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Decembrist Russia

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Overview

This timeline explores what might have happened had the Decembrist revolt - a revolt against Russian Czar Nicholas I - had succeeded. I'm only here to lay the bare bones of this TL. Anyone who wants to add their own ideas is welcome to do so.

POD-World War I

1825

POD-The Decembrist Revolt is successful in deposing Nicholas I and installing Constantine as Czar of the Russian Empire.

1826

The new Czar convenes a Constitutional convention in St. Petersburg. The most celebrated part of the Constitution is the part abolishing serfdom, allowing the peasants (formerly serfs) to move into the cities to search for work. Another milestone is the establishment of a parliament called the Duma, consisting of a House of Commons (elected by the people) and a House of Boyars (appointed by the Czar). The constitution establishes a federal structure, granting semi-limited autonomy to the Ukraine, Byelorussia and the Baltic Nations. It also included a Bill of Rights similar to that of the United States.

The first Duma elections take place on the 1st anniversary of the revolt. The parties involved are the Free Royalist Party (a liberal party) and the Russian National Party (A more conservative party). The Free Royalist party gains the majority, and Sergei Troubetzkoy becomes the 1st Prime Minister of the Russian Empire. While the Czar is still the number one authority , the Prime Minister handles the day-to-day aspects of the government.

Meanwhile, the rest of Europe watches with anxiety. Many of the conservative monarchs of the period feel threatened by the success of the liberals in Russia and tighten their grips on their respective countries.

1827-1848

For the next 20 years, the Russians turn their attention to modernizing and catching up with the rest of Europe. The history of the rest of Europe goes largely the same as OTL. When Louise-Phillipe comes to the throne of France, he is more liberal than OTL, thanks to the inspiration of the Russians. The Austro-Hungarian compromise is created 30 years earlier than OTL, although it does not satisfy the Slavic minorities.

Greece is given its independence from the Ottoman Empire.

1848

The people of northern Italy revolt and drive out the Austrians with Russian help-much to the shock of Austria, who expected the Russians to side with them. However, the Russian Czar Alexander II (who succeeded his uncle in 1831) was more sympathetic to the nationalist Italians. The Italian revolution paves the way for the Unification of Italy.

In Germany, the Frankfurt parliament convenes for the first time, offering king Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia leadership of a unified German Empire. Wilhelm is at first reluctant to accept the offer of the revolutionaries. However, the prospect of uniting Germany under the Prussian sphere and shutting out Austrian influence persuades him to accept the title of Kaiser (Emperor) of Germany.

In France, Louis-Philippe manages to hold on to the throne, having not abandoned his liberal ideals and thus remaining popular with the people of France.

In Austria, the loss of Italy and fear of further revolution drives the Hapsburgs to modify the Imperial system after the Russian model. The Hapsburg Federation is created, with the Slavic peoples of the Empire gaining autonomy. (albeit still subject to the will of Vienna, and to a lesser extent, Budapest.)

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish the Communist Manifesto. Although ignored at the time, the document would play a major role in the history of the 20th century.

1853-1856

The Crimean War breaks out between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, which ends in Russian victory. Palestine is handed over to Russia and becomes the Grand Duchy of Judea, a homeland for Russia's Jews, and eventually Jews worldwide.

The Kingdom of Egypt, newly freed of foreign influence, begins work on the Suez Canal.

1865-Early 20th Century

After the defeat of the South in the American Civil War, the US begins a process of centralization that continues to the point where the state governments are nothing more than rubber stamps for Washington D.C. While it ensures that blacks gain their civil rights earlier, it draws criticism from those who feel that the principle of federalism is being violated. The centralization leads to a more authoritarian climate in politics, setting America up for the eventual Communist Revolution.

1867

Russia sells Alaska to the U.S. Japan overthrows its last shogun and the Meiji Restoration begins. The three Laotian kingdoms are unified.

1868

The Central Asian nations of Khiva and Bukhara are conquered by Russia.

1870-1871

The Franco-German war begans after a small border skirmish. The conflict ends in a decisive German victory, and France is forced to cede Alsaice-Lorraine.

Yakutia gains autonomy.

