CONSTITUTIONIS POPULI ROMÆ SECTION I GOVERNMENT Article I SENATE Administration: Magistrates: Consul Ordinarii (2) Also called simply Consul, these two men are granted Imperium (Imperium is the power to make laws by personal declaration) upon election to office, which is for one year. When they leave office they are eligible for office of Censor. After their tenure, they may be charged with crimes committed whilst in office. A man may only hold the office for one year, four times, and not in succession or more than three times in a five year period. At Senate meetings, these men speak second. Have the power of veto over each other and the Consul Perpetuus. Must be a Roman native. Consul Suffecti (3) Vice-Consuls to the Consuls Ordinarii. In the event of death or leave from Rome, these men assume the responsibilities of the missing Consul. Elected every six months from the Senate by the Senate. Consul Perpetuus Consul in charge of the administration outside of the Ager Publicus, which is the domain of the Senate, within which he has no Imperium. He is elected from amongst the ex-Censors for 20 years. At Senate meetings, this man speaks sixth. May only serve one term. Praetors (28) (Explained in the Quaestiones article) These men speak third at Senate meetings. Serve for one year. Princeps Senatus Prince of the Senate, leader of the house. This man has the right to speak first amongst the Senators. Serves for five years. Appointed by Senate. Aediles (4; 2 Curule [patrician] and 2 plebeian) Manage and stage public games. Serve for one year. Quaestores (20) Ministers of the Roman and provincial tax codes. Serve five years. Vigintisexviri (26) Board of 26 men who assist with the tax codes. They are appointed by the Quaestores from amongst non-government officials. Censores (2) These men conduct the Census, and are elected for four years from the ex-Consuls. They hold the censoria potestas and can strike Senators from the rolls. They speak fourth at Senate meetings. Serve for five years. Tribuni Plebis (10) Ten tribunes are elected each year to defend the rights of the Plebeians. To this end they are given the power of Tribunicia Potestas, the ability to veto any law the Senate or anyone else puts forth concerning the rule of the Ager Publicus. They must be Plebeians. These men speak fifth at Senate meetings. Serves for one year. Priesthood: Collegium Pontificum Pontifex Maximus Chief priest of the empire's religion. Rex Sacrorum Advisor to the Consul on religious affairs of the Empire. Appointed by Senate from Senate for life or until replaced. Pontifex (16) Head priests. Appointed by Senate from Senate for life or until replaced. Augurs (16) Divine the will of the gods for the Senate. Trains diviners for the legions. Quindecemviri Sacris Facundis (16) Monitors foreign cults and advises Senate on laws relating to them. Keep the Sybilline books. Flamines Maiores Flamen/Flaminica Dialis- Iupiter Flamen Martialis- Martes Flamen Quirinales- Quirinus Minores Flamen Caesaris- Divi Iulius Flamen Augustalis- Divi Augustus Flamen Carmentalis- Carmenta Flamen Cerealis- Ceres Flamen Falacer- Falacer Flamen Florialis- Flora Flamen Palatualis- Pales Flamen Pomonales- Pomona Flamen Portunalis- Portunus Flamen Volcanis- Vulcan Flamen Volturnalis- Volturnus Flamen Furinalis- Furrina Salii (12) Priests of Mars, including Magister, head priest; Praesul, dance leader; Vatis, song leader Fratres Arvales (170) Minor deity priests. Virgo Vestales (6) Guard sacred fire of Rome. Headed by Virgo Vestales Maxima. Septemviri (10) Organize the public feasts on holidays. Flamines Minervae Priests of Minerva; promote education. Flamines Apollo Priests of Apollo; promote artistic pursuits. Body: To enter they must be First or Second Class. No less than 200 Senators; at least 55% from the Ager Publicus, and 45% from the Provinces. Provinces choose whom and how many they wish to send, they may ask for entry each year from the Censors, who control the admission. These men (pedarii) speak twelfth at meetings. Auctoritas (power): The Senate has the power of Senatus Consultum. Meaning, if it gives an issue of advice on a matter to a magistrate, including the Consul Perpetuus, it should be taken