|Great Empire of Brazil|
Grande Império do Brasil
Dark Brazilian Empire in 1980s
|Capital||Rio de Janeiro|
|Government||Constitutional monarchy (1957-1962)|
Absolute monarchy (1962-1991)
|Emperor||D. Pedro III (1957-1981)|
D. Luís I (1981-1991)
|Population||280 million (1980)|
The Dark Brazilian Empire (Império Brasileiro das Trevas), officially Great Empire of Brazil (Grande Império do Brasil) was the state established in 1957 through a coup and abolished in 1991 through a popular revolution.
The fall of republican movements in the First Empire (before 1947)
In 1889, the coup led by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca that would proclaim the first Brazilian republic fails. Deodoro and his army are arrested for improper manifests and attempts to overthrow the monarchy. Emperor D. Pedro II dies and is succeeded by D. Isabel I (who reigned from 1901 to 1921) and by D. Pedro III (who reigned from 1921). Brazil plays the role of a major combatant in World Wars I and II, fighting respectively in the Entente and Ally sides.
Early Cold War period (1947-1962)
In 1947, after the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, Brazil remains initially a neutral country. During the 1940s and 1950s, there were many socialist-republican movements in Brazil that were supported by the Soviet Union.
The United States and some other European countries send spies to Brazil to prevent the success of these movements. In 1956 there are many political protests for installing an absolute monarchy in Brazil, supported by capitalist countries, in contrast with the republican-socialist movements.
A rigid dictatorship is established in Brazil in 1957, during the reign of D. Pedro III (Pedro Henrique de Órleans e Bragança) and the government of Prime Minister Luís Augusto da Silva, Marquis of Salvador. Its laws capitally punished all socialist movements. Because of this, a civil war between the socialist-republicans and the monarchist government takes place in that same year. This conflict ends in 1962 with the destruction of the parliament and the establishment of an absolute monarchy.
The beginning of the new empire (1962-1972)
After the beginning of the absolute monarchy in 1962, the Great Empire of Brazil became an official international recognized nation. A new reformulated constitution is proclaimed also in 1962. Brazil becomes the leading capitalist country in Latin America, supported by the United States and Western Europe. Nevertheless, all neighboring countries of Brazil become dominated by socialist parties which were about to transform the remaining Latin America into a large communist region, similar to Eastern Europe. At that time there were many illegal immigrants in Brazil from neighboring countries convicted for not paying the required taxes for the trip. During 1960s, many national companies were born in Brazil. They spread to neighboring countries and quickly became popular, increasing the number of capitalism supporters in these countries. In 1971 there were several upheavals in these countries to overthrow the socialist parties. Many of them succeeded, particularly in Central and South America countries. But in the rest of Latin America, socialist ideas were reinforced and many private companies had been taken by the state. After a meeting between First World coalition leaders (including Brazil) in 1972, it was decided that the socialist countries should be taken by military intervention. Thus, the remaining capitalist countries of South America (Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Guyana and Suriname) annexed to Brazil as main territories. This union strengthens capitalism in South America and leads the Dark Brazilian Empire to a new era of prosperity and expansion.
The expansion of the Empire (1972-1981)
In 1972, the Great Empire of Brazil invades the socialist rebel countries in South America (Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador) and turns them into colonies. Millions of people are killed in a war that takes place between Brazil and these countries. Life in the colonies was very different from life in the Central Empire. In 1973, defaming the empire in public led to capital punishment. Citizens of the colonies do not have worker rights. The Empire grows even larger with Central America and Caribbean Colonization in 1977 and Africa in 1981. D. Pedro III dies shortly after this last conflict giving the throne to his successor, D. Luís I, who drastically changed the country's laws.
D. Luís I government (1981-1991)
When D. Luís I takes the throne in 1981, he decreases the stringency of national laws, stops the expansion of the empire and democratizes all colonies. This makes him a much-loved Emperor by all provinces. The United States do not approve the democratization of the colonies, due to its alleged influence of socialism, and cut public relations with Brazil in 1982. During this decade, Brazilian colonies became closer to the Central Empire. After Perestroika in 1985, all remaining Republican Socialists began to organize movements for the restoration of the republic. Despite the good government of D. Luís I, there was still lack of freedom. After the fall of the Soviet Union, millions of Brazilians ran the streets of Rio de Janeiro and overthrow the Empire, then instituting a democratic republic.