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Constantine IV (Fidem Pacis)

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Constantine IV was Roman Emperor from 668 and Caliph of Islam from 682 until his death in 685. The eldest son of Constans II, he became sole emperor at the age of 16 following his father's assassination.

Constantine's reign was marked by mixed success in military matters. He successfully campaigned against the Khazars, the Croats and the Umayyad Caliphate, capturing the usurper Yazid and restoring power to the descendants of Ali. However, he was shaken by a devastating defeat against the Bulgars in 678, which later forced him to abandon Constantinople and set up a new capital at Antioch.

Religiously, Constantine strongly favoured Islam, ending his father's policy of strict neutrality. Although he did nothing to directly restrict the practice of Christianity or other religions, he did institute the jizya tax on certain non-Muslims, and confiscated the property of many local Christian churches in Greece and Anatolia when they refused to pay. By the end of his reign, it had been common for the educated and the well-off to, at least nominally, convert to Islam in the hope of preferment for high-ranking positions in the civil administration and the military.

Constantine died in 685 from dysentery. He was succeeded by his son, Justinian II, who attempted to reverse many of his father's policies.

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