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The signing of the Declaration of Democracy by The Kingdom of Castille would change Spanish influence in history and its offspring nations. These nations would inherit a strong sense of Democracy and would play huge roles in international conflicts.
La Declaracion De Democracia ( 700's-1400's)
From the 700's- 1400's Spain would fight the Reconquista to expel the Muslims from Spain. These wars were draining the Spanish treasury. Almost a century after the signing of the Magna Carta in England, Nobles would press for the Kingdom of Castille to allow more Democracy, which the King would sign beginning the Senate of Castille to limit the power of the Monarch. When Castille and Aragon were united to form Spain, the Senate would be changed to the El Senado de España (The Senate of Spain)
Empire of Spain and War of Succession (1492-1714)
In 1492 Christopher Columbus funded by Spain's crown discovered the Americas. In 1519 Hernan Cortes campaigned in present day Mexico. He conquered the Aztec empire, with better armor and weaponry. In 1532 Francisco Pizarro would conquer the Incas in present day Peru. Through the 15th and 16th centuries Spain would gain present day Southwest America, Mexico, Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Western South America, also the Philippines in the Pacific.
But from 1701 Spain had no heir to the crown. The closest relative was a son of the French King, this caused friction because Europe knew that if Spain and France's Kingdoms were both from the same family if they allied the balance of power in Europe would be heavily uneven. This caused a war in Europe with France and Spain against Great Britain, Holland, Prussia, and Portugal. At the end of the war it was settled that Philip V could become the King if all French territories in Canada were given to the British.
Revolution in The Americas (1775-1785)
In 1775 The Battle of Lexington and Concord was fought. This would spark the American Revolutionary War. American Colonists were fighting for independence against Great Britain. Colonists in the Spanish empire began to sympathize with the revolutionists especially after the Declaration of Independence was signed by the American colonists. A year later in 1777 revolutionaries in Puebla just outside of Mexico City, fought and defeated the Spaniards. This ignited revolutions throughout Latin America. Central America, Gran Colombia, and Peru. All declared independence in 1777, Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay declared independence in 1778. In 1779 Brazil and Paraguay declared independence.
American Colonists signed a treaty with Mexico, Central America and Gran Colombia. These would aid each other in their fights against the European monarchies. In the wake of the revolutions, Spain and Great Britain signed the Treaty of Leon to support each other against their revolutions. This treaty would help the Anglo-Spanish relations, with Brazil also rebelling. Portugal also aided against their invasion.
The Wars in America would drag out with heavy losses. The European monarchs had much better armies and equipment and had the upper hand, even with the unity of the American revolutionists. Benjamin Franklin from America appealed to France and Russia to aid against the English, Spanish and Portuguese. These European nations waited to see how the Revolutionists were doing.
In 1779 American backed by Mexican forces beat the British at Saratoga and Mexican forces would take the capital, Mexico City. These two decisive battles convinced France and Russia to aid the revolutionist. France helped the Americans beat the British at the Battle of York in 1781, the last major battle of the American Revolution and the final blow to the British effort. Russian forces helped Mexican forces expel the Spanish from Veracruz. From there on American and Mexican forces would aid other revolutions in Central and South America and by 1985 European powers were expelled from the Americas except for Canada in North America, and Cuba and Puerto Rico by Spain. The Treaty of Paris was signed between the Monarchs of Britain, Spain and Portugal to the Americans revolutionists granting their independence.
Results of The Revolutions of The Americas
The biggest result was the reduction of both the British, Portuguese and especially the Spanish empires. Britain still had Canada, Australia and India. Portugal had very few oversea colonies. Spain had only The Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico. Even with that, this war marked the first time in history that Britain and Spain worked together and it would start the improvement of their relation including Portugal.
Another big result was the birth of so many new nations. The new nations included The United States of America, Mexico, Federal Republic of Central America (later renamed El Salvador, because the conflicting name with the U.S.), Gran Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina. These countries, especially the U.S. and Mexico kept good ties until the mid 1800's.
Napoleonic Era (1789-1815)
The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars
France's involvement in The Revolutionary War didn't come without a price. Decades of warfare started to lash back as the economy of France and France began to slip. The King also repressed its people until 1789. When the French Revolution began it would last until 1799. The Revolution would begin a Reign of Terror in France by the new government and many people would be sent to death by the newly invented guillotine under the new leader Maximilian Robespierre.
The First Coalition and The Rise of Napoleon
With the Revolution in France becoming more and more radical and violent the nations of Europe decided to intervene. This would form the first coalition starting in 1793-1797. The main three involved in the conflict were Great Britain, The Holy Roman Empire and Prussia. Other nations including Portugal, Naples and Italy helped as well. Spain decided to maintain neutrality. At first the Coalition held the upper hand but The French were well trained. The combined forces tried to take all of France but France managed to repel the invasion. By 1797 France had gained the Netherlands, Belgium, The Rhineland, and Italy. An Invasion of Austria caused Austria to sue for peace ending the First Coalition.
In 1799 Napoleon was named sole dictator of France. Napoleon had been a hero for the French People and was able to stage a coup d'etat to become sole dictator. At the same time though, European monarchs were forming another Coalition.
The Second Coalition
After Napoleon was made dictator Great Britain organized another coalition. The Holy Roman Empire had collapsed after the first coalition and Prussia had signed an Armistice with France, so both didn't take part in the Second Coalition. Instead Great Britain, Austria and Russia, made the three main combatants, while Spain and Portugal aided the Coalition minorly.
The Second Coalition managed well at the start. Britain managed to keep naval superiority over France. Austria invaded Naples and French troops fled north to Italy. Russia then invaded into Central Europe against French client States. Napoleon quickly took charge of the army. French troops in Italy retook Naples from Austria and moved north and met the Russian army. This caused huge battles to occur but the French army repelled the Russian invasions and eventually made them flee past Prussia back into Russia. French troops then invaded Austria. The Austrian army was crushed by the French and soon Vienna was taken. This ended the Second coalition.
Austria had to sign a full treaty with France, that stated they were not allowed to fight against France. Russia experienced a horrible defeat and retreated. Only Great Britain managed to exit the war unharmed.
The Third Coalition
Britain allied itself with Russia to help an invasion of France again. But Austria was bound by its Treaty and didn't participate. Instead, Britain went to Spain for aid and Spain agreed. The main combatants of this Coalition were Britain, Russia and Spain. Portugal and Sweden gave minor help as well. The war began in 1803 with Spain invading Naples and moving north to Italy. Russia with small Swedish support invaded the Newly created Confederation of the Rhine. British and French navies fought for superiority over the English Channel.
France quickly reacted by leading an invasion of Spain. This caused Spain to withdraw from Italy and to defend its homeland. French soldiers easily took Madrid and Spain surrendered in 1805, and France then turned the bulk of its armies against Russia, and then dealt a humiliating defeat. By 1806 Both Spain and Russia surrendered and Britain stopped it naval battles for a short period of peace.
