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Czechoslovak federal election, 1946
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg
Previous election
1935 ← 
Next election
 → 1950

All 300 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
151 seats needed for a majority
All 150 seats to the Chamber of Nations
24–25 May 1946
First party Second party
Václav Majer Josef Černý
Leader Václav Majer Josef Černý
Party ČSSD RS
Last election 38 seats, 12.55% 45 seats, 14.3%
Seats won
101 / 300
70 / 300
Seat change 63 seats 25 seats
Popular vote 2,349,411 1,631,984
Percentage 33.20% 23.06%
Swing 20.65% 8.76%
Czechoslovak federal election map 1946 (WFAC)
Winning party by district (Red: ČSSD, Green: RS, Dark Red: Communist, Yellow: ČSL, Blue: SĽS, Pink: ČSNS)
Incumbent Prime Minister
Jan Šrámek
ČSL
Prime Minister-elect
Václav Majer
ČSSD

Federal elections were held in Czechoslovakia on 25 and 26 May 1946, the first following World War II and the end of the German occupation. It was also the first election held under the new federal constitution of 25 April 1946. All 300 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and all 150 seats Chamber of Nations were up for election, with MPs elected by party-list proportional representation and senators elected by first-past-the-post voting.

The Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party emerged as the largest party, winning 101 of the 300 seats with 33.20% of the vote. This was the best performance for a Czechoslovak party up to that time; previously no Czechoslovak party had ever won more than 25 percent of the vote. Voter turnout was 93.8%. The Social Democratic chairman Václav Majer formed a cabinet of national unity together with the other parties of the National Front of Czechs and Slovaks: the Republican Party (RS), the Czechoslovak People's Party (ČSL), the Slovak People's Party (SĽS), the Czechoslovak National Social Party (ČSNS), and the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ).

Background

After World War II a 300-member interim National Assembly was formed and met for the first time on 28 October 1945. A new federal constitution was adopted by the interim National Assembly on 25 April 1946 and replaced the constitution adopted on 29 February 1920.

The Assembly also created a new electoral system with the country divided into 14 multi-member constituencies. The voting age was lowered to 18, but only Czechs, Slovaks and other Slavs could register to vote.

Results

Chamber of Deputies


Summary of the 24–25 May 1946 Federal Council of Czechoslovakia election results
ČSFR Federal Chamber of Deputies election 1946 (WFAC)
Parties Leaders Votes  % Seats ±
Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party (Československá strana sociálně demokratická) (ČSSD) Václav Majer 2,349,411 33.20% 101 63
Republican Party (Republikánská strana) (RS) Josef Černý 1,631,984 23.06% 70 25
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Komunistická strana Československa) (KSČ) Klement Gottwald 1,131,212 15.99% 48 18
Czechoslovak People's Party (Československá strana lidová) (ČSL) Jan Šrámek 739,392 10.45% 32 10
Czechoslovak National Social Party (Československá strana národně sociální) (ČSNS) Petr Zenkl 627,302 9.50% 27 1
Slovak People's Party (Slovenská ľudová strana) (SĽS) Jozef Tiso 495,027 7.30% 22 2
Blank or invalid votes 35,326
Total (Turnout: 93.0% – electorate: 7,560,608) 7,031,006 100.0% 300
Turnout in the Czech Federative Republic – electorate: 5,744,355 5,388,205 93.8%
Turnout in the Slovak Federative Republic – electorate: 1,816,253 1,642,801 90.45%
Popular Vote
ČSSD
  
33.2%
RS
  
23.06%
KSČ
  
15.99%
ČSL
  
10.45%
ČSNS
  
9.5%
SĽS
  
7.3%


48 101 27 32 22 70
KSČ ČSSD ČSNS ČSL SĽS RS

Results by state

Flag of the Czech Federal Republic (MGS).svg Czechia Slovakia Slovakia
#  % #  %
ČSSD 1,854,384 34.56% 495,027 30.37%
RS 1,256,109 23,41% 375,875 23.06%
ČSL 728,258 13.5% 739,392 13,78%
SĽS N/A N/A 516,380 31.68%
KSČ 992,899 17.20% 208,312 12.78%
ČSNS 592,909 11.05% 34,393 2.11%
Blank or invalid votes 22,512 0.42% 12,814 0.78%

Chamber of Nations


Summary of the 24–25 May 1946 Chamber of Nations election results
ČSFR Federal Chamber of Nations election 1946 (WFAC)
Parties Votes  % of votes Seats
Flag of the Czech Federal Republic (MGS).svg Czechia
Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party (Československá strana sociálně demokratická) (ČSSD) 1,673,231 35.10% 30
Republican Party (Republikánská strana') (RS) 1,193,190 25.03% 21
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Komunistická strana Československa) (KSČ) 745,565 15.64% 11
Czechoslovak People's Party (Československá strana lidová) (ČSL) 595,880 12.50% 10
Czechoslovak National Social Party (Československá strana národně sociální) (ČSNS) 559,174 11.73% 3
Invalid or blank votes 22,030 0,46% N/A
Total in the Czech Federative Republic (Turnout: 83.37% – electorate: 5,744,355) 4,789,069 100.00% 75
Slovakia Slovakia
Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party (Československá strana sociálně demokratická) (ČSSD) 469,811 32,51% 29
Slovak People's Party (Slovenská ľudová strana) (SĽS) 416,341 28,81% 20
Republican Party (Republikánská strana') (RS) 346,831 24,00% 17
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Komunistická strana Československa) (KSČ) 191,624 13,26% 9
Czechoslovak National Social Party (Československá strana národně sociální) (ČSNS) 20,521 1.42% 0
Invalid or blank votes 11,507 0,79% N/A
Total in the Slovak Federative Republic (Turnout: 80,2% – electorate: 1,816,253) 1,456,635 100.00% 75


Total (Turnout: 82,61% – electorate: 7,560,608) 6,245,704 100.0% 150

See also


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