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|Kingdom of Denmark|
Kongeriget Danmark (Danish)Timeline: Triple Entente vs. Central Powers (Map Game)
OTL equivalent: Denmark
"Guds hjælp, Folkets kærlighed, Danmarks styrke"
"God's Help, the People's Love, Denmark's Strength"
"Der er et yndigt land"
"There is a lovely land"
Dark green: Greenland, the Faroe Islands (circled), and Denmark.
|Regional Languages||Faroese, Greenlandic, Icelandic, German|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary Constitutional monarchy|
|-||Total|| 42,915.7 km2
16,570 sq mi
Denmark (Danish: Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark (Danish: Kongeriget Danmark), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe, located south-west of Sweden, south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom has two autonomous constituent countries in the north Atlantic Ocean; the Faroe Islands and Greenland. The Kingdom of Denmark is a unitary constitutional monarchy with Christian IX as reigning monarch. The government is organised into a parliamentary democracy, which replaced the system of absolute monarchy in 1660 with the Constitution of Denmark, which was signed on 5 June 1849.
Denmark consists of the peninsula of Jutland, and the Danish archipelago of 407 islands, characterized by flat lands and sandy coasts, containing minimal elevation. Denmark has a temperate climate characterized by mild winters and cool summers. The national language, Danish, is spoken by most Danish citizens, and is closely related to Swedish and Norwegian.
- Main Article: History of Denmark
During the 1830s Denmark's liberal and national movement gained momentum, and during the European Revolutions of 1848 Denmark peacefully became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849. The Constitutional Act of Denmark, or Danmarks Riges Grundlov in Danish, were established as the main part of the Danish constitution, establishing a sovereign state in the form of a constitutional monarchy, with a representative parliamentary system. A bicameral parliament known as the Rigsdag was established over the nation, consisting of a upper and lower house; the Landsting and the Folketing respectively.
The main principle of the Constitution was to limit the monarch's power, with the creation of parliament distributing power to the Danish people. The constitution also secured civil rights, such as habeas corpus, private property rights, and freedom of speech. The structure of the Constitution was based on the separation of powers, creating three separate branches of government; the legislative, the executive, and the judicial branches.
In 1864 Denmark was invaded by the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, in the Second Schleswig War. Lasting from 1 February to 30 October, the war ended in the Treaty of Vienna, in which Denmark was forced to cede the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein. Prussia would administer Schleswig, while Austria would administer Holstein, but disputes over the administration of the two provinces would eventually lead to the Austro-Prussian War in 1866.
Like the First Schleswig War of 1848 to 1851, the Second Schleswig War was fought for control of the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg, due to succession disputes arising from the death of the Danish king without an heir acceptable to the German Confederation. Decisive controversy arose due to the passing of the November Constitution, which integrated the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom in violation of the London Protocol.
Reign of Christian IX
With the dawn of the twentieth century the nation of Denmark turned its attention toward modernizing the military, focusing land forces toward putting up an adequate defense against possible invasion, and developing a strong navy for defending Danish territories and possessions. In between two strong military powers in the North Sea; the United Kingdom and Germany, Denmark signed a non aggression pact with both nations to ensure its sovereignty in both nation's rapid military expansion. Also that year the Rigsdagen passed an act organizing the nation's military, creating the Forsvaret, Danish Defense, as a unified armed forces for the nation of Denmark and its possessions. A reserve system was also formed, known as as the Hjemmeværnet, or Home Guard, a national guard aspect of the Danish military intended to raise manpower and defend Danish territory during a full scale invasion.
As part of the military reforms, a total of 200,000 men from across the Danish empire would be trained for active service or as a reserve force over the next decade. Of that force, 50,000 men began immediate training to establish five divisions stationed in the south of the nation, intending to defend Jutland from attack. An additional 5,000 man division was raised from the Home Guard to defend Copenhagen and Sjaelland.
In 1901 Denmark signed a research agreement with the nations of Italy and Germany to develop a modern navy capable of defending Denmark and each other in case of attack. This pact sought to work together in development of new ships and weapons, and would eventually begin conducting joint military drills to mutually grow each nation's forces and technology. As part of this naval development and modernization, the nation of Denmark also created or expanded a number of shipyards around the nation, to facilitate the production or repair of warships quickly and easily. Over the next few years shipyards in Aalborg, Svendborg, two in Copenhagen, two in Odense, and Esbjerg would be tasked with creating the nation's naval assets.
