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Communist Party of Japan
Founded July 15, 1922
Dissolved August 7, 1934
International affiliation Comintern (until 1934)
Ideology Communism
Political position Far-left
The Communist Party of Japan (大和共産黨 Daiwa Kyōsantō) was a former left-wing political party which existed in Japan between 1922 and 1934. The Communist Party was the second largest revolutionary party in Japan after the Nationalist Party during the Civil War era. Together with their Nationalist counterparts, the Communist Party founded the National Front of Japan in 1926.


The CPJ was founded on July 15, 1922, as a break-up from the Socialist Party. The Communist Party joined in the revolutionary coalition with another republican movements, including the Nationalist Party of Japan. The Communist Party strength much smaller than the Nationalist Party forced the party functionaries to initiates the united front with the Nationalists that known as the National Front.

When the joint revolutionary forces won the Second Japanese Civil War, the CPJ briefly participates in the Republican government. Under the Front official list, the CPJ took part in the first general election of National Congress in 1932 and gained 93 seats, second only behind the Nationalist which gained 175 seats. Three ministerial post in the first Council of Ministers was belongs to the CPJ.

In early 1930s. the right-wing faction and the left-wing faction of the Communist Party of Japan was divided over ideological issues. The right wing faction composed by the Bukharinists and the Agrarianists viewed the government's Great Economic Plan as the true successor of Lenin's New Economic Policy and the 1925 Japanese Revolution as unique, nationalistic variant of Lenin's world revolution concept. The left-wing faction composed by the pro-Comintern policy party functionaries which supported the social revolution than national revolution and favored the establishment of Soviet-style communist government in Japan. They also opposed the Nationalist's nationalistic-orientation of Marxism and believed only Communism as the true inheritance of Marxism.

The 1933 Japanese Communist Party Congress marked by a series of debates between the right and the left whether the Party should adopted Nationalism into Party constitution or not. The CPJ finally collapsed in 1934. The right wing faction of CPJ joined the smaller Social Democratic Party and the ruling Nationalist Party (which later became the Party's left-wing faction). The left wing faction of CPJ tried to contesting in the 1936 and 1940 general elections as the independent candidates.

The dissolution of CPJ benefited the Nationalist Party which later consolidated its power over the national government, the National Front and the revolutionary masses, resulted to the establishment of the de-facto one party state in Japan to recent day.