with the weight of law. Since however, it is only advice, the Consul Perpetuus has the ability to veto the decree, since his Imperium is outside the Pomerium of the Ager Publicus. At which point it shall be put to a board of jurists who will then make a decision which will be final and binding to the Consul Perpetuus. Other magistrates cannot oppose the Senatus Consultum. The Senate debates laws and puts them before the Concilium Plebii for ratification. Laws passed by the Senate apply immediately to the Ager Publicus and the prefecture Italia. All other prefectures ratify by 7/10 majority vote of Proconsuls. Elections: Senate elections and appointments shall take place on the first of January each year. Article II SENACULUM Chambers: Comitia Centuriata Roman Senators choose a delegate to be in this committee. They shall vote on whether or not to declare war. They also elect Consuls, Censors, and Praetors for the Senate from the Senate. Comitia Curiata The tribal committee that ratifies the election of Consuls by bestowing Imperium upon them (ceremonial). They also vote in the remaining Senatorial magistrates, including the men of the Ager Publicus from the Senate. Comitia Tributa 140 citizens total from each of the 14 districts of Rome are put on this council to ratify tax laws. Concilium Plebii All Plebeian citizens of Rome meet in the Forum to elect the Tribuni Plebis and to propose plebiscita to the Tribuni Plebis, which are binding to all Roman citizens if the tribune picks it up and puts it to vote. Also pass laws proposed by the Senate. Article III AGER PUBLICUS The Latin Tiber River plain is to be administered as a district separate from provinces. The ministers of this area report directly to the Senate and bypass all provincial government. The Praefectus Fabrum of the Amici Principis is responsible for the superstructure of this region. Curator Regionum Governor of the Ager Publicus, speaks seventh at Senate meetings. Praefectus Urbi (2) These two men administer Rome and Ostia respectively; the former speaks eighth and the latter ninth at Senate meetings. Curator Alvei et Riparum Tiberis Curator to monitor and regulate the Tiber River. Maiores (14) Ministers of the 14 districts of Rome. Listed below: I) Porta Capena II) Caelimontum III) Isis et Serapis IV) Templum Pacis V) Esquiliae VI) Alta Semita VII) Via Lata VIII) Forum Romanum IX) Circus Flaminius X) Palatium XI) Circus Maximus XII) Piscina Publica XIII) Aventinus XIV) Trans Tiberim Curatores (2) These two men administer the non-urban area between the two cities. One for the North side of the river (Ager Romanus) and one for the South bank (Latium), the former speaks tenth at meetings and the latter eleventh. Article IV NATURE OF THE CONSUL PERPETUUS Powers: The Consul Perpetuus has complete Imperium outside the Ager Publicus. He cannot, however, change the general structure of the government without Senate approval, though he may create new offices and bureaus. All of the powers of any magistrate below him are to be considered his powers as well. And as such, he can overrule any of their edicts. The Consul is supreme commander of all military forces. Constitutiones Principis: The Consul has Imperium in different forms. These edicta take the form of: epistula- decisions passed to officials or public bodies; subscriptio- decisions stated to individuals or cities; decreta- decrees made when acting as judge in high trials; mandata- statements to provincial governors. Restrictions: I The Consul may not delegate his power or split the Empire in any way. II The Consul must abide Senate wishes and decrees concerning ethics and Imperial protocol in public situations. III.A.1 Consular orders to execute persons or parties must be approved by a nine-tenths vote of the Senate. Only when the Senate has granted rights to summary execution to the Consul may this clause be bypassed. The Senate can only do this for a month at a time. III.A.2 The Consul may have someone "executed" without Senate approval if, and only if, he challenges that person to a direct duel. Both equally armed. The Senate for foul play will inspect the challenged. III.B The Consul may not execute, or issue orders to the Senate to execute