1876

Imperial Japanese troops trained by the combination of American and Russian officers defeated Takamori Saigo in the Satsuma Rebellion.

1878

The Balkan Wars break out, as in OTL. In fear of Russian intervention, the Ottoman Empire grants independence to Romania, Bulgaria and Serbia, plus Montenegro.

1885-1890

The 2nd Mexican War begins when Mexican dictator Porfirio Diaz attempts to retake the American Southwest. The war ends with Mexico crushed and incorporated into the United States. This begins the expansion of the US across North America that is completed by the mid-20th century.

The First Sino-Japanese War erupted between Qing China and Imperial Japan. As in the OTL, Japan won the war against China.

1898

Russia sides with America in the Spanish-American War against Spain. In the Russo-American agreement, America gains Puerto Rico, Guam, and Cuba while Russia annexes the Philippines. Russia starts to implement economical modernisation efforts into the Philippines, eventually integrating the island country into the Russian Empire. Russian replaces Spanish as the official language of the Philippines and emigration to the country is encouraged by citizens wishing to escape their frozen homeland and starting over in their newly, humid lands. Pyotr Stolypin becomes the first Russian Governor General of the Philippines. In addition, Russification is also implemented into the Philippines, albeit with limited results.

1903

The US under Theodore Roosevelt purchases the Isthmus of Panama from Colombia to begin work on the Panama Canal.

1905

The Russo-Japanese War is averted, thanks to the Witte-Katsura Agreement, where Japan recognizes the Russian occupation of the Philippines and Russia recognizes Japanese annexation of the Chinese province of Taiwan. However, they also agree to respect Korea's sovereignty.

1906

Alexander II dies at the age of 88 after ruling for an incredible 75 years, the longest reign of any Russian czar. He is succeeded by his grandson Nicholas II.

1909-1912

The United States annexes the Central American nations, supposedly in the interest of overthrowing dictatorial regimes, but the real goal of the annexations is to protect American business interests. The Chinese Empire adopts its own Constitution and begins a process of modernization.

Japan annexes Korea in 1910. Although nobody knows it at the time, this is the beginning of Japan's imperialist streak.

World War I

1914

World War I begins as in OTL. After Austria declares war on Serbia in revenge for the murder of Franz Ferdinand, Nicholas II declares war on Austria with the support of the Duma. Germany declares war on Russia in response, following by Britain and France declaring war on Germany.

1916

After a two year-long stalemate on the Eastern front, Russia is able to cripple the Austrian army, forcing the Hapsburgs to sue for peace. With Austria out of the war, the Russian Army advances to the German border, where the German Army puts up an extremely stiff resistance fueled by a fevered desire to protect the German heartland from the "Slavic menace". The Western Front is the same as OTL.

1917

The US enters the war, tipping the balance in favor of the Allies. A German force stationed in Samoa attempts to take the Philippines but fails. In retaliation to the German attempt to take over the Philippines, Russia attacks and annexes the German-controlled Samoan island.

In the Baltic, the Russian Navy triumphs over the Imperial German Navy at the Battle of Gotland on December 30. In return for one pre-dreadnought battleship, a cruiser, and a few destroyers, the Russians destroy three German dreadnoughts and one battlecruiser. The German navy is left crippled for the rest of the war.

1918

Allied forces surrounded the German capital of Berlin. Kaiser Wilhelm II comes out and an armistice is made.

1919

The Treaty of Versallies is signed. Germany receives harsh terms identical to OTL. The Hapsburg Federation stays intact, but must surrender the southern halves of Croatia and Bosnia to Serbia, which unites with Montenegro to form the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Russia gains the part of Poland that was ceded to Prussia and Austria in 1795 plus its other Asian colonies. (Russia would later turn over the former German concessions, including Tsingtao in China to the new Kuomintang government instead of Japan.) The Ottoman Empire is forced to cede Syria to France, and Mesopotamia to Britain. Constatinople is ceded to Greece, and the Ottomans are forced to move their capital to Ankara. The League of Nations (LoG) is formed.

Interwar Period

1921

Britain, in an attempt to ameliorate post-war economic troubles, sells its Caribbean territories to the US, as does France. St. Pierre and Miquelon is sold to Canada.

Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Chechnya become autonomous territories in the Russian Empire.