Domestically the nation began improving and expanding railroad transportation to facilitate faster movement of goods and people. A special rail was laid across Jutland, to allow for fast mobilization to the south of the country if needed. An improved system was created to connect Zeeland and Jutland, known collectively as the Storebæltsfærgerne, or Great Belt ferries.
Plans were created for a defensive structure similar to the Dannevirke on our new southern border, envisioned with modern artillery emplacements and defenses, learning from our experiences in previous wars with Prussia and Austria. Beginning construction in 1902, newly created railroad lines streamlined production, which continued for the next few years. A number of artillery emplacements were created in the south to guard major fortifications, using indirect fire artillery, and the military began testing a prototype for railroad artillery, noticing that twelve-inch guns being shipped to the south could be mobilized faster if installed into railroad cars directly.
The nation also turned its attention toward developing industry and exploiting resources in Danish territories and colonial possessions. In Greenland industry in the town of Ivittuut was increased, to begin large-scale extraction of cryolite, an important agent in modern aluminum extraction. Since Ivittuut was one of the only sites in the world in which cryolite could be extracted, the Danish government sought to exploit the resource for high profits in Europe and elsewhere. A large dock was constructed to facilitate shipments of ore from Greenland, increasing exports to Denmark.
Danish possessions also began organizing forces to defend themselves and fight alongside Danish soldiers if needed. A special volunteer brigade of the Home Guard was established on Greenland, seeking 1,000 men to serve in a local force, and a small training camp was established near Nuuk. A second brigade was formed in the Faroe Islands, with a training camp being established in Tórshavn, while in Iceland two brigades were formed. Together this force was designated as the Danish Colonial Regiment of the Home Guard, with its headquarters in Reykjavík. Small shipyards began construction in Reykjavík and Tórshavn, with the intention of forming areas capable of constructing small ships for colonial use.
In 1906 an expedition was sent to Adventtoppen in Svalbard to establish mining operations on the island. A coal mine was established, and a small dock began production to ship coal to Denmark. Within the next several months, Denmark would officially purchase Svalbard, along with the island of Jan Mayen, from the Sweden and Norway. The official acquisition of the island of Svalbard allowed it to grow exponentially. The Danish colony in Adventtoppen became known as Kortårby, and grew to become a major mining town and port in the far north, growing from the mining industry and from Arctic tourism, becoming a common base for Arctic exploration. Multiple mines would be established across the island, with the main port at Kortårby shipping coal and other resources back to Denmark for use in the nation’s factories and manufacturers. That year an act was passed organizing Danish possessions into administrative regions, with both Svalbard and Jan Mayen being organized into the Ishavet Territories, with an administrative center established at Kortårby.
Reign of Frederick VIII
On 29 January 1906, Christian IX died peacefully of old age at the age of eighty-seven at the Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen after a reign of forty-two years and seventy-five days. After lying in state at the chapel at Christiansborg Palace, he was interred beside Queen Louise in Christian IX's Chapel in Roskilde Cathedral, the traditional burial site for Danish monarchs since the 15th century. He was succeeded as king by his eldest son, Frederick, who ascended the throne as King Frederick VIII. Frederick was sixty-two years old at the time and had been Crown Prince for forty-three years.
In many ways Frederick VIII was a liberal ruler who was much more favorable to the new parliamentarian system than his father had been. Because of his very late accession to the throne he had only a few years to show his ability and he was weakened by ill health. Frederick VII largely continued the military reforms that his father had began, expanding and training the military, and organizing Danish forces. That year the union between Sweden and Norway broke up, and Frederick VIII's brother ascended to the throne of Norway as Haakon VII. Frederick immediately established positive relations with both Norway and Sweden, leading to years of prosperous trade and cooperation.
In 1907 Frederick VIII founded the Nordsøenpagt, or North Sea Pact, as a defensive alliance specializing in naval research and development between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. It was under Frederick VIII that the Royal Danish Navy established a modern system for organization and command, championed by Defence Minister Jens Christian Christensen. Danish commander Henri Konow would be promoted to admiral and supervisor of the Danish navy, broken into two main fleets; the Storflåde (Grand Fleet), stationed in Copenhagen, and the Atlanterflade (Atlantic Fleet), stationed in Reykjavik.
