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Constitution of the Danubian Federation (A Federation of Equals)

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DanubianFederationFoESeal

We, the People of the Free States of Europe, in memory of the sacrifices made to establish this nation, and in pursuit of this glorious spirit of the protection of the natural liberty and freedom of this land, and in order to form a more perfect union, and in the hope of creating a federation of equals, do hereby proclaim the Republic of the Federated States of the Danube, and establish this constitution as the basic law of our nation, and reject and revoke all constitutions and laws in conflict herewith.

Part 1 – The Foundation of the State

Article 1
The Danubian Federation is a federal, democratic republic founded on the ideals of liberty, equality, unity, and justice, whose legitimacy and sovereignty derive from the will of the people.

Article 2
The Federation is a federal state made up of constituent states.

Article 3
The Head of State of the Danubian Federation and the Head of Government of the Danubian Federation shall both be invested in the President of the Danubian Federation.

Article 4
The parliament of the Danubian Federation shall be the Danubian Congress, which shall be the main legislative body.

Article 5
The federal government is supreme and sovereign, and its authority supersedes that of state governments.

Article 6
The Federation is an officially secular state and has no state church or religion.

Article 7
The capital of the Danubian Federation shall be Vienna.

Article 8
All legislation passed under the First Constitution of the Danubian Federation shall remain in force, unless directly contradicted by the text of this document

Part 2 – The Citizens of the Federation

Citizenship

Article 1
All people born within the Danubian Federation and its constituent states and territories are citizens of the Danubian Federation.

Article 2
All people with at least one parent who is a Danubian citizen may claim Danubian citizenship.

Article 3
All people legally residing within the Federation for a period of five years or more may claim Danubian citizenship.

  1. This period is shortened to one year for recognised claimants of asylum and people married to a Danubian spouse.

Article 4
Should a new state be admitted into or a new territory acquired by the Federation, all people born there and all permanent residents thereof as well as any other citizens of that state will automatically become citizens of the Danubian Federation.

Article 5
No one may be arbitrarily deprived of their Danubian citizenship.

Article 6
All citizens of the Federation are equal before the law, which is an expression of their will, whence the legitimacy of the Government emanates, and have the same rights, dependent upon the status of the territory in which they live.

Article 7
The franchise of the Danubian Federation is to include all male citizens over twenty-one (21) years of age.

The Freedom of Religion

Article 8
Any citizen of either the Federation or one of the constituent States may believe any religion of their choosing.

Article 9
The Right to preach, convert, and build religious artefacts and temples to said religions are inalienable.

Article 10
The Federation and its constituent states shall neither promote nor denigrate specific religions and religious establishments.

The Charter of Rights of the Citizen

Article 11
All citizens of the Federation have the following enumerated and inalienable rights:

  1. to speak, assemble, and express themselves freely and peaceably;
  2. to practice any religion and to worship freely;
  3. to speak their own language and have their own culture;
  4. to secrecy and confidentiality of communication and correspondence;
  5. to move within and between the States of the Federation, and between the Federation and other Countries, without let or hindrance;
  6. to settle wherever they please;
  7. to acquire property and gainful employment;
  8. to access and participate in a free press;
  9. to be free and secure from arbitrary searches and seizures of their property, and from arbitrary detention;
  10. to be free from torture;
  11. to be free from serfdom and slavery;
  12. to be judged in a free and fair trial by a jury of their peers when accused of a criminal offense;
  13. to be considered innocent until proven guilty in such a trial;
  14. to receive legal representation in such a trial and to have it provided by the state if they are personally unable to afford it;
  15. to receive free public education from the state;
  16. to receive benefits, subsidies, and welfare from the state as necessary to preserve their dignity and quality of life;
  17. to be represented in government and to vote in elections in their State and Federally;
  18. to select their form of State and Government in accordance with the Constitution.

Article 12
Neither the Federation nor the States shall pass any law nor enforce any policy infringing upon these rights.