1921-1929

"Roaring Twenties" marked by unprecedented prosperity in US and Russia. The Unification of North America under the U.S. is completed, except for Canada, which is still a British Dominion. Underneath the surface, however, trouble is brewing ...

In Germany, the Nazi Party is slowly gaining ground among the discontented German people. In Italy, which sided with the Allies only to get meager territorial gains, Benito Mussolini and his Fascists rise to power rather smoothly. In the US, a Communist underground is growing. They know that American prosperity cannot last long, and plan to seize power when the bubble of prosperity bursts.

In Turkey, Ataturk overthrows the last Ottoman sultan and proclaims the Republic of Turkey, just after barely defeating Greece in the Greco-Turkish War of 1923. Russia decides to place Constantinople and its surrounding territories under its supervision (i e., a semi-puppet and buffer state) to deter Greece and Turkey from fighting over this important city.

1929

The Roaring Twenties come to an abrupt end with the Wall Street Crash. Within weeks of the stock market collapse, the Communists stage a revolution in Washington D.C. William Z. Foster becomes the first president of the United Socialist States of America. In Russia, Czar Nicholas II dies of a stroke, and is succeeded by his son Alexei. Alexei's daughter Anna is born.

1931

The Social Recovery party wins the Russian House of Commons elections. Its leader, Leon Trotsky, promises to take measures to ameliorate Russia's ailing economy. Iosef Dzhugashvili becomes the Russian Minister of Economy. (He would later be appointed as Governor General of the Philippines before WWII breaks out)

In America, the Communist government under Foster becomes more and more repressive as it fails to lift America out of the crisis. A system of prison camps are set up in the Mexican deserts to contain political dissidents.

1932

The Duma passes a law giving greater autonomy to the Congree Kingdom of Poland. The Polish now have near-complete control over their domestic affairs, while the imperial government in St. Petersburg retains control over foreign, military, and economic matters.

1933

Adolf Hitler is elected Chancellor of Germany. He quickly establishes himself as the power behind the German throne, held by an increasingly senile Wilhelm II.

In America, President Foster deliberately exacerbates a famine in the Midwest to weed the region of dissent, resulting in thousands of deaths from starvation. The event-called Foster's Dust Bowl-goes down as one of history's darkest moments.

Fascist Italy invades Albania. The LoG condemns the invasion, but does nothing more for fear of starting another war.

In the Far East, Japan seizes Manchuria. It would later install the puppet government of Manchukuo under the last Chinese Emperor Pu Yi. The LoG condemns this invasion too, but does nothing except cause Japan to walk out.

1935

Fascist Italy invades Ethiopia. Again, the world does nothing. Russia walks out of the LoG in protest.

Germany passes the Nuremberg Laws, subjecting Germany's Jews to extreme persecution. Many German Jews flee to Judea, where the local parliament sets up refugee camps. Jews in the rest of Europe, on the other hand, fail to see the danger. This will cost them dearly.

1936

Wilhelm II, at the behest of Hitler, moves the German Army into the Rhineland. The Anglo-French forces occupying the region quietly withdraw, not wishing to provoke Germany into an armed confrontation. In Britain, the British Union of Fascists. led by Oswald Mosley, ride to power on a wave of disgruntled voters. The new British government allies itself with Germany and Italy, creating the Axis Powers.

1937

Japan, allied with the Axis, invades China, starting the Second Sino-Japanese War. The First Sino-Japanese War of 1895 resulted in China's loss of Taiwan to Japan.

1938

Germany annexes the Germanophone portions of the Hapsburg Federation. The Hapsburg royal family flees to Budapest. In St Petersburg, Czar Alexei and PM Trotsky watch intently. They want to do something, but they know Russia is still economically weak and is not ready for war. When Wilhelm finally shows opposition to Hitler's actions, he is shot by SS snipers and put into a coma.

World War II

1939

At the start of the year, Francisco Franco seizes power in Spain.

Hitler invades Poland on Sept. 1. France and Russia declare war on Germany. In turn, Britain declares war on France.