a member of the Senate. The Consul can openly proclaim "no confidence" in a Senator and ask for the Senate to do with this man what it deems fit. IV The Consul may not seize private property or public property for his own purse. V He shall be given, if he so chooses, a state provided domus adjacent to the reception "palace" the Senate maintains for receiving audiences. VI The only authority the Consul has over the army is the ability to veto any command given by the Magister Militum Praesentalis. Article V.I MILLIVIRI The government officials not fitting either provincial roles or administration of the Senate. The Senate ratifies all appointments. Councils: Consilium Principis: Council of five men who advise the consul on civic improvements and laws that affect the Empire. Elected by the Senate from the Senate for five-year terms. Consilium Militarum: Armed Forces High Command Magistri Militum (Masters of the Army): Magister Militum Praesentalis Supreme commander below the Consul of all military forces. In charge of organizing all paramilitary units in Section II. Appointed by the Senate from the Senate for life or until replaced. Magister Peditum Commander of the Infantry. Appointed by the Senate from the Senate for life or until replaced. Magister Classis Commander of the Navy. Appointed by the Senate from the Greek Senators for life or until replaced. Besides the general outline for the fleet structure below (Section II), has complete control of organization and composition of gross naval force. Collegium Comes College of Comes Comes (8) Chief commanders of legions in a given area. Though there is no chief Come, the most prestigious posts are those of Asia I (Armenia) and Aegypti. The five remaining posts are: 1) Brittania, 2) Germania, 3) Gothica, 4) Palaestina, 5) Nubia, 6) Asia II (Persepolis). Responsible for raising local militia if necessary. They are appointed by the Senate for ten years. Tribuni Militum* Tribunal of one representative for every legion that reports on the status of the legions. This post is filled by private citizens who petition for the office. Decemviri Legibus Scribundis* Board of ten men who draft laws proposed by the Consul. These men are hired by the Emperor from the Senate (at least five must be provincial Senators, but the rest are optional). Quaestors Sacri Palati Organize Consular correspondence with subjects. Five people not including the officers listed below. Appointed by Senate from Senate for life or until replaced. A Mandatis Prepares and sends Imperial mandates to provincial governors Ab Epistulis Prepares and sends Imperial epistules to officials and public bodies. Libellis In charge of the Quaestors Sacri Palati. Cura Palatiorum* Ten men including officer below, who manage the Consular palace and state property given to the Consul and Consular family for his term, to report thefts on the part of the Consul whilst in office. Hired by Senate. Comes Rerum Privitarum Head of the Cura Palatiorum. Officers: Magister Scriniarum* Personal Secretary to the Consul. Hired by Consul. Comes Sacrae Vestis* Designs all uniforms for all military services and determines the proper togas for all governmental officers. Hired by Senate. A Censibus* Consul's aide in matters concerning the Census. Relays Imperial requests as to information needed. Hired by Senate. A Cognitionibus* Consul's aide when he acts as judge in high cases. Hired by Senate. Praetor Peregrinus Foreign Minister. Appointed by Senate from Senate for 10 years. Praefectus Fabrum* Imperial Architect. Hired by Consul. Princeps Iuventutis Prince Regent; acts as Consul when he is not able but still alive. Consul must publicly acknowledge his authority. He is selected from the Senate by the Consul for life or until replaced. Rationibus Consul's finance minister; works with the Quaestors of the Senate. Elected by Quaestors from Senate. Comes Sacrorum Largitionum Count of the Treasury, stores all funds collected. Head of the treasury magistrates. Elected from Senate by Senate for 10 years. Tribunii Aerarii (2) One tribune manages the Aerarium Saturni (state treasury), while the other manages the Aerarium Sanctus (emergency funds). Elected from Senate by Senate for 10 