Article 13
The rights of citizens are not necessarily limited to those listed in the Constitution, and citizens may not be deprived of rights solely by virtue of their absence from the Constitution.

Part 3 – The President of the Danubian Federation

Article 1
The President of the Danubian Federation is the head of state, head of government, and chief executive of the Danubian Federation, and the highest representative of the Danubian people.

Article 2
The President of the Danubian Federation shall be elected democratically.

Article 3
The President and the Vice President shall be elected by a simple majority of all ballots cast by eligible voters.

  1. In case of failure of any candidate to gain a simple majority, a run off shall be held between the two (2) candidates that got the largest segment of the first vote.
  2. If before a run-off election is conducted a coalition is formed and the coalition itself achieves more than fifty (50) percent of the vote, then the run-off election will be deemed unnecessary.
  3. The President's mandate is to be approved by a vote in the Congress of the Danube.

Article 4
Any adult male who is an enfranchised citizen is eligible to be elected President.

Article 5
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once.

The Powers of the President

Article 6
The President is the commander-in-chief of the Danubian Military, and during times of war he also has the power to oversee the state militias and request that they be placed under federal authority. He is also responsible for directing foreign policy.

Article 7
The President is responsible for appointing and overseeing the ministers of the Cabinet. He is also responsible for appointing federal judges (excluding the justices of the Supreme Court), ambassadors to foreign nations, and other important federal offices. Presidential appointments may be blocked by a vote of two-thirds of the upper house of Congress.

Article 8
The President has the responsibility and power to ensure that the laws and Constitution of the Federation are implemented and executed, and to oversee the functions of the government and administration.

Article 9
The President has the power to pardon those convicted of federal crimes, except in cases of impeachment.

Article 10
The President has the power to veto any piece of legislation passed by Congress. Congress can override the President's veto by a vote of two-thirds of both houses.

The State of Disorder

Article 11
If the President is faced by a fortified antagonism against the Federation, its constituent States and their collective public institutions, and where such antagonism is so extraordinarily hostile as to inhibit the function and business of State and Government, he may, after consultation with the Chief of the General Staff and the Minister of War, declare a state of Disorder to be in effect in the Federation and thus invoke all the necessary methods of national defence in order to maintain the Federation against the unlawful opposition.

Article 12
The President must immediately notify the Federal Congress of this action by every available means.

Article 13
Any state of Disorder exceeding fourteen days must be re-authorised by the Congress with a two-thirds majority of both chambers.

Article 14
Failing this, the state of Disorder shall elapse and all ordinances and statutes made thereof shall be rendered null and void.

Article 15
Consecutive states of Disorder within the fourteen day threshold shall be inadmissible, unless approval of such is made by the Congress with the same majority of two-thirds.

Article 16
The Federal Congress may not be dissolved during the state of Disorder.

The Succession of the President

Article 17
The President can be removed from office by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress.

Article 18
If the President dies in office, is removed, or is otherwise unable to perform his duties, then the Vice President shall assume the office of President for the remainder of the term.

Article 19
If both the President and the Vice President are unable to perform presidential duties then the next person in the line of succession shall assume the office of President, and so on in that manner.

Article 20
The President is an equal citizen of Danubia and does not have sovereign immunity. He can be prosecuted for criminal offenses and shall be removed from office if convicted of a high crime.

Part 4 – The Danubian Congress

Article 1
The Danubian Congress is to be democratically elected by every citizen of the Federation, to represent and fulfil the will of the Danubian people.

Article 2
The Danubian Congress shall be a bicameral legislature.

The National Assembly

Article 3
The lower house of the Danubian Congress shall be called the National Assembly.

Article 4
Members of the National Assembly shall be called Deputies.

Article 5
Deputies shall be at least 25 years of age at the time of their swearing in and shall have been resident of the state they serve for no less than five years.

Article 6
Deputies shall serve two year terms upon election.