At first things do not go well for Russia. The German Army penetrates deep into Poland, reaching Warsaw on the 15th. Mercifully, Hitler {now exercising power on behalf of the "incapacitated" (read, put in coma by Hitler's goons) Wilhelm II} withdraws the German forces to assist British forces in France, leaving behind a skeletal occupation force. Going unwillingly with the retreating forces are captured Polish Jewish civilians who failed to flee to Russian Judea. These unlucky POWs, numbering around one million, will be imprisoned in concentration camps in the heart of Germany, where nine-tenths of them will perish under harsh conditions.

Russia is in a tight situation. Poland is lost, and the occupational force, although small, sits dangerously close to the Ukraine-the "breadbasket" of the empire. Nonetheless, the Polish front will remain relatively quiet for another year. In that time, the Russians begin work on a new, devastating weapon and modernising their economy further and their army, navy and air force.

1940

The year begins rather bleakly for the Allies. In France, the French Army has been clashing with Fascist British forces in Normandy and Calais. The French do not anticipate a German attack due to the Maginot Line of fortifications. However, the German Army is able to circumvent the line via the Belgian forests. German forces reach Paris in April. France surrenders, with Anglo-German forces occupying the north, and a puppet regime ruling in the south. The French Royal Family goes into hiding, becoming the center of the French Resistance commanded by Prince Patrice and General Charles de Gaulle. Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg are also occupied in quick succeesion. Denmark and Norway are also subdued. Wilhelm comes out of his coma, but by now his mental facilities have deteriorated to the point where he cannot even comprehend what is happening under his trusted chancellor Hitler.

The remainder of the Hapsburg realms fall to German forces based in Austria.

In Eastern Europe, the Germans go on a second offensive. However, the Russians are prepared, and a stalemate ensues at the Polish-Ukrainian border.

In Asia, Japan carves a path of destruction through French Indochina, Thailand, and the Dutch East Indies.

Meanwhile in America, President Foster watches the war intently. He knows America cannot remain neutral for long-especially with a British possession on its northern border-and quietly prepares the USSA for war. Of special importance to him is Foster City, formerly known as New York City.

1941

The British open the year by launching an attack on Turkey from British bases in Cyprus. The Turkish military holds out, though, and the British assault is stopped cold just 10 miles short of the capital. In response to Britain's attempted invasion of Turkey, the Turkish governemt declares support for the Allied cause.

In the Baltic, the German battleship Bismarck sinks the Russian battlecruiser Alexander II at the Battle of Finmark. The destruction of the pride of the Russian Navy prompts a pursuit of the Bismarck. The battleship is cornered and sunk in the Battle of the Norwegian Sea.

Having failed in Turkey, Britain turns its attention to America. Mosley had always spoken of the Americans as "Britain's wayward children." The British leadership made plans to invade and subdue America. In the summer of 1941, the British army launched its first assault on the USSA via the Canada-USSA border. American forces put up a stiff resistance. The British establish a beachhead near Long Island and besiege Foster City. What follows is a grueling siege that lasts for 18 months. In Central America, British forces based in Belize and Guyana launch an assault on Central America. The assault fails, and Belize is seized by the Americans.

In Germany, Wilhelm II dies. Hitler responds by declaring the abolition of the German Empire and imprisons the Hohenzollerns, naming himself Führer of Germany.

Meanwhile, on the other side of the Atlantic, Axis forces launch an attack on Greece and Yugoslavia. Greek forces repel the Albania-based Italians, while the Yugoslav forces hold off the Germans. In Germany itself, Hitler tires of using Wilhelm as a figurehead and has him murdered. His heir Ludwig Ferdinand has already been imprisoned for speaking out against the Nazi regime. With the Hohenzollerns out of the way, Hitler declares himself regent to the German throne and takes total control of the government.

In North Africa, Egypt sides with the Axis and attacks Russian-held Judea. The local Jewish Brigade assigned to the defense of the Grand Duchy holds fast. The brigade, led by David Ben-Gurion slowly repels the Egyptian assault, pushing into the Sinai.

In the Pacific, Japanese forces launch an assault on the Kingdom of Hawaii. The Hawaiian military resists bitterly, wearing down the Japanese forces. The Philippines are also targeted, yet the forces there also prove to be impossible for the Japanese to overcome. The Japanese suffer significant losses in their attack on Russian Philippines. In addition, Russians stationed in the Philippines launch a bombing raid on Fascist British-held Australia. The Russian government contemplates about whether or not they will launch an invasion of Australia.