years. Praefecti Aerarii (2) These two prefects jointly manage the Fiscus (provincial treasury). Appointed from Senate by Consul for 10 years. Praefecti Aerarii Militaris (3) These three prefects manage jointly the Aerarium Militaris (military treasury). Appointed by Consul from Senate for 10 years. Praefectus Alimentorum This prefect manages the Aerarium Alimentum (alimentary treasury). Elected from Senate by Senate for 10 years. Praefectus Frumenti Dandi* Prefect in charge of the dole. Appointed by Consul from Senate. Comes Privatae Largitionis* Consul's personal finance minister (does not do state accounts). Hired by Consul. Adjutor Consulii* Imperial Aide. Always present, when the Consul orders, he contacts the persons to get the orders carried out. Hired by Consul. Magister Officiorum* Minister of committees created ad hoc. Hired by Consul. Comes Dispositionum Count of intergovernmental communication, joint head of the Cursus Publicus with the Praefectus Vehiculorum. Appointed by Consul from Senate for two years. Praefectus Vehiculorum Heads the Cursus Publicus with the Comes Dispositionum. Appointed by Consul from Senate for two years. Cursus Publicus Courier system for the government, divided into three divisions: Cursus Publicus Ordinary courier service for provincial and popular correspondence. Cursus Claburalis Cargo transportation for Imperial goods. Cursus Velox Rapid delivery branch, usually only the Consul uses this. Comes Domesticorum Chief of all the Internal Security forces. Appointed by Magister Militum Praesentalis from Senate for five years. Curator Ludorum Manages and organizes the games with Aediles. Appointed by Consul from Senate for one year. Praepositus Sacri Cubiculi Grand Chamberlain of the Empire's material property (i.e. the grain supply, mines, mints, weapons factories...). Appointed by Consul from Senate for five years. He appoints from the Senate the men listed below. Cura Annonae Small council headed by the Praefectus Annonae that manages the grain supply. Cura Aquarum Small council headed by the Praefectus Aquarum that manages the water supply in Rome only. Tresviri Monetales Board of three men that manage the mints and design specie. Curatores Viarum Council responsible for the upkeep of roads. Curatores Operum Publicorum Council responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of public buildings. Article V.II.A PRINCIPATAL, PREFECTURAL, DIOCESAL and PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT Consul Principati (3) Three administrators of the Principatus Europa, Africa, and Asia respectively. Their main duty is to regulate and monitor trade and commerce in their domains. Appointed by the Senate from the Senate for 10 years. Prefectus (Europa , Africa , Asia ; 10) Governor of a Prefecturus; appointed by Consul Perpetuus from ex-Censors for 10 years. Has Imperium to make laws within his prefecture; must be ratified by the subordinate Vicarii below him (7/10). Also responsible for raising twice as many legions as he has diocese in his prefecture (not necessarily from each diocese). No authority to command these troops is granted. As soon as the levy for a legion is met, one of the Comes assumes control of the legion. Vicarus Praetectorum Praetoria (Europa , Africa , Asia ; 50) Dual governors of a Diocese; appointed by Consul Perpetuus from Senators for 10 years. Imperium to make laws in their Diocese, which are ratified by 7/10 votes of Proconsuls in their diocese. Discussores* Each Vicar appoints one Discussor for each province in his Diocese for five years. They are responsible for tax collection below their level. The Proconsulate: Proconsul (2)* Governors of a province; Proconsular Imperium restrained by necessary 70% ratification of laws by his provincial Senate; elected by the people of a province from the people by plebiscita for 5 years. Curialis Deputy governor; head of Concilia of respective province, appointed by Proconsul for his term from native provincials. Senatus Proconsulari Provincial Senate; entry varies perprovince. Correctores Finance minister of the province. Addendum: Other government offices are dictated by local custom. City Structure (for Roman capitals[all pre-existing cities keep