Article 7
Deputies shall be elected to serve constituencies which shall be assigned to states based on population, with one deputy to every 30,000 persons, and each state shall have at least one. A limit on the number of deputies can be set by the Danubian Congress. The boundaries of these constituencies shall be determined by an independent body and ratified by both the Supreme Court and the Congress. They shall be reassigned every 10 years in the wake of a census.

Article 8
All Deputies shall be elected concurrently, in every year containing a Presidential Election and the year two years after each Presidential Election.

Article 9
Deputies shall be elected upon the following system:

  1. All candidates for a constituency are to be placed upon one ballot.
  2. Electors are to rank as many or as few candidates as they wish in order of preference.
  3. Ballots are initially distributed based on each elector's first preference.
  4. If a candidate secures more than half of votes cast, that candidate is elected.
  5. Otherwise, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated. Ballots assigned to the eliminated candidate are recounted and assigned to those of the remaining candidates who rank next in order of preference on each ballot.
  6. This process continues until one candidate is elected by obtaining more than half the votes.
The Federal Council

Article 10
The upper house of the Danubian Congress shall be called the Federal Council.

Article 11
Members of the Federal Council shall be called Councillors.

Article 12
Councillors shall be at least 30 years of age at the time of their swearing in and shall have been resident of the state they serve for no less than five years.

Article 13
Councillors shall serve four year terms upon election.

Article 14
Each state shall have 4 Councillors. No constitutional amendment may deprive any state of its equal representation in the Council without that state’s consent.

Article 15
Two Councillors from each state shall be elected in the same year as the President and two Councillors from each state shall be elected in the year two years after each Presidential Election.

Article 16
Councillors shall be elected upon the following system:

  1. All candidates for a state are to be placed upon one ballot.
  2. Electors are to rank as many or as few candidates as they wish in order of preference.
  3. To be elected, each candidate must gain sufficient votes to fulfill a quota equal to one plus one third of the total number of valid votes cast in that state.
  4. A candidate who has reached or exceeded the quota is declared elected.
  5. If a candidate has more votes than the quota, surplus votes are transferred to other candidates. Votes that would have gone to the winner go to the next preference. To ensure fairness, surplus votes shall be taken at random from the population of votes for an elected candidate.
  6. If no further candidates meet the quota, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated and those votes are transferred. Votes that would have gone to the eliminated candidate go to the next preference.
  7. This process repeats until either a winner is found for every seat or there are as many seats as remaining candidates.
Powers of the Congress

Article 17
The Danubian Congress shall have the following powers:

  1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the Danubian Federation; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the Danubian Federation;
  2. To borrow money on the credit of the Danubian Federation;
  3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states
  4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the Danubian Federation;
  5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;
  6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the Danubian Federation;
  7. To establish post offices and post roads;
  8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;
  9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;
  10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;
  11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;
  12. To raise and support armies;
  13. To provide and maintain a navy;
  14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;
  15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Federation, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;
  16. To control, legitimate and dismiss the main Executive bodies (e.g. the Government; the President of the Danubian Federation).
  17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the Danubian Federation, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Article 18
All Executive bodies are to be responsible to the legislature and the Danubian people, and can be dismissed at any moment by a vote of the Danubian Congress.

The Procedure of the Federal Congress

Article 19
Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members.

Article 20
A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may meet from day to day, and shall be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members.

Article 21
Each House may determine the rules of its own proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behaviour and, with the concurrence of two thirds of the House, expel a member.

Article 22
Each House shall keep a record of its proceedings, which shall be published at least once a month, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy. The vote of all members of the House on a particular issue shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered in the record.

Article 23
Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days nor meet in any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Article 24
Deputies and Councillors shall receive due payment for their work from the Treasury of the Danubian Federation, to be laid out by law.

Article 25
Neither Deputies nor Councillors shall be allowed to hold a post within the Government, Judiciary or Military of the Danubian Federation or one of its constituent states, or be in the pay or employ of foreign powers, or hold more than one seat within the Congress of the Danubian Federation or any seat within the legislatures of one of its constituent states.