1942

The British open up a new front when they send forces from British India into Central Asia to face the Russians. The British also invades Afghanistan, but encounters fierce resistance from local guerrillas.

In Germany, Adolf green-lights the Final Solution, the total extermination of European Jewry. Special death camps are set up in Germany and France.

Spain and Portugal join the Axis.

USSA stops the British offensive at the city of Pittsburg. This would become the turning point in the war on the North American continent.

1943

This year proves to be the turning point in WWII.

First, after a long time on the defensive, American forces begin taking the fight to the British. The USSA Army pushes the British back into Canada, then begins a long march through the large dominion. Within a year, all of Canada is under American occupation.

Meanwhile, in Eastern Europe, Russian forces break the stalemate in Poland. From June 1943 to December 1944, Russian forces slowly push towards the German border. Their assault is slowed by stiff German resistance.

In the Middle East, Judeo-Russian forces plow through North Africa, defeating Franco-Italian forces. They also occupy the Axis-aligned Kingdom of Egypt.

In Scandinavia, the Germans are driven out by Russian forces based in Finland. With Norway freed, the Allies gain access to the North Sea, setting the stage for the invasion of Britain the following year.

In the Mediterranean, Allied forces stage an invasion of Italy. Though the push towards Rome is vey difficult, by the end of the year Benito Mussolini has been captured and Italy has joined the Allies.

In the Pacific, the Russians began turning back the tide of Japanese expansion, with help from the Hawaiians. In addition, Russia contemplates liberating Korea from Japanese rule.

In Central Asia, the British are pushed back into India by Russian and Afghan forces.

1944

The de-cresendo of WWII.

The Americans land in Western France and begin the march towards Germany. Along the way, the Americans occupy France, Iberia, and the Low Countries.

The Russians make plans for the invasion of Britain. The Invasion-codenamed operation Canute, after the Scandinavian king who invanded England in the 11th century-commences in April. By the summer, Mosley's regime has been toppled and a pro-Allied government installed.

In Eastern Europe, Russo-Yugoslav forces invade Hungary and topple the pro-Axis regime. Romania and Bulgaria also joins the Allies, declaring war on Germany. Resistance by residual Nazi forces would continue for the remainder of the decade.

In the Pacific, all of Japan's conquered territory has been liberated, and the Allies are slowly closing in on the Japanese home islands. At the same time, anti-fascist Australians and anti-fascist New Zealanders stationed in Russian Philippines invade their homeland with the help of Russian and Hawaiian forces.

1945

The Allies finally breach Germany's borders in January. Hitler commits suicide on Apr.30, and Germany surrenders two weeks later. The victory against Germany is bittersweet. PM Trotsky, the architect of Russia's war effort, dies of a heart attack on Apr. 12 and is succeded by Lavrenty Beria. Germany is divided into Russian and American zones of occupation. As the depth of Nazi crimes against European Jewry is revealed, surviving Nazi officials are put on trial in Potsdam.

In the Pacific, Russia faces a dilemma. Although they are planning an invasion, they know that the Japanese taboo against surrender may result in a long, onerous occupation that could claim the lives of up to a million Russian soldiers. However, the Russians have an ace up their sleeve-the atomic bomb. The first glimpse of the new weapon happens at Novaya Zemlya, when the Russians stage a detonation. Czar Alexei decides that the atomic bomb will be the key to victory. On Aug. 2, the first A-bomb is dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The Japanese military leadership, however, publicly state their refusal to give in, even claiming to be developing their own superweapon. So the Russians drop another bomb on Nagasaki on August 5. At this point, Japanese Emperor Hirohito sees the futility of continuing the fight and sues for peace on Sept. 2. World War II is officially over. A new conflict lies on the horizon...

The results of WWII is that the pro-Allied British government under Clement Attlee agreed to pay reparations to Russia, France, USSA and Turkey for its actions. In addition, Australia and New Zealand are placed under Russo-Chinese occupation.

Germany on the other hand, is divided along the Elbe River into Russian and American occupational zones. The issue of reparations ends in an agreement that Germany will pay them once it's reunified.