The Fourth Coalition and The Collapse of Spain
With the defeat of Russia and Austria, Prussia began to fear that France was gain to much power in central Europe. Prussia, who had been neutral since the First coalition, organized a coalition. It allied with Russia and soon Great Britain joined and allied with Spain. The plan was to invade France from both the West and East and crush it between the opposing forces.
The war began in late 1806 with Spain invading southern France. Britain planned to invade France but was intercepted by a French fleet, these would cause another series of dog fights for The English Channel. Russian and Prussian forces again invade the Confederation of the Rhine and manage to make huge gains. On the Western front though without English aid Spanish forces are outnumbered by French and soon chased back into Spain. French armies reached Madrid, King Charles IV abdicated the throne and his son Ferdinand VII, resumed but had to flee with the Spanish army into Portugal. Joseph I Bonaparte was set as the King of Spain by Napoleon. The French army met the Russian and Prussian forces at Saxony. There a bloody battle ensued but France won and Marched into Prussia and took the capital and occupied the region. Russia signed a Treaty with Napoleon and in 1809 that would end the coalition
Even though Spain had collapsed, Ferdinand would lead small guerrilla wars with Portuguese and British aid, against the French Monarch, and this would cause Napoleon to constantly keep French soldiers to put down revolutions.
The Fifth Coalition and The War of 1812
With both Prussia, occupied by French soldiers, and Russia, bound by an armistice, this would lead France to grow in Central Europe unchecked. Great Britain tried to get Prussia and Russia to invade again but both disagreed, especially after France signed a Treaty with Russia for it to aid each other in war.
With these alliances together Britain went to Austria and the Ottoman Empire to build another coalition, Ottoman agreed, and Austria agreed after persuasion. In 1810 Austria invaded northern Italy. Britain managed to make a landing in Normandy and invaded. Ottoman Turks aided Austria in their campaign.
Of all the Coalitions this one was put down easily. French, even though stationed in Spain, expelled the British from France. Austria met French resistance and was pushed all the way back to Vienna where a treaty was signed and French troops occupied Vienna. Ottoman Empire was invaded by the ally Russia and was forced to retreat. After this would begin another dogfight of the English Channel so that France could invade and take over England, but it failed.
In America the war of 1812 would begin between The U.S. and Great Britain. Mexico would aid America, and Canada helped Great Britain. the war ended in a stalemate and never really made a difference in either country.
The Sixth Coalition and The 100 days
By 1812 Napoleon had all of Europe either under his control or allied. He tried but with no avail to invade Britain. The French army was beginning to wear thin with constant revolts in Spain and Italy. In 1812, though, he would break his alliance with Russia and invade. 650,000 French soldiers invaded Russia. It started well, but soon the winter brought the campaign to a grinding halt. The Russians had practiced scorch earth policy so that the French would have no food or resources to use. This caused a devastating retreat. Along the way Austria and Prussia seeing the weaken Emperor invaded the army as well. By 1813 Napoleon returned to Paris with only 200,000 men - less then half of what he had.
With the weakened army Britain ordered another Coalition in 1812. Great Britain, Prussia, Austria, Russia and Portugal were the first combatants. The armies of Russia, Austria and Prussia met French and its ally soldiers at the Rhineland and dealt them a devastating blow. Britain managed to keep a tight blockade on France and left it with no resources. With the French soldiers being relocated to the East Spain managed to expel French presence, Spain, and Portugal then lead a campaign in Italy and liberated the area. British soldiers landed in Normandy a second time and invaded. Spanish and Portuguese armies invade southern France. France was fighting and losing a three front war. By 1814 Russian forces entered Paris and France signed an armistice. Napoleon was exiled to the Island of Elba.
A new French King was appointed and many new monarchs arose after Napoleon friendly monarchs were taken out of power. Peace resumed for a short while. Until in 1815 with discontent in France still Napoleon returned and slowly gained support and soon again took the crown.
The Seventh Coalition and The Congress of Vienna
With Napoleon back on the throne Britain quickly raised another coalition to fight him once and for all. French met British, Russian, Prussian, Austrian, Spanish, and Portuguese forces at Waterloo. The French fought a good battle, but the coalition dealt them a decisive victory. Napoleon was exiled to Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean. Were he would stay until his Death.
The Napoleonic wars ended after the Battle of Waterloo. The French Revolution ended and peace in Europe finally began. Later the Congress of Vienna would meet and reorganize Europe and surrounded France with powerful nations as to not allow them any to be able to start another violent war. The effects of the war were that France the supreme power of Europe was gone, also that the bond between Spain and Britain became stronger.
Manifest Destiny In The Americas (1803-1829)
Expansion of The American Nations
While Europe was embroiled in the Napoleonic Wars, the Nations of America would begin to expand because of the belief of Manifest Destiny. America would purchase Louisiana in 1803 from France and which would expand America to the middle of the continent. From the British in 1810 would purchase present day Oregon from Great Britain. In 1813 while the Spanish crown was weak the U.S. took Florida and annexed it.
Mexico in 1811 would annex Central America bordering Panama. Peru in 1817 would annex Bolivia. In 1822 Argentina would annex Paraguay. Five years later it would annex Chile. Brazil in 1829 would annex Uruguay. Brazil would also annex Suriname and French Guiana.
Conflicts Over Expansion (1838-1876)
With expansion many conflicts began to rise. The first conflict would be the Revolution of Texas in Mexico.
Revolution of Texas
The problems of Texas was rooted in slavery. Texas wanted to grow cotton, but believed they would need slaves to hasten the production of cotton. The problem was Mexico had outlawed slavery in 1829. This would cause friction and in 1835 Texas would revolt. The rebellion would go on until 1938. During the three years Texas urged the U.S. to aid against Mexico. Many believed that if they did they could annex Texas, and that this was Manifest Destiny at work. America sent aid to Texan revolutionaries. But it was no good three years after the start the rebellions were put down and many revolutionist would flee north to America.
The biggest affect of the Texas Rebellion was it started the beginning of the deterioration of the America and Mexico relation. Mexicans were outraged on how the U.S. aided Texas, and Americans believed that Mexico had suppressed Texas, and been a tyrant. This coupled with other reasons would soon lead to armed conflict.
The Expansion of Gran Colombia
In 1819 Simon Bolivar would become president of Gran Colombia. He is considered as one of the greatest leaders of South America. In 1824 Peru would invade Colombia and try to take Ecuador a region bordering Colombia and Peru. Colombia managed to repel the invasion. and In 1828 Colombia would invade Peru. By 1830 They took northern Peru and Peru sued for peace. That same year Colombia would invade and annex Guyana. Lastly, Colombia would organize an alliance with Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.