Requirements upon the States

Article 26
No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but the coin of the Danubian Federation a tender in payment of debts; or pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law or law impairing the obligation of contracts.

Article 27
No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws: and the net earnings of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the Danubian Federation; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

Article 28
No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops (not including militia) or warships in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

Part 5 – The Judiciary

Entrenchment Clause

Article 1
The Federation is a lawful state emanating from the Constitution. Therefore, the legislature, the executive and the judiciary are bound by the law. The judicial authority is vested in the judges; it shall be carried out by the Supreme Court of the Federation, the high courts and district courts of the States of the Federation. No institutional body of the Federation shall alter, amend or revoke this article.

Judicial Hierarchy

Article 2
In descending order of authority, the judicial hierarchy within the Federation is to be as follows: the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the Federal Courts, the District Courts. The Supreme Court shall serve as the ultimate judicial authority within the Federation.

Supreme Court

Article 3
To safeguard the constitutional order, the Supreme Court of the Federation is established.

Article 4
The Supreme Court is a bicameral body, composed of two Senates:

  1. the Federal Constitutional Court;
  2. the Federal Criminal Court.

Article 5
The judges of the Supreme Court are selected by a committee for the selection of judges within the judicial system.

Article 6
The Supreme Court is composed of a president, two vice-presidents and ten general members.

Article 7
The composition of the Supreme Court and its procedure will be regulated by the Constitution.

Federal Criminal Court

Article 8
The Federal Criminal Court shall act to preserve the uniformity of application of Federal law.

Article 9
The Federal Criminal Court decides cases in which the decision is of fundamental importance for the uniformity of the administration of justice by the Federal and State courts.

Article 10
In respect of criminal proceedings, the Federal Criminal Court shall exercise federal jurisdiction.

Article 11
The highest court of justice for appeals from the high and district courts shall be the Federal Criminal Court.

Article 12
The Federation may establish military criminal courts for the Armed Forces as federal courts. They may only exercise criminal jurisdiction while a state of war exists, and otherwise only over members of the Armed Forces serving abroad or on board warships. Details shall be regulated by federal statute. These courts shall be within the competence of the Federal Criminal Court. Their full-time judges shall be persons qualified to hold judicial office.

Article 13
The Federal Criminal Court shall pursue disciplinary proceedings against persons in the federal public service.

Article 14
In cases involving the Ambassadors, Ministers and Consuls of other Countries, the Federal Criminal Court shall hold original jurisdiction.

Article 15
Sessions of the Court shall be public, unless this should jeopardise public order or morals, in which case the court deems them confidential; the ruling shall still be issued openly.

Federal Constitutional Court

Article 16
The Federal Constitutional Court decides:

1. on the interpretation of the Constitution in the event of disputes concerning the extent of the rights and duties of a Federal institution or of other parties concerned who have been endowed with independent rights by the Constitution or by rules of procedure of a Federal institution;

2. in case of differences of opinion or doubts on the formal and material compatibility of Federal law or State law with the Constitution, or on the compatibility of State law with other Federal law, at the request of the Federal Government, of a State government or of Congress;

3. in case of differences of opinion on the rights and duties of the Federation and the States, particularly in the execution of Federal law by the States and in the exercise of Federal supervision;

4. on other disputes of public law between the Federation and the States, between different States, within a State or between the Federation and another Country;

    1. on complaints of unconstitutionality, which may be entered by any person who claims that one of their basic rights under the Bill of Rights or the Fundamental Principles has been violated by public authority;
    2. on complaints of unconstitutionality entered by the States that their right to self-government under the Federal Supremacy Clause and the Fundamental Principles is undermined;

5. in the other cases provided for in the Constitution.

Article 17
If allegations of impeachment based on malfeasance of public office are entered against the executive by the legislature, then the Federal Constitution Court shall determine the proceedings.