The Cold War

Late 1945-1948

Signs of tension begin to show between the two Chief Allied Powers, the Russian Empire and the United Socialist States of America. The USSA refuses to release Canada. On top of that, it installs Communist governments in the Western European countries it occupies. The Russians view America as trying to force Communism on the world. The two sides dig their trenches, and the Cold War begins...

1949

The divided halves of Germany gain their independence. The eastern half, a continuation of the pre-war German Empire ruled by Ludwig, becomes know as East Germany. The western part becomes the Democratic People's Republic of Germany, ruled by a Communist government. The former capital of Berlin is divided, with the DVD controlling the west and the empire controlling the east. Germany becomes the focal of the power struggle between liberty and Communism. In addition, West Germans fleeing the Communist regime there head towards East Germany.

The USSA tests an atomic bomb on Ellesmere Island. The Russians first learn of America's "nuclear breakout" when Russian weather stations on the Arctic coast detect high amounts of radiation in the atmosphere. In response to America's challenge, Russia, Austria, Hungary, China, Britain, Yugoslavia, Albania, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Judea, Czechoslovakia and Turkey form the Eurasian Treaty Organization (ETO). The participant nations pledge to defend one another in case one of them is attacked.

Czar Alexei dies of a massive stroke. Because he left no male heirs, the male-only succession law is repealed, and his daughter Anna is crowned Czarina.

The British Empire-minus its former North American territories-restructures itself into the British Imperial Federation. The new superstate is created with the intention of giving Britain's colonies a greater say in how they are governed. Jawarhal Nehru of British India becomes the first Governor-General of the Federation.

Allied troops withdraw from Australia and New Zealand, who promptly join the Imperial Federation.

Italy falls to Communist revolution. The Italian Royal Family and Parliament retreat to Palermo, setting up a government encompassing Sicily, Sardinia, and the rest of Italy's maritime territories.

The French Royal Family, exiled from metropolitan France, set up a government in exile on the island of Reunion, known as the Kingdom of the French Free Territories. It establishes control over Madagascar and France's Pacific territories, while the French Communist government in Europe controls France's colonies in mainland Africa.

1950

Tatarstan gains autonomy.

When the Union of South Africa tries to pass apartheid laws, the BIF cracks down on it, dissolving the South African government and calling for new elections. The move is controversial, and starts debates about the power of the BIF over its members.

The first great challenge of the war comes in the summer of 1950. Korea, divided into a Communist South and democratic North, erupts in conflict when the South attempts to conquer the North. Fighting breaks out at the 38th Parallel dividing the countries.

In Southeast Asia, the Kingdom of Vietnam faces a Communist insurgency led by Ho Chi Minh, beginning the Vietnamese civil war.

1951

The North Korean government, losing ground against the South, requests the help of Russia. Czarina Anna II sends the Russian Army into the peninsula, pushing the South Koreans back towards the 38th Parallel. A stalemate ensues.

1953

The Treaty of Vladivostok brings the Korean War to an end on Jan. 16. In exchanged for its guaranteed independence, South Korea withdraws from its northern neighbor. The war is recognized as a triumph against Communism. Iosef Dzhugashvili dies and is replaced by Nikita Khrushchev as Governor General of the Philippines.

1954

Russia discretely places missiles in Colombia and Venezuela.

The Vietnamese Civil War comes to an end with the Treaty of Hue. Vietnam is divided between the Communists in the south and the Kingdom of Vietnam in the north. Laos and Cambodia are granted their independence.

1955

East Germany joins ETO. In response, the USSA and its European allies form the Amsterdam Pact as a rival organization.

1956

The Social Recovery Party, after 25 years in power, is defeated in Duma elections. The Russian National Party comes to power, and Georgi Zhukov-the former commander of the Allied Forces in Europe during WWII-replaces Beria as Prime Minister. Zhukov's foreign policy de-emphazises military confrontation as a means of containing Communism, instead focusing on diplomatic efforts to stave off Communist influence. Many observers describe this as "waging peace."

The Gromyko Plan, an economic recovery plan named after Andrei Gromyko the Russian Foreign Minister, goes into action as part of the Social Recovery Party promise.