The pact would launch its largest naval exercise to date the following year, launching several drills across the North Sea. Also that year Germany and the United Kingdom would be invited to join the pact as observers. Konow would personally travel to Germany to invite the German Secretary of State of the German Imperial Naval Office, Alfred von Tirpitz, to attend the event, as part of our previously established naval research pact, almost a decade into fruition.
As summer began the North Sea Pact Naval Exercise began, with Konow serving as supervisor of the event. The Danish delegation included King Frederick VIII, Vice Admiral Georg Carl Amdrup, commander Carl Hammerich, and several other commanders and officers. The Norwegian delegation featured King Haakon VII, on his first official foreign trip since his ascension as king, and was led by Chief of the Admiral Staff Alfred Berglund. Also present or participating in the drill from Norway was Rear Admiral Urban Jacob Rasmus Børresen, Minister of Defence Karl Friedrich Griffin Dawes, and fleet commanders Jakob von der Lippe, Edgar Otto, and Christian Sparre, who represented the Council of State Division in Stockholm. The feature of the event would be the HDMS Stjernebillede, a marvel of naval engineering as the sole dreadnought ship present at the drill. The event was also the unveiling of newly created Norwegian and Swedish ships designed in Denmark.
The Royal Danish Navy (RDN), officially Kongelige Danske Marine in Danish, but more generally known as Søværnet, is the sea-based branch of the Danish Forsvaret. The RDN is mainly responsible for maritime defense and maintaining the sovereignty of Danish waters, and since the early twentieth century has expanded to be a major force in the North and Baltic Sea. Danish Navy ships carry the prefix KDM (Kongelige Danske Marine) in Danish, but this is translated to HDMS (His/Her Danish Majesty's Ship) in English. Individual ships are also referenced by number, with each ship having an individual code based on ship type.
- Copenhagen (x2)
- Odense (x2)
As of 1908 the Danish Royal Navy has been divided into two main fleets; the Storflåde (Grand Fleet), stationed in Copenhagen, and the Atlanterflade (Atlantic Fleet), stationed in Reykjavik. Each fleet is then divided into two task forces, which each consist of several squadrons. The navy is led by a head admiral, who answers directly to the Defense Minister, the head minister of all of Denmark's armed forces.
|B004||Korstog||1901||1904||1904||Dannebrog-classa||Sold to Greece (1911)|
|C001||Viking||1901||1902||1903||Viking-classc||Sold to Greece (1911)|
|C002||Væringjar||1901||1902||1903||Viking-classc||Sold to Greece (1911)|
|C003||Snaefell||1902||1903||1903||Viking-class||Sold to Norway (1911)|
|C004||Jelling||1902||1903||1903||Viking-class||Sold to Norway (1911)|
|C005||Gorm||1902||1903||1903||Viking-class||Sold to Norway (1911)|
|C006||Erobring||1902||1903||1903||Viking-class||Sold to Norway (1911)|
|U017||Hroðr||1909||1910||1910||Ægir-class||Sold to Greece (1912)|
|U018||Gerðr||1909||1910||1910||Ægir-class||Sold to Greece (1912)|
- A.^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Battleships B004 through B008 constructed by Germany.
- B.^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Destroyers D005 through D012 constructed by Germany.
- C.^ ^ Cruisers C001 through C002 constructed by Italy.
The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, in which King Frederick VIII is the head of state. The monarch officially retains executive power and presides over the Council of State.
|Name||Capital||Type of entity||Population (1900)||Total Area (km²)|
|1 Copenhagen Municipality||(Part of) Copenhagen||Municipality|
|2 Frederiksberg Municipality||Frederiksberg||Municipality|
|3 Copenhagen County||Glostrup||County|
|4 Frederiksborg County||Hillerød||County|
|5 Roskilde County||Roskilde||County|
|6 West Zealand County||Sorø||County|
|7 Storstrøm County||Nykøbing||County|
|8 Funen County||Odense||County|
|9 South Jutland County||Aabenraa||County|
|10 Ribe County||Ribe||County|
|11 Vejle County||Vejle||County|
|12 Ringkjøbing County||Ringkøbing||County|
|13 Viborg County||Viborg||County|
|14 North Jutland County||Ålborg||County|
|15 Aarhus County||Århus||County|
|16 Bornholm||Rønne||Regional Municipality|
|Faroe Islands||Nuuk||Entire territory||15,230||1,399|
|Ishavet Territories||Kortårby||Entire territory||<250||61,399|
|Dansk Vestindien||Amalienborg||Entire territory||25,000||400|