Background of The War
The root of the Mexican-American War was the U.S. government's desire to obtain, California, Arizona, and Texas. Mexico in a statement declare that the land was part of Mexico and that any attempt to gain it would mean war. Another issue came from Americas aid of Texas which Mexicans still despised, while the U.S. believed that Mexico was being a tyrant and should allow independence.
Battles of The War
The War would actually start in 1845 when Fort Texas had revolutionists in the building. The Mexican Army invaded and took the fort easily. The only problem was that 12 American soldiers had been there and that nine had been killed. America was outraged and demanded an answer, while Mexican was confused as to why American soldiers were in Texas, a Mexican Territory. This would start the war.
American Generals and President Polk decided to go for the Jugular by taking California. This started the California campaign lead by General Zachary Taylor. Mexican President Arista sent his best General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to halt the invasion. The beginning of the Campaign started well with only a Mexican militias defending, but when General Lopez met Zachary at San Francisco and managed to halt the invasion and push Taylor out of California, near the border. Mexico decided to go on the offensive by invading Louisiana. Mexico forces reached The Mississippi River at Vicksburg, where Taylor and stopped the halt and made the forces retreat back to Mexico.
The Mexican-American war from 1845-1851 was a war of attrition, the first ever seen, both America and Mexico were trying to wear each other down, it also saw a minor but first time use of Trench Warfare. Constant invasion of the American and Mexican Border were devastating. Both Mexico and America had grown to the two super powers of the Western hemisphere, and both were suffering huge casualties, making this the most costly war for both countries histories.
In 1852 America would plead for European intervention against Mexico. Britain who had tried an invasion of San Francisco before the war, wanting possession of California, agreed. Spain and France stayed neutral until 1853 when Spain agreed to blockade Mexican ports. With America gaining allies in Europe, Colombia, Brazil, and Argentina aided their comrade, and also Mexico gained aid from Russia and Austria after promising them access to California. With South American armies arriving before European aid Mexico managed to take Oregon and New Orleans in the south.
With the fall of Oregon British troops in Canada invaded and took back the area in 1854. France soon joined and both British and French soldiers landed in New York to aid American Soldiers. American lead forces then retook New Orleans and led a campaign into Texas. Texan Revolution soon rose up and Mexican forces were beaten and American managed to take Dallas.
Russian and Austrian soldiers managed to land in California in 1855 and halted the invasion at Austin, the Americans were headed to Mexico but stopped. The War would continue for two more years into 1857 - the bloodiest war in both nations histories up to that date.
In 1857 both nations called for an Armistice. Mexican and American officials met in Madrid Spain and the Treaty succeeded only most of Texas, believing the region not worth the blood shed. This war severely cut the ties between Mexico and America, also between Latin America against America and many European nations.
Effects of The Mexican-American War
The major effect was the end of Mexico and American relations. It would also divide Europe between France, Britain, Spain, and Portugal, opposed to Russia, Austria later Austria-Hungary, and would also distant the soon to be formed German Empire. The war marked the first war of attrition and small use of trench warfare, which both would be heavily used in World War 1. Another effect would be the beginning of the seeds of the American civil war, as Texas would enter as a slave state, and that many Republicans said the Mexican war was fought because of slavery and that if there were no slavery Texas would have not revolted and not have caused the war ultimately. The war also saw the end of Manifest destiny, many nations believed the blood shed had been because of Manifest Destiny. Nations in the Western hemisphere wouldn't see interest in expanding until the Age of Imperialism in the late 1800's.
American Civil War
With the annexation of Texas, a slavery state, slavery became a hot topic in the 1860 election. When Abraham Lincoln, who was strong against slavery, won the election South Carolina would leave the Union followed by other southern states. This would start the American Civil War. The War was conflicted by different sides, many didn't want another war after just ending the Mexican War, while others believed that the Mexican War was caused by slavery and if they ended it now no other wars like it would have to be fought.
The Civil War
The Civil War started in 1861. The Confederate States of America was lead by Jefferson Davis and the General was Robert E. Lee. The first two years of the war were consumed by CSA victories over the Union. Finally in 1863, the Union won in the Battle of Gettysburg which would turn the tide of the war. Vicksburg fell to the Union which gave access to the Mississippi, and General Sherman's march through Georgia.
a was a huge success. In 1865 General Lee would surrender at Appomattox Court house which would end the civil war.
Effects of The Civil War
The main effect of the war was the abolition of slavery in the U.S. Another was a little improvement with Mexico because Mexico allowed slaves to enter into Mexico and Union P.O.W.'s to flee into Mexico which at the end of the war Mexico returned. Another big effect was a policy of isolation by the U.S. after two decades of war the U.S. would spend 1865-1876 in a Reconstruction Era to rebuild the South and and unify the nation and get a break from war.
The Age of Imperialism (1830-late 1800's)
The Scramble for Africa
The scramble for Africa would begin with France's seizure of Algeria and Tunisia in 1830. Spain, who had lost much of its colonies, and had a the pass of Gibraltar, which gained them access to Africa soon became interested. It also possessed Guinea equatorial a small region off the coast of Western Africa. Spain would them come down and take all Morocco and then south into forming Spanish Mali. Soon other European nations got interested as well.
France was the first European to start colonies in Africa, with Algeria and Tunisia. Later, it would go on to claim Equatorial Africa, and much of central Africa. France would also gain Madagascar as well
Spain after losing much of its colonies was looking for a way to rebuild and it found it in Africa. Spain acquired all of Morocco and Rio de oro. Soon it would develop South and claim it as Spanish Mali. It would also expand its Guinea Equatorial region. This imperialism would cause friction between Spain and Germany, as expansion in Guinea would cause disputes of Cameroon. Also Spain acquired Togoland - a German colony. Spain's crown was still very Catholic and in the wake of this new era of expansion decided to retake Jerusalem from the Muslim Turks and claim it for Catholics. This would cause a series of wars known as The Palestinian Wars from 1867-1881. Spain would eventually gain Jerusalem and a small region around it.
After seeing both France and Spain grow, Britain was quick to join in demanding rights to a colony in Africa. The French allowed Britain to take Egypt and southward in Sudan. Britain would also gain much of South Africa. After Spain's taking of Jerusalem, Britain take a small region at the Persian Gulf and Kuwait from the Turks.
The German Empire had just formed but was quick to get involved in African affairs. It had Cameroon, also a part of East Africa just below the Horn, and part of Southern Africa bordering British Colonies. These expansion, though, would create a stiff rivalry between Germany and Spain as both had disputes over territory - especially in Cameroon.
Italy, just like Germany, had just united but also began to expand. It defeated the Ottomans and manged to take Libya. It would also gain Eritrea on the coast of the Red Sea, and gain Italian Somaliland, on the Horn of Africa.
Portugal, too, took interest in Africa taking Angola, bordering German and English possessions, and Mozambique on the east coast of Africa.