1957

The Sinai Crisis erupts when Communists take over Egypt in March and threaten to seize the Sinai Peninsula from Russian Judea. Egypt is backed by the USSA. After a two-month standoff, which includes small skirmishes along the Egypt-Judea border, Egypt sees the futility of starting a war with Russia and backs down, much to the disappointment of American leaders.

The Russians launch the Sputnik satellite. The USSA reacts with shock, and the government-controlled American media tries to cover up the embarrassment by alleging that the satellite crashed before reaching space.

The French Communist government, viewing colonialism as an unacceptable legacy of pre-Communist France, prepares its African colonies for independence. Over the next decade, Francophone African countries will gain their independence with the same borders as in OTL. Many of these countries adopt Communist governments under the "urging" of France and the USSA. These countries will become another front in the Cold War.

The Turkic peoples of Central Asia each get their own autonomous territories - Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan.

1959

The Republic of Cyprus, having gained independence from Britain after WWII, falls to Communist revolution.

1961

Aleksander Solzhenitsyn is elected Prime Minister. He advocates a confrontational approach to fighting Communism. At home he promotes traditional Orthodox Christian morals as a counterpoint to Communist atheism.

In the USSA, president William Z. Foster dies. He leaves behind a legacy of incredible repression - 30 million Americans have died in the prison camps set up at Foster's behest. The ideals of democracy and liberty-concepts that were revered before the revolution-have been all but extinguished by Foster's reign of terror. Foster is succeeded by Richard Nixon. Nixon is less dictatorial than Foster, yet he leaves the Communist police-state apparatus in place, albeit in a slightly-scaled back form. Nixon also denounces Foster and his crimes in a secret Communist Party speech.

In Germany, a wall is built between the east and west sections of Berlin to stop the flow of refugees from West to East.

1962

The Cyrpriot Missile Crisis erupts in October when the USSA places missiles in on the island of Cyprus. The threat of an American nuclear strike on Russia looms. Czarina Anna II is able to negotiate an end to the crisis by having the USSA remove the missiles in exchange for Russia removing its own missiles from Colombia and Venezuela. The world breathes a sigh of relief.

1963

An attempt on PM Solzhenitsyn's life is made in Murmansk. Solzhenitsyn survives, but is left paralyzed from the chest down by a bullet wound to the upper back. Leonid Brezhnev, a member of the Russian Communist Party, is convicted of the attempted assassination and sentenced to life in prison. The episode causes a paroxysm of hysteria concerning Russian Communist activity, though it quickly fades.

1964

Joseph McCarthy, a former prisoner in the American prison camps who has been living in Britain since 1961, publishes Inescaplable Night, an account of his imprisonment. The book galvanizes anti-Communist sentiment in the ETO bloc.

1966

Konstantin Chernerko is elected Prime Minister of Russia. Already, there are controversies of his appointment as some conspiracy theorists suspect him of involvement in the attempt on Solzhenitsyn's life-the reason, being, of course, to whip up hysteria and seize power.

1967

The Vietnam War breaks out between the USSA-supported South Vietnam and Russian-supported North Vietnam over the incident in the Gulf of Tonkin. As a result, the Russians pour their troops into North Vietnam from Russia itself and Russian Philippines.

1968

The government of Belgium introduces a program of tentative liberalization. This liberalization, known as the "Brussels Spring," comes to an abrupt end when the USSA and other Amsterdam Pact forces invade and reinstate Communist hardliners. At the same time, anti-Vietnam War protesters take on the streets of the ETO nations.

1969

First standoff between USSA and Russian naval ships off the South China Sea, close to the Spratly Islands.

Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man from the Russian Empire to walk on the Moon.

1970-1975

Russia gradually scales back its involvement in the Vietnam War and starts to train the North Vietnamese Army. Unfortunately, the Viet Cong has already infiltrated North Vietnam and eventually conquers its northern neighbor, reunifying Vietnam under the Communist Saigon regime.

The Chernerko government and Czarina Anna II begin a detente with the American government, now lead by Hubert Humphrey. Relations are still somewhat tense, although the level of animosity seems to decrease.

