The Commonwealth of the Philippines is a Commonwealth realm located in Southeast Asia. Annexed by the British during the Seven Years' War in 1762, it was granted dominion status in 1892, briefly a republic from 1965-1986 under Governor-General Ferdinand Marcos after a coup, dominion status was restored after the People Power Revolution in 1986 under Corazon Aquino as its designated Governor-General.
The British East India Company, then the governing power in India, was tasked by King George III to take control of the Spanish colony of the Philippines on 1762, during the onset of the Seven Years' War. After British bombardment, Manila fell. The acting Spanish Governor-General, Manuel Rojo, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila, held to the fortress of Intramuros. It was eventually breached and Archbishop Rojo was placed under house arrest. In a surrender instrument, he relinquished the office of the Governor-General but remained as the Archbishop of Manila.
With Manila firmly in British hands, Sir Dawsonne Drake assumed the role as the first Governor-General on November 2, 1762. The letters patent from London confirmed his office. The following year, British troops occupied the port City of Cavite and used it as a staging point for invasions across the Philippines. Cebu fell into British hands as the Governor raised the white flag in Fort San Pedro of Cebu. Iloilo gave the hardest resistance and after the British breached the Fort San Pedro of Iloilo, the Governor was able to escape to the town of Bacolod, across the Guimaras Strait. The hastily-built Fort San Sebastian was raised to the ground, capturing the beleaguered Governor of Iloilo and the Military Governor of Negros.
Meanwhile in Mindanao, Zamboanga natives rebelled against the Spanish garrison in Fort Pilar. The British came to the aid the rebels and the Rebel-British coalition took over the fort. In honor of the natives, the British did not immediately occupy Zamboanga, designating it as a protectorate within the Philippines.
Simeon de Anda, the Spanish Lieutenant-Governor, fled to Bacolor, Pampanga and organized a resistance. He assumed the role of Interim Governor-General after Archbishop Rojo's capture. With the help of Pampanga natives, he was able to repulse British advances. Diego Silang revolted against the Spanish provincial authorities in Ilocos with arms supplied by the British, raising his standard in Villa de Fernandina. As a reward for Silang's service, Silang was created Count of Ilocos and was designated its first native governor. With Ilocos firmly secured, Silang sent his army south in order to squash Anda's resistance. Bacolor fell on Christmas Day of 1763 and the British standard was raised on top of the town's church. The Treaty of Paris, signed on May 31, 1764 after the war, awarded the Philippines permanently to the British. Despite the protest of the British East India Company, the English Parliament designated the Philippines as a crown colony.
The colony was redivided into new provinces, with former provinces turned into territorial districts. Luzon was divided into Ilocos, Cordillera, Cagayan Valley, Pampanga, Manila, Batangas, Tayabas, Bicol, Mindoro (including Paragua), Madya-as, Cebu, Misamis, Caraga, and Davao. The Pacific Islands of Micronesia, Carolines, and the Marianas were place under the jurisdiction of Cebu. They were later separated to form the Pacific Province, with Agaña in the island of Guam as the capital.
In 1898, after a rebellion by the sugar barons of Negros Island, led by Aniceto Lacson, Baron of Talisay, Negros and Siquijor Islands were separated to form a new autonomous province with Bacolod as the capital. Baron Lacson was appointed as the first Lieutenant-Governor. Zamboanga was later annexed as an autonomous province, while in 1907, the Sultans of Sulu, Cotabato, and Lanao submitted to British suzereignty. North Borneo, originally rented from the Sultan of Sulu, was placed under the jurisdiction of Sulu as a territorial district.