Article 18
The decision on constitutional disputes within a State shall be assigned to the Federal Constitutional Court, and the Federal Constitutional Court shall reserve decision of last instance in matters involving the application of State and Federal law.

Article 19
Where a court considers a Federal law unconstitutional, the validity of which is relevant to its decision, the proceedings shall be stayed, and a decision shall be obtained from the Federal Constitutional Court. This also applies if the matter concerns the violation of the Constitution by State law or the incompatibility of a State law with a Federal law.

  1. Where the inferior court, in interpreting the Constitution, intends to deviate from a decision of the Federal Constitutional Court, it must obtain the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court.

Article 20
The Federal Constitutional Court shall also act in such cases as are otherwise assigned to it by Federal law.

Article 21
Sessions of the Court shall be public, unless this should jeopardise public order or morals, in which case the court deems them confidential; the ruling shall still be issued openly.

Status of Judges

Article 22
Judges shall be independent, shall have fixity of tenure, shall be accountable for their acts and subject only to the rule of law.

Article 23
No judge may accept a salaried role on behalf of a government, unless this role is exercised free of charge and without violation of the system of incompatibilities determined by law.

Article 24
The judges, whilst vested with office, may not hold other public office nor belong to political parties or associations.

Article 25
Judges appointed permanently on a full time basis to an established post can, against their will, be dismissed, suspended, transferred or retired only under authority of a judicial decision and only on grounds and in the form provided by law.

Article 26
In the event of changes in the structure of the courts or their areas of jurisdiction, judges may be transferred to another court or removed from their office, provided they retain their full salary.

Article 27
If a Federal judge, in his official capacity or unofficially, infringes upon the Constitution or the constitutional order of a State, the Federal Constitutional Court may decide by a two-thirds majority that the judge be transferred to another office or placed on the retired list. In a case of an intentional infringement, his dismissal may be ordered based on the same requirements.

Article 28
The legal status of the judges in the States shall be regulated by the Federal Minister of Justice.

Article 29
The Federal Minister of Justice together with a committee for the selection of judges shall provide for the appointment of judges in the States.

Miscellanea

Article 30
The codex of civil and criminal laws shall be drawn up by knowledgeable jurists appointed by the Supreme Court.

Article 31
No one may be removed from the jurisdiction of his lawful judge and subject to an extraordinary court.

Article 32
Courts for special fields may be established only by the judiciary.

Article 33
The law entitles every person to a hearing in court.

Article 34
In order for an act to be punishable, it must have been committed coincident or subsequent to the corresponding law.

Article 35
A person, having been punished for or acquitted of an act, may only be pursued for the same act again if:

  1. the court is furnished with new evidence or testimony;
  2. hitherto accepted evidence or testimony is discredited;
  3. a lesser act dismissed in the original trial is brought by legal writ to new trial;
  4. a charge of malpractice is levelled and vindicated against the presiding legal officers;
  5. a credible confession is received from the accused outwith the court.

Article 36
The freedom of the individual may be restricted only on the basis of a formal law and only with due regard to the forms prescribed therein.

Article 37
Detained persons may be subjected neither to mental nor to physical ill-treatment.

Article 38
Only judges may decide on admissibility or extension of a deprivation of liberty beyond four days; where such deprivation is not based on the order of a judge, a judicial decision must be obtained without delay.

Article 39
Upon any person being detained on a punishable offence, the judge must immediately issue a warrant of arrest setting forth the reasons therefore or order their release from detention.

Article 40
A relative of the person detained or a person enjoying his confidence must be notified without delay of any judicial decision ordering or extending a deprivation of liberty.

Article 41
When applicable, Federal law is to take precedence over State law.

Part 6 – The Military

The State of Peace

Article 1
The total land force of the Federation shall form one army and the total sea force one navy, which both form the Federal Armed Forces.

Article 2
In the state of Peace, the Armed Forces shall be under the command of the Congress of the Federation vicariously through the Chief of the General Staff.