Fyodor Markov (Ferdinand Marcos) places Russian Philippines under martial law due to Communist insurgencies at the request of Russian PM Konstantin Chernerko and Russian Secret Police Okhrana Chief Yuri Andropov.

1976

The Montreal Winter Olympics begin. Russia and USSA are close in the race for the amount of medals racked in.

1977

Czarina Anna II's son Sergei is murdered in Samarkand. The culprit turns out to be Sampurat Niyazov, a mentally disturbed man with an obsession with Turkmen nationalism who is known by his peers to call himself Turkmenbashi-father of all Turkmen.

1979

A civil war begins in Peru between the USSA-backed government and Russian backed rebels.

In Western Europe, the USSA and the Amsterdam Pact conduct a military exercise, "Seven Days to the River Elbe," simulating a war with Russia and the ETO.

1979-1989

The USSA with the help of Communist Iran invade Afghanistan, triggering the USSA-Afghan War. In response to the Afghan War, Russia and its allies boycott the Foster City Olympics. USSA and its allies would eventually boycott the 1984 Petrograd Olympics in retaliation. The USSA-Afghan war marks the end of detente. The USSA economy is in the stage of stagnation while the Russian economy is booming.

1981

After a decade and a half in power, Chernerko is defeated in parliamentary elections by Boris Yeltsin. Yeltsin pursues the fight against Communism with renewed vigor, promising to double Russia's military capabilities.

Fyodor Markov lifts national law in the Philippines.

1983

Czarina Anna II dies of a brain aneurysm at age 55. She is succeeded by her son Fyodor. In his coronation speech, Fyodor IV makes waves when he calls the USSA an "Evil Empire."

Russia and her ETO allies conduct a military exersise codenamed "Able Archer," to test the readiness of the Russian and ETO forces in the event of a war with the Amsterdam Pact. The exercise causes alarm in the USSA and Amsterdam Pact.

In the USSA, a nuclear war is nearly started on September 26 when a USSA satellite alerts a military installation near Washington of a nuclear launch by Russia. Fortunately, the officer in charge recognizes it as a false alarm, and nuclear holocaust is averted.

1985

Edward Kennedy becomes the President of the USSA after many other potential candidates died of old age. The Afghan War is increasingly unpopular with the world opinion, except for the USSA. In response, anti-Communist Islamic countries lend support to the Afghan rebels.

1986

Kennedy introduces openness and reformation, intending on reforming the already sluggish American economy. However, his reforms result in the unexpected nationalist sentiments in the Amsterdam Pact countries, most importantly in Cuba where the local nationalists pose danger to the Castro regime, and Iran where Islamic democrats and nationalists compete with the Communists for power.

Czar Fyodor IV mounts a powerful challenge to the USSA when he stands in front of the Berlin Wall and bellows "Mr. Kennedy, tear down this wall!"

The Communist government of Vietnam falls amid protests. The new regime implements a program of democratization called Doi Moi.

People Power Revolution in the Philippines is successful in deposing Fyodor Markov after new revelations of corruption and installing Mikhail Gorbachev as the acting Prime Minister. He would later turn over the Prime Minister role to Corazon Aquino.

1988

USSA and Communist Iran withdraws its troops from Afghanistan, ending the USSA-Afghan War. At the same time, anti-Communist Islamic Democrat Party of Iran comes to power amidst the Communist collapse

Fall of Communism

1989

The states within the USSA begins its disintegration. At the same time, the Amsterdam Pact dissolves and its former members are free from Communist influence as the Berlin Wall collapses, setting the stage for a reunified Germany under the new democratic government led by Kaiser Georg Friedrich and chancellor Helmuth Kohl. Mexico, Canada and the rest of the USSA-occupied territories are granted independence.

1990

Soon after leaving the USSA, Canada joins the British Imperial Federation. Australia and New Zealand also join, marking the reunion of the old British Empire.

1991

The USSA collapses, leaving behind seven independent nations. The Greater Californian Republic seceedes on August 1991, following the Washington, DC attempted coup. The Republic of Texas seceedes, followed by the Confederate States of America, Great Plains Federation, Federal States of America, Republic of New England, and the Virginia Republic. In addition, Alaska is re-occupied and re-annexed by Russia after a referendum.

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