The Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand (also called ANZC, ANZ, CANZ or the Commonwealth) is an association of nations consisting of most of Oceania, including the entire Australian continent and the islands of New Zealand, and the former U.S. states of Alaska and Hawaii. It was formed as a military and economic unification of several independent countries in Oceania with the American Provisional Administration, and with Australia and New Zealand forming the backbone of the union. Following the end of the American Provisional Administration, the ANZC appropriated much of the surviving military assets of the former United States of America. The ANZC's network of associated states encompasses a large portion of the islands of the Pacific Ocean. As of 2010, the ANZC is still considered the most powerful country in the world, though Brazil is beginning to catch up. The ANZC was instrumental in the creation of several of the post-Doomsday global institutions like the WCRB and the League of Nations.
- See main article: History of the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand
The Commonwealth spans a large part of the Pacific Ocean.
These regions are part of the Commonwealth proper. They each have self-government and send members to the ANZC Parliament.
These islands have limited or non-existent local self-government. Some have very small populations or are used as military outposts. The Commonwealth has little to no actual control over many of the uninhabited islands and has so far been unable to enforce its claim over the Cocos.
- Chatham Islands
- Kermadec Islands
- Marcus Island
- Ashmore and Cartier Islands (uninhabited)
- Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)
- Coral Sea Islands (uninhabited)
- Cocos Islands (claimed, disputed)
- Heard Island and McDonald Islands (claimed, uninhabited)
- Okinawa (claimed, uninhabited)
- Howland Island
- Baker Island
- Lord Howe Island
- Miscellaneous Islands (claimed, uninhabited)
These islands govern themselves under the protection of the ANZC, whether by pre-Doomsday agreements with Australia or New Zealand, or through more recent arrangements. The Commonwealth largely conducts their foreign affairs, but several of these states have seats in the League of Nations.
- Free State of Alaska
- Cook Islands (includes Pitcairn Islands)
- East Timor (de facto)
- Norfolk Island
- Papua New Guinea
- The Yukon
In addition, the ANZC jointly occupies the Cape of Good Hope along with South American Confederation forces, and with the SAC manages the provisional RZA regime.
The destruction of Sydney, Melbourne and Perth left a large vacuum in nearly all aspects of Australian life, from business to sport to popular culture.
The Australian cities of Brisbane, Canberra and Adelaide have risen in stature over the years and, along with Auckland in New Zealand, have become the nation's de facto capitals of business, sport, music and culture. Many refugees from the United States and Western European countries have resettled in one of those four cities.
Adelaide, in South Australia, has a population of 1.3 million. Adelaide is home to numerous governmental and financial institutions, and is noted for its many festivals; sporting events; its food, wine and culture; its long beach fronts; and its large defence and manufacturing sectors.
Auckland, on the North Island of former New Zealand, has a population of 1.4 million. It is noted for its cultural and leisure activities, and its port is the third-most active port in the region behind Brisbane's and Singapore's.
Brisbane, located in Queensland, with a population of just under 2 million, is the largest city in the ANZC and its leading cultural and business area. The Port of Brisbane is the nation's most important port. Darling Downs processes grain and livestock from western Australia for consumers in the eastern half.
Canberra - the former capital, located in New South Wales - was "redesigned" to help fill the void in business and culture left by the destruction of Melbourne and Sydney. Its population is just over 740,000, a sizable minority being Papua New Guineans and Asians who resettled there for business, work and/or school.
Other cities have also become prominent since Doomsday, none more so than Jervis Bay. In 1997, its location along the Pacific Ocean and the government's desire to have a capital more easily accessible than Canberra led to Jervis Bay being designated as the new capital. The full transition to Jervis Bay took ten years and was completed in 2007. The national government operates completely out of Jervis Bay today, and incentives have helped pushed the area population to just over 600,000.
Darwin (population: 400,000) has become an important naval base in northern Australia, and port for trade with southeastern Asian nations. It includes a large American expatriate community.
Bunbury, designated as a refugee center after Doomsday, has taken Perth's place as the key city in western Australia. Its population is currently 500,000, including sizable American, British and Chinese communities.