Belgium managed to take Central Africa in the Congo.
At the end only Ethiopia and Liberia on two opposite sides of Africa managed to stay free from imperialism.
Imperialism in Asia
Imperialism didn't stay in Africa. It soon spread to Asia.
The British had managed to take all of India. They also had access to many seaports in China, including Hong Kong. The British also spread into Burma and into Pakistan - also in the Malay states and Sarawak.
France would claim much of Indochina. Present day Vietnam and Cambodia were ruled by France's empire. Just like the British, France took seaports in China as well.
Spain had possession of the Philippines until the late 1890's. But before they lost it Spain would colonize Siam in between British India, and French Indochina. Also Spain would take Hainan and island just south of China, and after a war with Japan it would seize Taiwan - as did the French and British. Spain also took seaports in China.
The Dutch Empire, German Empire and Japanese Empire
The Dutch took all of East India, except for the east side of New Guinea which was owned by the Germans.
Japan itself became an imperialist power in Asia. Korea, the southern part of Sakhalin and some ports of China were under the Japanese rule.
The Americas gain interest in Imperialism
Manifest destiny ended in the Americas in the 1850's, but nations would soon grow restless and want to expand. The first nation to expand would be Mexico into the Caribbean.
Expansion of Mexico
The Caribbean War
In the 1880's Spain was in control of Cuba and Puerto Rico, but these colonies revolted and Spain would brutally put down the revolts. Mexican businessmen in Cuba expressed fear that it could disrupt trade, and many also reported prosecution of Mexicans in Cuba and Puerto Rico. The Final straw came when Mexican businessmen believed to be revolutionists were executed by Spain in 1886. Mexico would declare war on Spain the same year.
The war would go from June 1886 to January 1887. Mexican soldiers invaded Cuba in late June. They would contain the invasion until they reached the San Huan hill and also managed to take Guantanamo. By August 1886 Mexican forces moved on to Puerto Rico and by December had liberated the area. In January Spain would surrender, and give Cuba and Puerto Rico to Mexico. With the loss of Puerto Rico and Cuba, the Spanish empire was completely removed from the New world.
Mexico's Expansion into the Pacific
After the gain of Cuba and Puerto Rico, Mexican renewed its desire for land. The next land they obtained would be from their ally Russia. Russia would sell their Alaskan colony in 1889 and Mexico purchased it. This further brought Mexico and Russia closer as allies. Alaska was also later discovered to have gold and oil reserves.
The next expansion would come in 1892 after many Mexican businessmen had visited Hawaii. Many pushed for annexation of the territory. Five years, and with the Queen of Hawaii's abdication, Mexico made a treaty to annex the islands and by 1899 Hawaii joined Mexico.
Also, Mexico would gain seaports in China along with the other European nations, mostly because of their alliance with Japan. The reason why Japan and Mexico allied was when the U.S. outlawed any Asian immigration into the west coast, which Japan despised, Mexico allowed Asian immigration. This would cause a close friendship with Japan and an economic Treaty with Trade.
America Joins Imperialism
After reconstruction ended many American politicians believed that Mexico was gaining too much land and power and decided to join the Imperialist movement. The first land it acquired was from purchasing Quebec from Great Britain, because Quebec was inhabited by French and these people saw them selves differently then Canadians.
Later after much discussion with Denmark, it purchased Greenland, later it would annex the close neighbor Iceland. America wanted colonies in the Pacific. A prime colony America saw was the Philippines, and this would eventually start the Spanish-American War. American would win this and annex the Philippines. Later America and other super powers would heed the Open door policy and allow American intervention in China. Later both Britain and America would ally together and invade German occupied Guinea, and would conquer the region splitting it between American and British lands.
Other Nations Get involved with Imperialism
By the late 1800's and early 1900's other Latin American nations got involved with Imperialism. Brazil was the first in 1898. It would annex Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Colombia would later take Jamaica. Brazil would also annex much of the Bahamas. Argentina would also occupy the Falklands. Peru would occupy Easter islands.
In the late 1800's Brazil and Argentina got involved in Africa, with an invasion with Germany of Spanish Equatorial. Spain loss some land there but managed to repel the invasion. The land received was distributed between Germany, Brazil and Argentina, and these three would ally with each other.
Effects of Imperialism
Imperialism would have profound effects around the world. One big one was the regrowth of the Spanish, British, Portuguese, and German empires. All American and Mexico both again began to rise in power and and as rivals. Other nations like Columbia, Brazil, Peru and Argentina were also on the rise.
Another big effect was the growth of alliances. Britain and Spain were the first to allowed. Germany built an alliance against Spain, with Brazil and Argentina. This would have a greater hand the soon coming World War.
The First World War(1880's-1922)
World War 1 was a vast and horrible conflict that spanned four continents. It pitted Allied forces, Great Britain, France, Spain, Siberia, and The United States against Central powers, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Ottoman Empire, and Mexico. These countries were just the main nations other nations would have aid either side in small ways.
Roots of the War
Many things would play a hand in developing the conflict but three main things led to the War:
Alliances threatened the peace, because if would cause a small conflict between 2 nations to explode to against different alliances. The first alliance to be made was in the late 1880's with Spain and Britain. It started because both had possession in the Middle East and were threatened with Ottoman invasion, and later Russian invasion. So Spain and Britain signed a pact to defend each other's possession. This would soon evolve into the Triple Entente when France would join in 1903. Germany feeling that Western Europe were allying together believed that it was making the balance of power in Europe uneven. In 1905 Leaders of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia met at Vienna and made the Triple Alliance. These two alliances were the main factions in the war but other alliances were made outside. Serbia signed a Treaty with France in case of invasion that France would back aid. Spain signed a Treaty with Italy to aid each other as well, but Italy it also had signed a treaty with Austria-Hungary so it had a foot in both opposing camps. Germany signed a treaty with The Ottoman Empire aid each other militarily. Britain signed a treaty with Belgium, and Russia signed with Bulgaria.
After the Napoleonic Wars, people in countries occupied by France gained a sense of Pride for their nation, that would grow into Nationalism. Nationalism the belief that one's nation is superior to all others. Nationalism would only continue to grow with the Age of Imperialism, with people believing that their nation should teach other nations to be like them therefore making them "better". Nationalism would be the true cause of the war, even though the assassination of Farnz Ferdinand would technically start the war, many nations in Europe were looking for a reason to invade other nations.
Lastly is Militarism, the belief a nation should have a strong army to defend. This was heavily practiced through out Europe with nations having rivalries and wanting to defend against invasion. The biggest rivalry between Spain and Germany meant both nations have heavy out put in military production. France an ally of Spain also build of its army knowing that if Germany was going to invade Spain it would have to first invade through France.
