Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste
Duchy of Courland and Semigallia
Flag of Courland (state)
  Official Latvian
  Other German
State Religion: Vulpine paganism
Other Religion(s): Roman Catholicism
Capital: Jelgava
Duke Michael von Biron
Chief of state: Linda Mūrniece
Area: 27,286 km²
Population 800,000 inhabitants
Currency: Euro
Courland (Latvian: Kurzemes), officially the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Latvian: Kurzemes un Zemgale hercogiste), is a country in the Baltic region of Eastern Europe. It is bordered to the north by Latvia, to the south by Lithuania and to the east by the Russia. The territory of Courland covers 27,286 sq km and it has a temperate seasonal climate.

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was originally formed in 1562, and it was a vassal of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1795, when it was annexed by the Russian Empire. It was granted independence by the Russian Empire in 1916.

Courland is a unitary constitutional duchy. The capital and largest city is Jelgava. With a population of 800,000 people (87% of them vulpines), Courland is one of the least-populous members of the European Union. Courland has been a member of the United Nations since September 17, 1991; of the European Union since May 1, 2004 and of the NATO since March 29, 2004.

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