One of the largest nations in North America (probably fourth after Canada, the United States and the Five Tribes, the Confederate States of America, although not an economically successful as the United States or Canada, the CSA is still one of the richest nations in the world. However, it has frequently been criticised for its continued use of slaves (which was finally ended in 2005 by President Bill Clinton, which has resulted in civil war). See Confederate Civil War for more details.
The CSA was born out of a wave of anti-slavery sentiment in the north, which following Texas's refusal to enter the Union and the British colonization of Oregon and California, prevented all future expansion in the southwest. On July 4th - of all days - the states of South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennesse, Missisippi, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama and Arkansas declared independence from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America.
A brief, but violent civil war broke out, resulting in the Union defeat at the battle of Gettysburg and a ceasefire. When a final agreement, brokered by Britain and France was finally reached in April 1855, the Confederacy and Union were split into two nations. The rest of the 19th century went well for the CSA, it escaped the messy Second Anglo-Mexican War which the United States became involved in on Mexico's side and rode the wave of economic expansion and industrialisation in the late 19th century. However, as the 19th century ended and the 20th century began, the CSA became increasingly aligned towards France's Entente and against the United States and Britain.
When war broke out in Europe over a border incident between the Entente of France, Belgium, Italy and Russia aganist the Triple Alliance of Britain, the United States, Germany and Austria-Hungary, the Confederacy joined the Entente. The war went well for the CSA at first, but it soon became bogged down in heavy fighting and slowly the strength of the Entente ground the CSA down. Even the surprise change of side by the United States could not alter the outcome of the war and the CSA was forced to sign a humilating peace treaty, with large scale reparations involved and a severe limiting of the army.