Start of The War
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
World War 1 would start with the assassination of Franz Ferdinand. On June 28 1914 while in Bosnia and Herzegovina with his wife, Ferdinand and her were assassinated. Gavrilo Princip, the assassin, shot the first bullet, hitting his wife in the abdomen and his second hitting Ferdinand in the throat and hitting his jugular. Ferdinand was the heir to the Austrian throne, and his assassination would cause a conflict between Serbia and Austria-Hungary, that would grow to the world war.
Declarations of War
On July 28th Austria-Hungary, after Serbia's refusal to accept Austria's ultimatum, declared war on Serbia. France, an ally of Serbia, declared war on Austria on July 30th. Austria-Hungary, being part of the Triple Alliance, caused Germany to declare war on France the next day. Spain, an ally of France and greatest rival of Germany, declared war on Germany August 2nd. Russia, after persuasion by Germany and Austro-Hungary declared war on Spain and France, Bulgaria an ally of Russia would a day later declare war on France and Spain. These would be the first combatants of the war: Allies: Spain, France, and Serbia; Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Bulgaria.
The German army would be the first to mobilize, with a plan to take over Northern France, France industrial center and then destroy France's War supply then march to Spain. Germany's plan included crossing into Belgium. The Belgians were firmly against Germany entering causing Germany to invade in September. This brought Great Britain into the war declaring war on Germany. With both Spain and Great Britain's declarations of war, German's alliance with the Ottoman Empire, kicked in with the Ottoman Empire declaring war on September 14th the Allies. This would truly set the stage for the war that would.
Centrals Make Gains
By October Belgium and Luxembourg fell to the Germans and Germany began its invasion of Northern France. French and Spanish troops helped slow the German advance. But by November Russia's army and Bulgaria's joined the Germans in the West, and outnumbered French and Spanish troops. Germany and Russia won many victories against the Allies and moved farther into the West. Austria-Hungary began an invasion of Serbia along with Russian and Bulgarian reinforcements. Serbia only received little French aid and the nation was being beat by the Centrals.
French and Spanish troops in December lost a major battle at Hangard pushing the Allies back near Paris. By January 1915 the Middle East theater began. Ottoman backed by some Russian aid invaded Jericho in Spanish hands. Also they started an invasion of British Kuwait at Abdali. Ottomans saw advances with both the fall of each city by February. In Serbia, Austria-Hungary and Bulgarian armies made advances.
Trench Warfare begins in the War
By March Central Powers invasion of France began to slow. British aid began to even the battles between with Germany and Russia. Trenches soon were dug through out the Western France and this would began a long bloody string of battles from 1915 to 1918. Spain who knew that besides in the Western Front they were outnumbered in Serbia and in the Middle East. Spanish officials met with Italian officials and Italy agreed to join in the war and Invade Austria-Hungary.
On March 7th 1915 Italians made an invasion of Austria Hungary also sending some aid to Serbia. The plan was to march to Vienna and swiftly cause Austria-Hungary to surrender. The Italians underestimated the Austrians and experienced heavy casualties but managed to reach Carinthia. This aided Serbia alleviating the pressure from Austrian-Hungarian soldiers.
In the Middle East by June trenches were dug just outside of Jerusalem with Spanish and British soldiers against Ottoman and Russians. French and Spanish troops from Indochina aid British in Kuwait. The Allies were still though looking for another front in the war to breakup the Central Powers war effort. On August 12th British and French ambassadors went to Japan to ask for an invasion of Russia. Mexico an ally of both Russia and Japan mediated Japan's decision and eventually Japan would instead declare neutrality. This would lead instead for Allies to persuade China to invade Russia, and it agreed. In late August Chinese soldiers began an invasion of Russia. This would cause Russia to have to redistribute its army to help defend its Eastern border. This would later lead to the collapse of Russia.
The War in Africa
By 1915 the colonies of the empire in Europe mobilized for war. The start of the theater began with Germany, allied with Brazil and Argentina, invaded Spanish Guinea Equatorial. the campaign was successful expelling Spain from Central Africa. Although this was a victory soon the other allied colonies mobilized against Germany.
A combine invasion from Britain,France, and Belgium from all sides in Cameroon. The Germans were outnumbered and by late 1915 surrender. Then the Allies moved to German possessions in South Western Africa. Germans this time much more prepared with help from Argentina and Brazil aided to repel invasions.
By 1916 Argentina and Brazil officially joined the Central Powers. With this it gain help to the Germans in Africa. A joint army of all three lead an invasion of Belgian Congo in to Portuguese territories to the North and took the region. Then moving into the Belgian Congo and made swift advances. British and French soldiers collided with the Central Powers. This caused huge battles to occur but the Allies were victorious. Portuguese Mozambique fell to the Germans by 1917, and Central forces moved and took all of the Belgian Congo. The Allies again organized a counterstrike. French, Spanish and Portuguese armies from the north invaded the Congo. This would lead to a long stalemate, were Trench Warfare would also spread to Africa.
The Russian Revolution
The casualties of World War 1 were enormous for all countries evolved but Russia endured the worst. During the reign of Czar Nicholas II Russia's military had weakened severely. At the outbreak of World War One it took months before the Russian army could organize and intervene with the Germans in the Western Front. Russians suffered many defeats at the hands of the Allies, many times their victories were only because of the German Army, a much more better and organized army, aiding their campaigns. At the battle Hamel, even though a Central victory, because of German aid, the Russian army suffered heavy casualties.
By 1917 the Russian people were sick of war and sick of the enduring poverty. In October Vladimir Lenin would sneak his way into Russia and a revolt would breakout in October. With most of the Russian army stationed else were and the positioned soldiers in Russia siding with the revolutionists the revolt was successful.
This would cause Russia to have to withdraw from World War 1. In January 1918 Russians signed an Armistice with the Allies, the Central powers tried to support the whites to overthrow the Bolsheviks but failed. The Russians were officially withdrew from the war and then renamed itself The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or U.S.S.R.
The War Spread to The New World
The Second Mexican-American War
With Russia's withdrawal, Germany knew it would need more allies to help win the war. A German ambassador was sent to Mexico to talk about a treaty. At first Mexico was uninterested with the Politics of Europe, but Germans promised some of the spoils of the war and some of the U.S. if they invaded. The German official left and would send a telegram later to see if Mexico would join. Mexican President Carranza ordered one of his generals to look into the situation and the outcome. The general declared that with German help victory of the U.S. and the allies may be possible.
The U.S. had been neutral in the war, but had lent some goods to the Allies. Also relations towards the Germans were sketchy because of the sinking of the Lusitania. This would change in by March 1917. By March Mexico had agreed to aid their war effort. Mexico would soon begin to mobilize its armed forces. On March 4th the Mexican army invaded Texas and made quick gains in the regions. Americans were caught off guard and pushed back.
