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Con Grammar (Principia Moderni III Map Game)

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Word order

In, normal indicative constructions, |on has a VSO (Verb-Subject Object) word order. Adjectives and adverbs come after what they describe.
Ex:
I see it ---> See I it.
I want to eat the black ant. ---> Want to eat I ant black.

Pronouns

Personal

I/we/my/our -- n
you/your -- aha
he/she/it,his/her/their -- ehe

|on doesn't distinguish between singular and plural, so I and we are the same word. To form the genitive, the owner is placed after the owned, therefore there is no need for a separate group of pronouns indicating ownership. However, pronouns are best omitted, or replace with the noun they represent, in the case of he, she or it.

Interrogatives

when - kun
what/who - ehe
where - ahan
how - kun-o
why - kun-i

Voice

Passive

The passive voice is a much used feature in |on, and can be formed in three different ways" the "e form", "la form", and the "si form". The passive can only be used when there is no subject, therefore in the sentence "the food was eaten by me", the by me does not make sense. Passive can be described as deleting the subject an raising the object to subject position.
Put "la" after the verb.

Antipassive

Roughly equivalent to the active. The object of the sentence is deleted. E.g. "I eat".

Middle

The subject of the sentence is also the object of the sentence. E.x "I eat myself"

Reciprocal

This is where the object of the sentence is also the subject and visa-versa. "We eat each other"

Circumstantial

This is where both the object of the sentence and the subject of the snetence are deleted. E.x. "I eat the food with a fork" ---> "Eat fork".

Adjutative

This is where the subject of the sentence is not directly involved with the verb, but helps for it to happen, causes it, or merely does nothing to stop it. E.g. "I eat him" ---> "I feed him"

Mood

Indicative

Shows what is certain. E.g. "I eat"

Energetic

Shows what is certain, but puts special emphasis on the fact that it is happning. E.g. "Truly, I am eating"

Commisive

A promise or a threat. E.g. "I will eat"

Imperative

Is an order. E.g. "Eat!"

Epistemic

This is used for everything one is not certain is happening. This includes the conditional E.g. "He might be eating"

Mood-Voice Complex

Passive Antipassive Middle Reciprocal Circumstancial Adjutative
Indicative -la -la-n -ha ha-n -ma -lan
Energetic -lu -lu-n -hu hu-n -lon
Commissive -lo -lo-n -ho ho-n -mo -han
Imperative -le -le-n -he he-n -ma -hon
Epistemic -li -li-n -hi hi-n -mi -man

Particles

Articles are generically placed after the noun they are modifying.

Postpositions

hu- from

!aroma- beacause of

ge - he/she/it indicates the finish of a noun group and the start of another. This may even take the place of an English preposition. E.g. "Mansan mon o mon o mon"= "People eat people with other people."

in- placed after the verb no make it negative. (x)

Politeness

At the end of each sentence, a politeness particle is attached, if there is no particle, the speaker is thought of as being rude. No particle is allowed when writing to a general audience, e.g. litterature.

Male Speaker Female Speaker
Very Respectful Female Listener lika urau
Male Listener mika urai
Respectful Female Listener rara reri
Male Listener noko nahaka
Average Female Listener unu
Male Listener



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