Newcastle, another town designated for refugees post-Doomsday, has earned the nickname of "New Sydney". The city of 600,000 includes a number of refugees from Sydney, some of whom helped to replicate many of Sydney's cultural and sporting landmarks. It is perhaps most famous for the Newcastle Opera House, modelled after the Sydney Opera House landmark and concert hall destroyed on Doomsday. It also serves as one of the Commonwealth's most important ports and industrial hubs (including its steel works).
Geelong was designated as the refugee center for the state of Victoria. A number of former Melbourne residents relocated there, and the city of 600,000 has emerged as the primary city of Victoria. Geelong has been called the spiritual successor to Melbourne.
Other important cities in the ANZC include Gold Coast, Queensland; Hobart, Tasmania; Christchurch, New Zealand (which was severely damaged by an earthquake on September 4, 2010, and farther damaged by another earthquake on February 22 2011, with numerous fatalities); Pago Pago, Samoa; and Hilo, Hawaii.
Government and politicsEdit
The organization of the ANZC basically is divided into four levels.
The highest level is the federal level, where national sovereignty is superseded in certain areas by the ANZC itself. The military is the best-known example, as all member and associated nations are protected not by their national militaries, but by the respective branches of the ANZC military. The ANZC also controls and oversees economic and trade policy for the respective member nations in such matters as establishing a common currency and clarifying rules on trade. The ANZC has also tended to send a single ambassador to various nations representing the entire Commonwealth (as opposed to sending one ambassador from each of the member and associated states. However, some states do send separate ambassadors and establish separate embassies).
All of this has contributed to misunderstanding over the years that the ANZC is in effect one unified nation. While in some respects it is a single entity, in others it is more of an alliance of nations. Where the ANZC has not been granted specific authority over a member or associate nation's affairs, that nation is responsible for governing itself.
That leads to the next level of the ANZC: the national level, represented respectively by the governments of Australia, Micronesia, New Zealand and Samoa, as well as the respective nations associated with the Commonwealth. Each governs its own political and economic affairs, and has limited authority regarding military activities within their own borders.
The third level is the state level. This is not universal to each nation, which subdivides itself politically according to its own laws and constitutions. For example, New Zealand has a national government, and is subdivided by the various towns and cities that make up the country (the local level). Australia on the other hand is subdivided into states and territories, which set policies for their respective territories.
The final, and lowest, level is the local level, consisting of city, town and village governments. Depending on the member nation, those governments may be subject only to the national government and laws, or to both the national government and the state it resides in.
At the federal level, the ANZC is dominated by three strains of political thought: Conservative, Labour, and Green. These are in fact coalitions of local parties which go by different names in the different nation-states of the Commonwealth.
|Australia||Liberal Party||Australia Labor Party||Australian Greens|
|New Zealand||National Party of New Zealand||New Zealand Labour Party||Green Party of Aotearoa|
|Samoa||Liberal Party of Samoa||Human Rights-Labour Party||Fanua Party|
Micronesia has a more complicated political landscape, being sub-federalized into six states. At the local and state levels, political parties do not exist in most of Micronesia, though they are not banned. Political allegiances depend mainly on family and island-related factors. Only the Marshall Islands has a fully developed system of parties, and there the three national coalitions compete with the Marshallese Independence Party (MIP), which advocates secession from the ANZC. At the federal level, many (but not all) candidates for Governor-General, the Senate, and the national Parliament are supported by one of the national coalitions, or the MIP. Samoa also has a strong tradition of nonpartisionship.
As a result of the influx of immigrants into the Commonwealth in the aftermath of Doomsday, a number of nationalist parties were founded by politicians who feared that Australia and New Zealand would lose their cultural identity. Some of these parties were represented in the national parliaments for a while but as the people of the Commonwealth became used to the immigrants these parties lost any national influence they had. That having been said some of these parties are still represented in the various state parliaments.
The Governor-General is in effect the head of state for the entire ANZC; the current holder of the office is the former Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard. The ANZC Governor-General exercises the supreme executive power of the Commonwealth. The functions and roles of the Governor-General include appointing ANZC ambassadors and ministers, giving assent to legislation, issuing writs for elections and bestowing honours. The Governor-General is Commander-in-Chief of the ANZC military, and also the symbolic head of state for both Australia and New Zealand.