Article 3
The Chief of Staff shall be responsible for:

  1. the appointment of generals, or officers performing the duties of generals, subject to the approval of the Minister of War;
  2. the determination of the disposition, composition, and division of the Armed Forces and the designation of garrisons within the territories of the Federation;
  3. the mobilisation and direction of the Armed Forces.

Article 4
The Minister of War shall be responsible for:

  1. the negotiation of the appropriation from the Federal Congress of funds sufficient for the maintenance of the Armed Forces;
  2. the erection of fortresses within the territories of the Federation, in cooperation with his State counterparts, the necessary means required for this purpose being arrogated from the aforementioned funds;

Article 5
Alliances and treaties with foreign Countries shall require the approval of the Federal Congress.

The State of War

Article 6
The power to declare the state of War shall be vested in the Federal Congress.

Article 7
Approval for the declaration of the state of War shall be by simple majority with a quorum of at least half the representatives of the Federal Congress.

Article 8
Where the Federation is in imminent danger of invasion or an invasion is in progress, and where the Federal Congress is in no situation to make the declaration provided for in Part 6, Article 6 with sufficient timeliness or is implacably obstructed from doing so, such a declaration shall be deemed to have taken effect at the time the danger of invasion or invasion itself began.

Article 9
In such a case as Part 6, Article 8, the Federal Congress must authorise the state of War within sixty (60) days of its effectuality and no later than one-hundred (100).

Responsibilities of the President in the State of War

Article 10
Upon the declaration of a state of War, the power of command over the Armed Forces shall accede to the President of the Federation.

Article 11
All Federal troops are bound implicitly to obey the orders of the Federal President in the state of War.

Article 12
As Commander-in-Chief of the Federal Armed Forces, the President may:

  1. make arrangements for the appointment of all generals to command, whether by means of transferral, promotion or demotion;
  2. mobilise any portion of the Armed Forces into active service;
  3. deploy the Armed Forces throughout the territories of the Federation;
  4. issue ordinances to Federal and State authorities relevant to the war effort;
  5. make alliances and treaties with foreign Countries;
  6. delegate such powers to his subordinates.

Article 13
The President shall immediately notify such decisions to the Federal Congress by every available means.

Article 14
The Federal Congress shall not be dissolved while the state of War exists.

Termination of the State of War

Article 15
The state of War shall be terminated where the prerequisites for the declaration thereof cease to exist.

Article 16
The conclusion of peace shall be ratified by the Federal Congress.

Article 17
All extraordinary ordinances issued by the President during the state of War shall cease to take effect upon transition to the state of Peace.

Part 7 – The Constituent States of the Danubian Federation

Constitutionalism

Article 1
State governments have the right to make and enforce legislation and policies in their own states, subject to the laws and policies of the Federation, so long as it does not contradict federal law or the Constitution.

Article 2
Unilateral secession by states is illegal and illegitimate.

Article 3
No state is permitted to have an absolutist or non-limited form of government.

Article 4
All monarchical states must maintain a parliament, which must hold elections for at least the lower house at an appointed time.

Article 5
Hereditary succession is legal within these states, though if no lawful heir exists, an election for either determining a new ruler or considering the transition to a republic must take place. Hereditary succession of federal or state government positions in all other states is prohibited, including the restriction of any such position to members of a particular family or class.

Article 6
Monarchies are only allowed in states that possessed such governments when this present constitutional convention (the Convention of 1872) began (Albania, etc...)

  1. These states have perpetual rights to monarchy; should a republic be later established, they may democratically elect a new monarchy.
  2. These states must follow all laws regarding the governance of monarchies (chief among them, no autocracy).

Article 7
No other state is permitted to establish a monarchy. All other state governments must be democratic republics.

Article 8
For new states to be admitted into the Federation, they must be republics.

Article 9
All heads of state in state governments, excepting those mentioned in Part 7, Article 6, must be democratically elected by the people or appointed by democratically elected representatives of the people.

Free Cities

Article 10
A single city within the Federation that is not part of any of the other states of the Federation shall be given the status of a free city. This status applies retroactively to any current city-states.

