The Declaration of the Republic of Italia was a coup d'état against the Empire of Italia to abolish the absolute monarchy and replace it with a democratic republic.
After the Empire of Italia held a referendum about the possible abolishment of the monarchy, the people overwhelmingly voted to abolish the monarchy. However, the Empress, Vittoria II, refused to recognized the result, which prompted mass riots to erupt in the entire country and dozens of army divisions defected. In Rome, hundreds of thousands of citizens protested the course of action. Completely overwhelmed, the remaining forces loyal to Vittoria were quickly subdued in Rome, the Imperial Palace was stormed and the Empress was arrested, along with the Imperial Family. The Empress was soon after executed, and the Imperial Family was stripped of all their titles, reduced to commoner status and exiled to Grenoble, where they would live simple lives. Soon after Alessandro de Siena proclaimed the Republic, and promised elections would be held as soon as possible.