their traditional government]): Dux Administrator of a city. Palatini Tax collectors in a city. Aedile Minister of city structures. Curatores Finance ministers of the city. Quaestores Provinciales Tax collectors of the rural area of a province. Addendum I: Senatus Proconsuli down the list to Quaestores Provinciales are all elected by plebiscite from natives for term of Proconsul. They are paid. Addendum II: Any other offices needed for a city are created ad hoc. This is also the basic framework of the Municipia (Roman colony); all other towns get a Praeses in addition to the town's chief magistrate/parliament, to institute a degree of Romanization. He has the ability to veto laws passed by city governments. In the Diocese of Italia, Proconsuls will be replaced with the Procurator officer. Article V.II.B TABULA PROVINCIAE PUT THE NEW ONE IN HERE (In paragraph form) Article VI QUAESTIONES Judicial system in the capital (SENATORIAL): Praetor (28) Justices (2) for each district in the capital itself. These men should have no jurisdiction outside the pomerium. Handles all civil and criminal cases. Praetor inter Peregrinos (10)* Justices (5) for each side of the Tiber zone, which reaches to the mouth of the river up to the capital and extends five miles out from the river and out of the capital walls. Hired by Curator Regionum. Iudex (5)* Justices in Ostia. Hired by Curator Regionum. Judicial system outside of the capital (CONSULAR): Duoviri Iuredicundo (2) Dual justices of a city, elected to position by the provincial Senatus Proconsuli until people request replacement. Propraetor* Justice of a province, who goes to the province after serving in Rome as a Praetor. If possible, the Praetor chooses his province. Serves as long as he wants. Baro* Justice of a diocese, appointed by a Dominus from Propraetors. Dominus* Justice of a prefecture, hired by the Senate in the capital from petitioning candidates. Addendum: All civil and criminal cases are brought before the court of the Duoviri. Inter-city cases are brought before the Propraetor, as well as appeals from city courts. Inter-provincial cases are brought before the Baro, as well as appeals from provincial courts. Appeals from diocese and inter-diocesan cases are brought before the Dominus. Appeals from prefectures and inter-prefecture cases are brought before the Senate in the capital, who appoints a Iudex Apellationis for the trial from their ranks as justice. If the case is still appealed, it will go before the Consul Perpetuus in a special trial known as a Cognitio Caesariana. SECTION II SECURITY AND DEFENSE Preamble A "model" legion has been created below for reference. This is also the standard organization and cannot be varied throughout the Empire. Though it can be changed for all legions, if altered here. LEGIONES RES PUBLICUM Personnel: Officers: Legatus Legionis General/Commander of the Legion Praefectus Castrorum Secretary to the Legate; Organizes temporary encampments Aquilifer Standard-bearer for the legion (may have assistants from rank soldiers for this); Manages legion's accounts Imaginifer Manages the religious activities of the legions. Tribunus Laticlavius Senior tribune in charge of military operations and strategy. Tribunii Augusticlavii (5) Assist T. Laticlavius in forming strategies. The Centurionate: Primi Ordines: Five Centurions of the Prima Cohort Primus Pilus Manages Prima Cohort Princeps Manages Prima Cohort Hastatus Trainer of new recruits Princeps Posterior Trainer of new recruits Hastatus Posterior Trainer of new recruits Centurions in remaining cohorts (II-X) are of equal status. According to length of service a title is applied within each cohorts seniority. And then again seniority down through the cohorts. The longest serving Centurion, outside of Prima Cohort, would be the Pilus Prior of the Cohors Secunda. The newest would be Hastatus Posterior of Cohors Nonus. Pilus Prior Pilus Posterior Princeps Prior Princeps Posterior Hastatus Prior Hastatus Posterior Optio Appointed by men within a Contubernia for self administration. Legionnaires: Principales Regular troops with special duties and double pay Optio Listed above Signifer Standard bearers for the cohorts Tesserarius