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The Darien War was a conflict between the Scottish and Spanish Empires in Central America over control of New Caledonia. The Scottish had established the colony in 1699, on land which the Spanish still claimed. Due to poor supplies, the Scottish settlers found it difficult to defend their colony, and it was completely abandoned in 1704.
However, in 1709, the Scottish attempted to re-settle the area; which caused the War to start up again. The Scottish brokered an alliance with Italy, with the condition that Italy would provide support to the area, in return for getting control of the Ithsmus of Panama (which later became Nuova Sicilia). Scotland, with the support and extra manpower of Italy, quickly took control of the area; and in 1710, a Treaty with Spain was signed, giving New Caledonia to Scotland and Nuova Sicilia to Italy.