|Great Empire of Brazil|
Grande Império do Brasil
Dark Brazilian Empire in the 1980s
|Capital||Rio de Janeiro|
|Government||Constitutional monarchy (1957-1962)|
Absolute monarchy (1962-1991)
|Emperor||D. Pedro III (1957-1981)|
D. Luís I (1981-1991)
|Population||280 million (1980)|
The Dark Brazilian Empire (Império Brasileiro das Trevas), officially the Great Empire of Brazil (Grande Império do Brasil) was the authoritarian state that ruled Brazil from its establishment in 1957 until its dissolution in 1991.
The fall of republican movements in the First Empire (before 1947)
The first point of divergence is in 1889, the year a coup d'etat led by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca would overthrow the ruling Empire and establish a republic in Brazil. Many were the reasons that led the Empire to fall, but a main one wasthe Emperor himself: in his last days, Pedro II suffered a lack of enthusiasm and will to rule, and did not want to see the monarchic institution continue in Brazil. But in this scenario, things go with the opposite wind: the Emperor feels inspired again and unites all his forces to quell the republican rebellion, which ends up failing. Deodoro da Fonseca, who would become Brazil's first president, is instead jailed for five years. Brazil never becomes a republic; it remains a constitutional monarchy and the imperial lineage continues. After his death in 1901, the Emperor is succeded by his daughter Isabel, who is in turn succeded by her son Pedro III in 1921.
The Empire fights as a minor combatant with Allied forces in World Wars I and II.
Early Cold War period (1947-1962)
At the onset of the Cold War, Brazil remains neutral, officially supporting neither the United States nor the Soviet Union. However, political movements supporting the creation of a socialist republic in the country become widely popular in the late 1940s. This culminates with successive attempts of overthrowing the Empire in the 1950s. These included some violent demonstrations and an attempted assasination of the Emperor in 1955. Although all these attempts ultimately fail, they sparkle international attention.
Fearing the formation of a influential socialist state in South America, the United States, along with some West European countries, foment a rebellion to transform the Empire into an anti-communist regime. Spies disguised as diplomats infiltrate in both the royal meetings and the parliament, causing a crisis in the latter and convincing the Emperor that the country needs strict control. With a broken parliament unable to deal with politics, a brainwashed Pedro III, now sickly and megalomaniac, claims to be the sole legislator of Brazil and commands his troops to take over the building. A pro-US absolute monarchy is born.
The Emperor's coup is faced with strong resistance. Heavy-armed socialist guerrillas emerge all across the country to fight the Empire. This leads to civil war, which lasted for the four remaining years. The war ends with the Empire's victory. All political parties are banned and Pedro's absolute monarchy is officialized in 1962. The Dark Brazilian Empire is born. The new Empire punishes socialist apology with death, and strictly controls the media. Militarism is also greatly emphasized. In the 1970s and 80s, the megalomaniac Emperor begins an expanding campaign aiming to conquer countries in Latin America and Africa.
The beginning of the new empire (1962-1972)
With the establishment of the absolute monarchy in 1962, the Great Empire of Brazil becomes an internationally recognized nation. A new, reformulated constitution written by the Emperor himself is created. The country's national symbols are replaced with a new flag, coat of arms and anthem. Brazil becomes the leading capitalist country in Latin America, and is supported by the United States and Western Europe. In contrast, all neighboring countries of Brazil are politically dominated by socialist parties and follow an ideology called Pan-Bolivarianism. Pan-Bolivarianism aims to turn Spanish-speaking America into a large communist block similar to Eastern Europe. This leads to some immigration to Brazil by other South American countries.
In the 1960s, many national companies are born in Brazil. They spread to neighboring countries and quickly become popular, increasing the Brazilian economical influence in the region. The widespread presence of Brazilian companies in these Pan-Bolivarian countries also turn its citizens supportive of Brazil and capitalism. This leads to popular upheavals against their socialist governments in 1970. Many of them succeed in overthrowing their governments, particularly in Central and South American countries. But in the rest of Latin American countries, socialist ideas are reinforced and many private companies are concealed by the government. A 1972 meeting of First World leaders, of which Pedro III participates, decides that Brazil must assume a hegemonic role in Latin America and, if the circumstances make it feasable, the remaining socialist governments must be conquered militarily.
As a result, an agreement is signed between Brazil and its supporters in South America: Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Guyana and Suriname. Now a strongly militarized country, Brazil agrees to defend its close allies of both civil and external threats.
In 1971, Pedro III declares that Brazil is able to unite different peoples under capitalism in the same way the Soviet Union does under communism. Inspired by the Soviet model, he proposes to the allies that their countries be effectively annexed by Brazil. A plebiscite for a unification is then held in these countries. Despite some considerable opposition, most of voters, who still feared the violent socialist upheavals, choose yes. This union strengthens capitalism in South America even more and leads the Dark Brazilian Empire to a new era of prosperity and expansion.
The expansion of the Empire (1972-1981)
In 1972, nations all over Latin America fall under socialist regimes. According to the already-devised plan, the powerful Great Empire of Brazil, under Pedro III, initiates military action against three of them. Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador, the socialist alliance, are invaded and turned into colonies in a bloody conflict known as the Amazonia War.
Life standards in the colonies was inferior to life in the central Empire. In 1973, speaking against the Empire or in favor of socialism in public led to capital punishment. Citizens of the colonies also did not have labor rights. The Empire grows even larger after it colonizes Central America and the Caribbean in 1977 and Africa in 1981. D. Pedro III dies shortly after this last conflict, leaving the throne to his successor, D. Luís I, who drastically changed the country's laws.
D. Luís I government (1981-1991)
After the coronation of the new emperor D. Luís I in 1981, the Empire's policies are severely changed. A supporter of freedom, D. Luís I uses his absolutist powers to decrease the stringency of authoritarian laws and give autonomy to all colonies. Nobody is anymore punished for supporting anti-government views, and citizens in colonies now have the same rights as citizens in the central Empire. This makes the Emperor's popularity reach high levels in all provinces, as opposed to his feared predecessor. The United States, however, fiercely oppose the new reign. Alleging that the Emperor is secretly a supporter of socialism and wants left-wing movements to rise again in the country, President Reagan cuts relations with Brazil in 1982.
Despite the increased freedom, democracy is virtually inexistent as the people do not directly take part in any political decision and political parties are still banned by law. These are things the Emperor is not able to change and wouldn't do so even if he was, since he firmly believed that a full democracy with multiple parties being created again would eventually lead to collapse. As a result, the following years are marked with the emergence of different ideological groups envisioning the country's future. This includes supporters of a democratization of the Empire, supporters of a republic and even again supporters of a socialist state. Due to the recent diplomatic cut with the US, some Anti-American sentiment also develops.
In 1985, with the Perestroika and wide global distrustness of communist influence, left-wing movements in Brazil who intended to create the country's first political party come to an end. The remaining ideological groups converge into a single one, which is decided to end the empire and bring democracy again.
Following the fall of the Soviet Union, millions of Brazilians take to the streets of Rio de Janeiro and ultimately overthrow the Empire, establishing a democratic republic.