Article 11
Free cities shall have the legislative powers of a state within their own borders.

Article 12
Free city may not raise nor organize a militia, and responsibility for their defence lies with the federal government.

Article 13
Free cities shall receive one Councillor each in the Federal Council and a number of Deputies in the National Assembly proportional to their population.

Article 14
Free cities shall be admitted into the Federation by the same process as states.

The Expansion of the Federation

Article 15
All lands that are added to the Federation after 1872 are to have a popular referendum to determine if the people want to be one territory, or multiple territories.

Article 16
All new land admitted will be a classified as a Federal territory.

  1. Federal Territories do not vote in Federal Danubian elections.
  2. Federal Territories are permitted to have any form of non-autocratic government with approval of a popular referendum with in the new territory.
  3. Federal Territories are quasi-independent states having full control over their internal affairs.
  4. Federal Territories are to maintain their own standing army.
  5. In event of war, the armies of Federal Territories will be placed under the control of the Federal Government.
  6. Federal Territories cede all foreign policy control to the Federal Government.
  7. The Federal Government is not obligated to spend money on development of Federal Territories.

Article 17
Federal Territories can petition to be admitted as full states following a popular referendum with a 60% majority wanting to be admitted.

  1. Once admitted as full States the follow are to behave as any other States and all special privileges are to be revoked.
  2. Federal Territories can also petition to join an existing State.

Article 18
Territories gained from colonisation are to be classified as Federal Colonies.

  1. Federal Colonies do not vote in Federal Danubian elections.
  2. Federal Colonies are permitted to have any form of non autocratic government with approval of the Federal Congress.
  3. Federal Colonies are to have a Governor General appointed by the Minister of Internal Affairs.
  4. Governor Generals act as the Head of State for Federal Colonies.

Article 19
Federal Colonies can petition to become a state when 10% of the population of the Colony are immigrants from existing States.

  1. When approved to be a State a referendum is to be held on whether the people of the Colony want to join an existing State or form a new one.
The Transfer of Land within the Federation

Article 20
All border changes and transfers of lands among the states of the Federation must be ratified by popular Referendums in the interested territories.

Article 21
The lack of a popular Referendum, or the popular refusal to ratify the transfer of land, will make the proposed territorial changes null and void.

Part 8 – Violations of the Constitution

Article 1
The Supreme Court decides when an organ of the state has violated the Constitution.

Article 2
Any Danubian citizen may request said Court to review a bill passed by a legislative organ.

Article 3
If a government official violates the Constitution (as decided by the Supreme Court), that official is to be dismissed.

Article 4
If possible, any constitutional violations and their effects shall be reversed. Any unconstitutional law or action will be declared unlawful and void.

On the 25th of August, 1872, we do affirm this constitution on behalf of the people of this Federation,

Signed,
Jenő Várpaloti ((DensleyBlair))
Gabriele Loredan ((Ab Ovo))
Aetios Spiros ((Jeeshadow))
Edoardo Vertucci ((Somberg))
Crepko Obradovic ((Thoctar))
Alexandru Draculesti ((Dadarian))
Jan Jaromír ((Damian0358))
Francesco de Palma ((Riccardo93))
Symon Revenjo ((99KingHigh))
Charles Jakopin ((Jako473))
Peter von der Pahlen ((Marschalk))
Marco Arpaio ((Viola))
Victor Arkam ((Syriana))
Gabriel Soukup-Valenta ((Terraferma))
Edvard Masaryk ((MrMan95))
Leopold von Tirpitz ((Otto of England))
Günther Knittel ((Xenophon13))
Alexandros Petrakis ((Scrapknight))
Giuseppe Barzini ((Gen. Marshall))
Laszlo Szekely ((Fingon888))
Damian Król ((Euphemia))
Zenel I ((Plutonium95))
Pal Krasniki ((czechmazaryk))
Radost Ostromir ((Redarmy))

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