that of the Third Republic).
Initially, Drumont continued to stir up trouble internationally throughout the world, especially on the colonial stage, rather than near Metropolitan France. Drumont was the main person behind the controversial decision to sell Bosnia to the Habsburg Empire, which worried Russia sick because of the fact that her two principal rivals in the Balkan stage were now cooperating (eventually this proved to just be because of French strongarming, as Ottoman troops began firing on Habsburg garrisons towards the end of the war). In the Balkans, the issue was further worsened when an (allegedly Russian-backed) coup overthrew the Obrenovich kings in Serbia, replacing it with the pan-Slavic Karadjodjevic line.
Middle Eastern tensions also led to the debate between democracy and dictatorship, as the French backed the abuses of power by the Ottomans in the oppression of Christians, which climaxed in the Mosul Massacre against 645 Assyrians in 1910.
Rattachisme replaced colonial tensions in France as the primary method of international stress. This ideology, based upon the unification of the Walloon regions of Belgium with the French nation, became the primary ideology to complement revanchisme with in France. School maps in Paris began teaching the map of the French nation including both Alsace-Lorraine and Wallonia. Some even included Catalonia and the Aosta Valley in their publications. This increased tensions across the globe even more than they already were (and would eventually lead to the Great War.
Great competition in the military buildup ensued the start of rattachisme in Belgium. The French released the first military plane in 1911, and the first hydro-plane in 1913. This incited British fears that the French would not need naval superiority to invade their isle if they had control of the seas, leading to even further tensions.
Eventually, Drumont began actively promoting rattachisme in Belgium. Personally influencing riots in Arlon and Mons, Drumont was fully enraged when he realised that the Belgians under King Albert were keeping a tighter hand on rattachist Walloons. Eventually, when Albert's troops fired into the crowd, Drumont ordered intervention into the two main ratachiste cities. This incident is known as the Battle of Mons and would start the Great War.