Flag bearers for the Centuries, organize sentry watches Immunes Soldiers of the Prima Cohort. Earn 1 1/2 pay. Have non-combat jobs working in shops, forges, mills, kitchens, etc. Milites Standard Legionary, combat soldier. Orders of Battle: Regulars (Legiones): Cohorts II-X Optio commands a Contubernium of 10 soldiers. Eight Contubernia make a Century of 80 soldiers commanded by a Centurion. Six Centuries make a Cohort of 480 soldiers commanded by a Tribunus. Prima Cohort Optio commands a Contubernium of 10 soldiers. Sixteen Contubernia make a Century of 160 soldiers commanded by a Centurion. Five Centuries make a Cohort of 800 soldiers commanded by a Tribunus. Irregulars (Auxilia): Ala Quingenaria Optio commands a Contubernium of seven riders. Eight Contubernia make a Century of 56 riders commanded by a Decurion. Eight Centuries make a Cohort of 448 riders commanded by a Prefectus. Two Cohorts per legion. Cohors Milliaria Optio commands a Contubernium of six soldiers. Ten Contubernia make a Cohort of 60 soldiers commanded by the Legatus Legionis. There are five Contubernia of ballistae, and five of catapulta. Numeri: Additional militia raised by Comes. Classis: Praefectus Classis Prefect of an individual fleet. Navarch Head of a squadron of ships Triearch Captain of a ship. Beneficiarius Assistant to the Triearch. Article I INTERNAL SECURITY Capital Security: Cohors Praetoria Legion stationed in capital permanently as defense (organized like a legion). Every ten years, this legion should be replaced by a seasoned legion that is stationed abroad. The old Praetorians will be rotated out to the newly vacant position. Headed by two Praefectus Praetorianus who are permanently stationed in the capital. Equites Singulari Augusti Cavalry patrol of the capital (organized like an Ala of cavalry). This unit is to work in addition to the cavalry of the Praetorian Guards. They should be rotated out with a unit of Ala from a legion abroad every ten years. Excubitors Guards of the walls of the city. Civil Patrols: Quaestionarii Regular police force throughout the Empire (organized like a legion, each city levies its own as needed). Lictors Ceremonial guards; considered sacrosanct (because of antiquity of post). Also the state's executioners. Hired by the Senate for the officers who by tradition they protect: Consuls get 12, Praetors of the Senate get 6. Vestals are also allowed one each. Cohortes Urbi Police, fire, and riot brigade in the capital (organized as three cohorts from a legion). Triumviri Nocturnii The three men who administer this force. Appointed from Senate by Senate indefinitely. Curiosi Diocesal scale police, main functions is to patrol roads and help obtain fugitives who have passed out of another forces' jurisdiction. Secret Polices: Agenes in Rebus Consul Perpetuus' police agency (organization of the officers of one legion) of which he is the head. Frumentarii Senate's police agency (organization of the officers of one legion) of which the Princeps Senatus is the head. Special Operations/Spies: Speculatores Stated in title (organization of the officers of one legion) of which the Praetor Peregrinus is the head. Governmental Protection (Palatini): Evocatii Consul Perpetuus' personal bodyguard, present always (3 men commanded by Consul himself). Scutarii Consul Perpetuus' bodyguard while in public (i.e. attending the games) inside the capital (organized as a Contubernium of men from a legion). Equite Scutarii Consul Perpetuus' bodyguard while traveling (organized as one Century of Ala) Protectores Domesticii Consular Domus guards (no organization except for an Optio and his aides, the Optio hires them individually to guard the palace as needed). Scholae Palatini Government building guards (no organization whatsoever, hired as needed to guard) hired by Senate. Protectores Guards for officials of the government (hired freely and independently by government officials at their leisure). Considered government job because the Senate will give a subsidy of 1% of the guard's pay to the Senator to assist his payment. Germani Corporis Custodes Guards of the treasury buildings (hired as needed by the Comes Sacrorum Largitionum [historically from German provinces]).