Trench Warfare in America
Brazilian and Argentinian soldiers aided Mexico's invasion. By May the Mexican army reached the Mississippi. At Memphis a huge battle was waged for control over the Mississippi River. The American soldiers aided by Canadians managed to repel the invasion. Instead the Mexican army tried an invasion of Greenville. Trenches were dug by Americans to slow the invasion. The sight of trenches in Europe began to appear in America. Canadian and American troops clashed with Mexico and its allies. Trench warfare would continue to 1920, where America would finally turn the tide.
The Greek Flu Epidemic of 1918
During 1918 influenza would spread through the world. It started in the U.S. but with supplies being sent to Europe, that continent would also become riddled with the illness. It would also spread to Africa, and Central and South America. This would cause the a increase of deaths, included with the current destructive war. The flu was named the Greek flu cause at the time Greece was neutral during WW-I, and was one of the only nations giving the disease publicity.
Paris and Mexico Fall
German Army takes Paris
After the failure of the Nivelle Offensive by the French, French morale sank. In 1918 Germany would lead a heavy counter offensive, The French were caught off guard and both Spanish and British were unable to aid. Germany would suffer casualties, but by 1918 the German army reached Paris. Paris fell to Germany on Feb 4th 1918.
With the fall of Paris the Allies had to relocate there armies. The French government moved south to Tours, France, were the Spanish had to relocate their army to defend against German offensive. By 1919 Germany began naval battles between Great Britain for control over the English Channel. The Germans, after the Allies defeat at Orleans, pushed their army to the Loire River. The Allies would form another Trench to defend Tours.
The Surrender of Mexico
At the start of the Second Mexican American War Mexico had the advantage and had made numerous advances. But by 1918 the war had become a stalemate. A long Trench was made along the Mississippi River. The war would be bloody and cause heavy casualties for both nations. Americans tied with the war in their nation couldn't aid the European nations. American and Canada planed an invasion of California to help make a two front war. By June 1919 American and Canadian armies advance into California and begin their invasion. The invasion was met with heavy Mexican resistance but the Americans managed to break through and enter California.
The Californian advances were slow, and bloody. American and Canadian forces in Mississippi managed to finally push Mexican forces back. But by late 1919 the American army lead the Pershing Offensive, after the American General. The offensive was well planned becoming a success and managing to push the Mexican army back into Texas. At the battle of Houston Americans won a major victory over the Mexicans, but both suffered heavy casualties.
By 1920 the American army managed to trudge into Mexico. The American army had suffered immense losses. As did the Mexican Army. The War would continue in the Americas until 1921. by 1921 Americans after a long bloody war with Mexico reached Monterrey in Northern Mexico. By then the Mexican public was sick with the war, and in the fear of revolution, like Russia, Mexico's government surrender on August 13th 1921.
With the surrender of Mexico Woodrow Wilson plead for the American public to also aid the war in Europe. Americans disagreed, but eventually allowed, but sent only some military aid to the Allies in Europe.
The Allies Turn the Tide of the War
By late 1921 American soldier landed in Southern France. The Allies had managed to hold the Germans at the Loire River. With American aid it lifted Ally spirits. By October an Ally counter strike was planned and launched. Germany which had already lost most of the War in Africa and lost many resources to wage the war. With the surrender of Mexico, and the withdrawal of Brazil and Argentina from the War Germany had lost even more allies and resources. Austria-Hungary was losing the Balkan Front with Greece's entry of the war in 1919.
By 1922 the Ally counteroffensive broke the German line. The offensive was very successful by April 1922 the Allies regained Paris and were headed to the Rhine. Germans tried one last desperate assault but it failed, German soldiers had low morale, they were under supplied, outnumbered, and their artillery wore thin and broke down. On June 7th Austria-Hungary official declared themselves two nations and later would sign an armistice with the Allies.
By the end of summer 1922 the Allies reached the Rhineland. German generals advised the Kaiser to end the war. The German government waited but by September 12th the German government signed an armistice with the Allies ending World War 1.
Outcome of the War
After Germany's surrender the leaders of the Allies met at Florence, Italy to talk about the rebuilding of Europe and reparations from Germany
The Treaty of Florence
The nations that met at Florence including: The United States, Great Britain, Spain, France, and Italy, also Greece and Portugal aided as well.At Florence the Treaty made was very brutal towards Germany. Germany was stripped of the Rhineland, the northern strip of land bordering Germany and Denmark, and east word in Prussia. Their air forces was dismantled and their army was kept in check with only the army being so big, also Germany wasn't allowed any submarines. Cameroon in Africa was annexed in to the Spanish Empire. Western Southern Africa was taken by France, and Eastern African land was given to Great Britain.
As for the other allies of Germany:Austria Hungary had dissolved into separate Austria and Hungary and lost many new lands and new nations were formed. The Ottoman Empire had deteriorated during the war and by the end it only was left with Anatolia. Syria was a new French colony, Jordan and the coast of the Red Sea in the Arabian Peninsula was a colony of Spain, while Iraq become part of the British Empire. Russia, had signed a treaty with the Allies ending the war in 1917, so it wasn't dealt with as harshly, it only lost Finland, Armenia and Poland. Mexico signed a treaty with America it lost Northern California and Hawaii, the American Public wanted to treaty Mexico harshly, but President Wilson preached that Mexico should be allowed to rebuild. Brazil and Argentina lost their colonies in Africa to Spain.
The United States was displeased with the Treaty because they believed it was too harsh on Germany and would cause resentment in Germans. The U.S. would sign a separate treaty with Germany. Also the Treaty of Florence would establish the League of Nations. An organization to keep the peace originally was the idea of the U.S. president Woodrow Wilson. Many nations joined, but the U.S. didn't, and Mexico neither. Both two were war sicken and Mexicans and Americans alike believed that being part of this organization would drag them into future bloody conflicts. This would severely weaken the League of Nations cause both of the nations, even though Mexico lost, still had thriving economies and were global powers, while the nations of Europe were ravaged and poor, especially Germany. This would lead to the next World War.
The Interwar Years
The 1920's around the Globe
The Roaring 20's in The U.S.
After the war the U.S. emerged economically stable. The economy would grow and even go on to lend money to other nations in debt. The 1920's in the U.S. became know as the Roaring 20's. Many traditional values would sink and the decade would be much more liberal. Jazz a new music style that emerged in New Orleans became very popular through the country. Although the 20's in America did have down side. by that decade the U.S. government had declared alcohol illegal. This would cause a wave of organized crime. Many crime bosses would rise through out the nations. Organized proved deadly with these gangs have many advanced weaponry. By the early 30's the law would be repealed and alcohol allowed.