The title of Governor-General is a carryover from the offices of the same title formerly part of the Australian and New Zealand governments. There, the governor-general was his or her respective country's head of state and the representative of the monarch of the former United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Although the ANZC no longer has ties to the British monarchy, the title of Governor-General was chosen to for the holder of the top executive branch in the new Commonwealth.
The Governor-General is elected every three years in all ANZC member and associate nations.
The Parliament of Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand, also known as the Commonwealth Parliament or Federal Parliament, is the legislative branch of the government of the ANZC. It is bicameral, largely modeled in the Westminster tradition, but with some influences from the United States Congress.
The lower house, the House of Representatives, currently consists of 250 members, who represent districts known as electoral divisions (commonly referred to as "electorates" or "seats"). The number of members is not fixed, but can vary with boundary changes resulting from electoral redistributions, which are required on a regular basis.
Radio broadcasts of the former Australian Parliamentary proceedings began on 10 July 1946. They were originally broadcast on ABC Radio. Since August 1997 they have since been broadcast on ANZBC NewsRadio and its affiliates throughout the ANZC. ABC is a government owned network of radio stations that exist solely for broadcasting Parliamentary proceedings. It operates 24 hours a day and broadcasts other news items when parliament is not sitting.
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The Commonwealth per se does not have a judicial branch, preferring to leave such things to the respective member nations. Nevertheless, the member and associate nations have coordinated efforts in regards to cases that extend beyond the national level to the "Commonwealth level". Some have long advocated a Commonwealth judicial branch, and numerous pundits are predicting this will eventually come to pass.
The ANZC military does have its own courts, subject to itself and the Commonwealth government.
The ANZC and the South American Confederation have often worked together since the solution of the Panama Canal-question, especially with the formation of the RZA and the Municipal States of the Pacific. Recently, however, intense economic competition and differing positions over the ongoing civil war in India, have led to cooler relations between the two power blocs.
- See main article: Commonwealth Armed Forces
The CAF was first established by order of ANZUS in 1989 to serve Australia, New Zealand, and the territories under the American Provisional Administration. The CAF have increased in size since Australia and New Zealand unified, in order to meet the CANZ's global commitments as the heir to the USA.
CAF markings were changed in 1996 to conform to the new flag of the Commonwealth. The roundels ended up looking almost exactly like the old Jamaican roundels (albeit with a much more bluish green). But Jamaica no longer has its own national government, much less an air force, so there is no real possibility of confusion.
Only six CANZ-associated states have an Air Militia. For their insignia they follow the old British Commonwealth pattern of replacing the central dot with a local emblem. These are as follows:
- Alaska: polar bear
- Hawai'i: humpback whale
- Kiribati: frigatebird
- Vanuatu: boar's tusk
- Papua: bird of paradise
- East Timor: cockatoo
Sport throughout Australia, New Zealand and Oceania was suspended for a time after Doomsday, but not for long. Sport was deemed necessary by the Australian and New Zealand governments to maintain morale, even at a limited level. By the time the Commonwealth came into existence, professional and amateur competition in each of the various sports had fully resumed, and two new leagues - the then-American Football gridiron league, and the Australian Rugby League, had been formed.
Whether the Commonwealth is represented in international competition as one entity or as its constituent member nations depends on the sport. For example, in association football/soccer, the Commonwealth competes as one side. In rugby union, Australia, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea have their own federations, while the various nations and islands of Oceania (including Tonga) compete under their own federation; Samoa has its own federation, and has been allowed by the Commonwealth Rugby Board to include players from the Free State of Hawaii. In ice hockey, Australian and New Zealand players compete under the ANZC banner, while Alaska has its own national federation.
Commonwealth athletes will compete in the upcoming winter and summer Olympic Games as one entity, similarly to Great Britain pre-Doomsday.
The various sportsEdit
With the destruction of Melbourne, Australian Rules Football suffered a devastating blow. Supporters throughout Australia fought to keep the sport alive, and it has now resurfaced as a popular sport in the ANZC. The Australian Football League is the de facto sanctioning body of the sport, and is headquartered in Canberra. Its franchises are located in:
- Adelaide (Adelaide Crows, Port Adelaide Power)
- Auckland (Auckland Hawks)
- Brisbane (Brisbane Bears)
- Bunbury (West Coast Eagles)
- Canberra (Canberra Swans)
- Darwin (Darwin Buffaloes)
- Geelong (Geelong Cats)
- Gold Coast (Gold Coast FC)
- Hobart (Tasmanian Devils)
- Jervis Bay (Jervis Bay Bulldogs, St. Kilda Saints)
Second-tier leagues exist in each of the Australian states, as well as in New Zealand and Hawaii.
