The Divide and Conquest of Africa, also known as the Scramble for Africa, the Race for Africa, or the Partition of Africa, was an era when France, America, South Africa, and Brazil went through the process of invading, occupying, colonizing, and annexing African territory during the Era of New Imperialism, which took place between 1861 and 1907. As a result of the growing sense of imperialism in France, America, Brazil, and South Africa and their growing economies during the Industrial Revolution, many believed the partitioning of Africa helped feed the imperial thirst of these countries. The last 59 years of the 19th Century in Africa saw the transition of the continent from tribal and native rule to the rule of foreigners through military influence and economic dominance.

The tensions in Africa did worry the countries, so there were attempts to control imperial competition. One example was the Paris Conference, which helped established permanent African claims to countries. During this period, many African countries and the rulers (such as the Moroccans, the Ashanti, the Dervishes, the Zulus, the Egyptians, the Kushites, and the Berbers) have fought to resist the wave of imperialism. Despite their hardest efforts, the Industrial Revolution provided French, Brazilian, American, and South African armies with advanced weapons and technology, which easily vanquished the African armies. Also, unlike the French, African rulers and their countries did not unite together to vanquish the Europeans, which led to their constant defeat.

However, the only country to survive this era of aggression and conquest was Ethiopia, which modernized to keep up with the growing technological times. This gave it the advantage of conquering its nearby neighbors and establishing a powerful empire that still exists to this day.

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