Latin America During the 20's
Mexico from 1922 to 1927 would be occupied by a small American army force. At first the Mexican public was very upset by this but soon they accepted it. Mexico even though it had lost the war emerged pretty economically stable. Both the U.S. and Mexico had only had a small taste of the Trench Warfare, so not much of there land, factories, and other assets were destroyed. In South America Brazil and Argentina experience a small economic down turn during the mid 20's but recovered. By the late 1920's relation between the U.S., Mexico, and Latin America had greatly improved, since for a past century the two forces had been rivals. The economic ties between the nations greatly improved with many trading and rising of nations economies.
Europe During the 20's
The Allies Recover
Before the war Britain, France, Spain, and other European nations had been wealthy nations, after the war many were almost bankrupt. From 1922-1925 the former Allies would experience a heavy economic downturn. But by 1925 these nations were able to turn it around with the help of American aid and their over sea colonies. Many of these nations would see heavy economic boost until the 30's.
The Ruins of the German Empire
Germany had been a world power before the world but after it would slip and becoming a bankrupt nation. Many Germans were upset with the Allies, Russia and their own government for lying that they were winning the war. The Weimar Republic would be established but it was a weak government that the Germans disliked. A coup of the government would happen but would fail. Adolf Hitler one of those who tried to overthrow the government was thrown in jail. He would go one to impact Germany and the world.
The Soviet Union and The Rest of Europe
Many new nations would rise from World War 1. The first being the Soviet Union from the collapse of Russia. It would see the rise of its new leader Joseph Stalin. Stalin would enact the 5 year plan to help rebuild the Soviet economy. The economy would experience a small economic boost. Many other new nations would also experience economic downturns.
Asia and Africa During the 20's
Africa remained a continent of European colonies. These colonies would be allowed some freedom but most wouldn't gain independence. Asia as well remained a heavy continent of European colonies. China remained independent, but a civil war was brewing between the government and Socialist revolutionists. Japan became bitter after the war because of how Mexico had told them to remain Neutral, but then Mexico entered the war, and also against the United States, these two would play a hand in the rise of its military dictator.
The Great Depression
For many nations around the world the 20's after the world was a revival of their economies. Although this would end in the 30's, with most nations experiencing heavy economic downturns.
The Depression starts in the U.S.
In 1929 the Stock Market Crash occurred. This would begin a nightmare cause and effect were many banks closed, people loss their money, houses, and lives. This would start the Great Depression in the United States, and it would spread to other nations. America had lent money to other nations to rebuild but with the withdrawal of its aid many countries sank. The Depression in the U.S. would continue until the late 30's when Franklin D. Roosevelt would become president. FDR would enact the New Deal which would help the country out of the Depression, but the nation would never truly get out of depression until World War 2 started.
The Depression Around the Globe
The Depression would spread across the globe because of the withdrawal of America aid to other countries. Former Allies nations would suffer and their economic boom would turn into economic downturn. Germany and Russia which were already suffering in the 1920's were ravaged by this. China and Japan suffered as well. In Latin America with the end of America trade Mexico, Colombia, Brazil, and Argentina markets would take a nosedive. Many of these nations would enact policies to help their economies and manage to keep their democracies, but others in the wake of desperation, would fall into Dictatorships.
The Rise of Dictators
With the heavy poverty in Germany, the German public was looking for a savior. It would seem to come through Adolf Hitler of the Nazi Party, with his strong and passionate speeches of the revival of German glory, he would be voted Chancellor of Germany by 1933. In the following years he would throw out the Constitution and become Dictator with the title The Führer. Later he would began expansion of territory.
The Soviet Union
Joseph Stalin had been full dictator of the U.S.S.R. by the Great Depression's beginning. Stalin, a stiff believer of communism, would begin many heavy acts to many the nation Communist. Collective farms were made throughout the country to help the raging family in the country. Stalin would also hold numerous trials against imagined crimes against the state, and would sentence millions to be put death. At the same time, using propaganda he would paint a picture of himself as the noble and all correct leader.
Benito Mussolini would become leader of the Fascist Party in Italy. He would preach of giving rise to a new Roman empire. He would soon become leader of Italy as Il Duce. He would begin the invasion of Ethiopia and would begin the rise of his military.
Japan had become a bitter nation at the war, believing it could have acquired more land if it had participated. This would lead to the beginning the deterioration of its relation with Mexico. Also it grew angry with the United States for its Open Door policy and its past law against the immigration of Japanese citizens into the U.S. Japan would become a Military Dictatorship, and believed to get out of the Depression it would have to acquire colonies for raw materials.
The Spanish and French Civil War
Along with these rise of dictators in other countries both Spain and France would experience turbulence. By 1936 the General Francisco Franco would start a revolt to seize power from the government and established a Fascist Dictatorship. This would start the Spanish Civil War until 1938. The government was supported by British and even Soviet aid, while Franco was aided by Germany and Italy. By 1938 the government had managed to win the war and expel Franco and stabilize its nation.
France of all the Ally nations had endured the worse casualties, the war had been fought in Northern France, and its capital partly laid to ruins. With the onset of The Great Depression, the nations economy had even sunken more. The Spanish Civil War would inspire the French war hero Phillippe Petain who was a fascist supporter. He would lead a the French Civil war in 1937 and would gain much momentum from the French Public and even soldiers. The government was aided by Great Britain, Spain and the Soviet Union but the Fascist movement aided by Germany and Italy won out a year later forming Fascist France. Winston Churchill in England described it as a blow to democracy in Europe and around the globe. With the Rise of Dictators in Germany, Italy, Japan, and France, the stage was set for World War 2.
The Second World War
From 1939- the countries of the world would struggle in the most deadly conflict of all time. The Axis made up of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, France, and Japan would battle the Allies for domination of the world.
Roots of The War
Rise of Dictators and The Axis
From the 1930's many nations would be swallowed by Dictators. Hitler in Germany, Mussolini in Italy, Petain in France, Tojo in Japan, and Stalin in the Soviet Union. These nations would spend millions of dollars in military and economic reform. by the late 30's Hitler and Mussolini made an alliance, the Berlin-Rome Axis, three months later Japan joined the Axis powers. Hitler, even though , there was heavy anti-soviet feelings in Germany (the reason why is because many believed that because of Russia's withdrawal from WW-I it played a hand in Germany's defeat), signed a Treaty with Stalin to not invade each other
The Treaty of Florence
A main cause of World War 2 was the harsh punishment from the Treaty of Florence towards Germany. The Treaty demanded all of Germany's colonies be stripped away, the Rhineland occupied by France, other territorial changes, the restriction on the size of its army, outlaw the building of the U-boats, and huge war payments. This would lead Germany in ruins and revengeful. Hitler would come to rise with this and would of the rise of a new great Germany and a German world.
Another cause of the war was the appeasement of the mainly Britain and Spain. By the late 30's Germany would rebuild its army, move into the Rhineland, and annex both Austria and part of Czechoslovakia, all which were against the Treaty of Florence. Italy would invade Ethiopia, which the League of Nations denounced but had no power to stop it, Italy would eventually withdraw from the League. France would come to annex both Belgium and Luxemburg, when it would sent its soldiers to occupy the region. Japan would lead invasions into China, Korea and into the Pacific. By 1938 Italy and Germany would form the Axis Alliance. Three months later Japan would join. France would push to join, Hitler at first disagreed, but soon France was allowed to enter the Axis. Also Germany would sign a non aggression pact with the Soviet Union to not invade each other and to invade Poland.
The Start of The War
Invasion of Poland ends Appeasement
On Sep 1 1939 German would invade Poland from the West, and the Soviet Union invaded from the East. This was the final straw with both Spain and Britain coming to arms and declaring war on The Axis. By October Poland fell to Germany and the Soviet Union. Spain and Germany first believed they could count on France as an ally but was proven wrong when British and Spanish troops were denied permission to cross France. Then a Joint French and German invasion of the Netherlands began and was swiftly over.
The Axis Advances
Italy and was Swift to invade into the Balkan Peninsula. Germany aided the Italian invasion of Yugoslavia. The Italy was moving deeper into the Balkan Peninsula. Greece was quick to ally with Spain and Britain. Spain sent aid to Greece to help fight against the the Axis. Hitler knew that Spain was a big threat to Germany's invasion and still Germany's rival so in January French and Germany Soldiers invaded Spain. Britain lending heavy aid and Portugal was quick to join in on the war for the Allies.
By February Germany lead invasions into Denmark and the Scandinavia. Both Denmark and Norway fell quick to the Germans. Sweden stayed Neutral. Later Finland was conquer by Germany. In the Balkans Greece was the only nations to be able to repel the Axis invasion. But by April Germany gave heavy aid to Italy to aid there invasion an a second invasion of Greece was successful. With the fall of Greece Hitler turned his full attention to Spain.
Fall of Spain and Evacuation at Gijon
The Axis turned the bulk of their army to Spain. Hitler's plan was to quickly take Northern Spain, its capital of industry. The invasions were very successful even with heavy British aid. By late 1940 much of Western and Northern Spain. With many losses in Spain, Britain evacuated at Gijon in Northern Spain. With the withdrawal of Britain Spain was greatly outnumbered. Spain's army fought a hard battle but by 1941 it fell to Germany. Portugal was quick to surrender. With this defeat the Axis had been expelled from the European mainland, with only Britain left to fight Germany.
The War around the Globe
Japan's Entry Into the War and Asia in the War.
By the fall of Poland, Japan's military had mobilize. It had began to invade deeper into China Proper. Japan would also invade and seize Spain's Siam and Taiwan. After the Netherlands was taken over Japan seized much of its Indonesian colonies. Japan would expand also start invading other islands in the Pacific. By late 1940 Japan began an invasion of British India and was planning an invasion of Australia. Japan also planned to invade Hawaii.
Spanish Siam for a short while was invaded from French Indochina, until then Spain would surrender.
World War 2 in Africa
When the war in Europe began the armies of Africa were quick to mobilize. A joint French and Italian force invaded Spanish Mali. The Invasion was successful pushing the Spanish Army to the Coast. German and Italian Forces were also invading British Sudan. British soldiers were able slow the invasion and repel it. When Spain would come to surrender its colonies were divided among the Axis. This left Britain alone on the African continent.
The Battle of Britain and Operation Barbarossa
After the fall of Spain, Hitler began to develop an invasion of the British isles. Hitler knew Germany would need control of the skies in order to execute the attack. Through 1941 The German air force and the RAF had fierce dogfights over control of the sky. Countless times British citizens had to evacuate into bunkers when German bombers would come to London. In the beginning it was successful for the Germans, but with the invention of Radar the RAF was able to beat the Germans and Hitler would have to delay his invasion of Britain.
Frustrated with defeat in Britain, Hitler turned his attention to another country he despised, The Soviet Union. The Soviet Union and Germany had signed a non-aggression pact to avoid conflict but by late 1941 Hitler ordered an invasion into Russia, code named Operations Barbarossa. Germany would be able to push back the Soviets and win numerous victories. With this assault The Soviet Union became an ally of Great Britain. But the Allies would still need more aid to win the war.
The U.S. Enters the War
The U.S. had remained neutral throughout the conflict, instead offering supplies to Great Britain. This would change on December 14 1941, when Japanese bombers attacked the newly acquired Pearl Harbor base in Hawaii. The assault killed hundreds of Americans. The attack also brought damage to some of Mexico's hold on the base and killed some Mexican soldiers. With this attack outrage America declared war on Japan, the Axis would in turn declare war on the U.S. and the U.S. then declared war on the Axis. Mexico after persuasion declared war on the Axis as well.
The Allies Turn the Tide
With Hitler's assaults of Great Britain unaffected, the British soon devised a plan to lead an assault into mainland Europe. Before though American and Mexican soldiers were sent to Africa to gain a taste of Axis combat. From 1942 to 1943 the Allies would fight numerous battles against German, French, and Italian armies and win. In the east the Soviets had managed to push the Nazi's back at Stalingrad, but the casualties were immense, Stalin ordered that the other Allies open a second front to divert Axis soldiers.
In 1943 British, American and Mexican soldiers moved from Northern Africa into Sicily. The victory was swift and decisive, They then moved onto the Italian mainland. By the time they reached Rome revolts through the country overthrew Mussolini. Italy would surrender. Although this did not cause a large enough second front as Russia had wanted.
In 1944 The combined three forces would launch Operation Overlord. This was the largest amphibian invasion of all time into Normandy France. Although weather conditions were bad and casualties high, the Allies managed to make a landing and began to open its assault of the western front.
In Spain, Guerrilla fighters, known as Free Spain, lead attacks across the nation to overthrow the government. With the invasion of Normandy, the government couldn't get supplies from Germany, so the Guerrilla attacks were successful in weakening the government. By 1945 the oppressive Spanish regime was toppled, Spain then even leaded some of its soldiers to aid the invasion.
By 1945 the Allies had crushed France, and the Soviet Union was nearing Germany. On May 8 1945 with Soviets besieging Berlin, Hitler committed suicide, his Generals were quick to call for peace. This ended the war in Europe, but Japan in the Pacific still survived.
The War in The Pacific
After the bombings of Pearl Harbor The American and Mexican were fast to react to war in the Pacific. Only three U.S. aircraft carriers had not been docked at Pearl Harbor, but Mexico's fleet was untouched so the two allies began the campaign. The beginning of the war was slow with heavy casualties, but by the end the Americans had started the Island hopping technique. By 1945 a invasion of Japan was planned, but the U.S. government, knew that an invasion of mainland Japan would be costly. So instead they tried the newly developed atomic bomb, which proved devastating effects as it flattened Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This would cause Japan to surrender and end World War 2.