Rugby union has a storied history in both Australia and New Zealand. While rugby league is set up on the AFL/American football franchise model, rugby union's top domestic competitions are set up by state and associated territories, as seen in the annual Super 12 competition, comprised of:
- New South Wales (Newcastle)
- Victoria (Geelong)
- Queensland (Brisbane)
- Western Australia (Bunbury)
- South Australia (Adelaide)
- Northern Territory (Darwin)
- Tasmania (Hobart)
- New Zealand North (Auckland)
- New Zealand South (Christchurch)
The ANZC sends three sides, Australia, New Zealand and Samoa/Hawaii to compete in the Six Nations Series against the United American Republic, Fiji and Tonga. There has been discussion about expanding the series by inviting sides from the RZA, Singapore and/or New Britain.
Club competitions are lower profile than their counterparts in league and the AFL, but exist in every state, governed by their respective state's sanctioning body for union. In 2004, the CRB (Commonwealth Rugby Board) professionalized the sport as to allow for better competition with rugby league for players.
Rugby league, with roots as the preferred rugby code in New South Wales and Queensland, has taken off in the last decade due to the more-open, free-flowing style of play and the fact that the Australian Rugby League was willing to pay its players and, subsequently, was prevailing in competition with union for players through the early 2000s. The de facto sanctioning body for the sport, in the ANZC and worldwide, is the Australian Rugby League (ARL). The ARL was established in 1995 and is headquartered in Auckland. The league is based on a franchise model - like the old National Football League gridiron league in America and its successor, the Oceanic Football League. The franchises are:
- Auckland (Auckland Warriors)
- Brisbane (Brisbane Broncos)
- Canberra (Canberra Raiders)
- Gold Coast (Gold Coast Titans)
- Hobart (Tasmania Tigers)
- Jervis Bay (Jervis Bay Rabbitohs)
- Newcastle (Newcastle Knights)
- Papua New Guinea (PNG Rangers)
- Townsville (North Queensland Cowboys)
- Wellington (Southern Orcas)
There is talk of expansion to Singapore, Fiji and/or Samoa by 2016.
Association football (soccer) is rapidly growing in popularity, especially among youth. The Football Federation of the ANZC (FFANZ) was formed in 2004 after a reorganization of the previous overseeing domestic body, Soccer ANZC. The FFA formed a domestic league, the A-League, in 2005. It operates the league which, unlike leagues in other countries built on a pyramid model (several levels of leagues with promotion and demotion), is franchise-based (this is under review, as the Asian Football Federation has requested that FFANZ change to a pyramid model). The current franchises are:
- Adelaide (Adelaide United)
- Brisbane (Brisbane Roar)
- Bunbury (Western Glory)
- Geelong (Geelong Victory)
- Gold Coast (Gold Coast United)
- Newcastle (Newcastle Jets)
- Townsville (North Queensland Fury)
- Wellington (Wellington Phoenix)
Association football's popularity has been boosted by the national side's success in qualifying for the 2010 World Cup in the Celtic Alliance. Some observers believe in the far future, association football will become the dominant code in the country.
Cricket is the favored summer sport in the ANZC. The national cricket teams of Australia and New Zealand play a Test Match series with matches in Brisbane, Geelong (Boxing Day), Canberra (New Year's), Wellington and Christchurch. The ANZC cricket board is in discussions with its counterparts in New Britain, the Celtic Alliance, East Caribbean Federation and the Union Interim Parliament about restarting Test Matches and one-day international matches. Because of the logistical issues involved, such matches will not take place until 2013 at the earliest.
Regional cricket leagues exist ;in every state in Australia and in New Zealand, and there is discussion of expansion into Samoa and Hawaii.
Basketball, at the men's and women's adult levels, has had some success in recent years. A men's domestic premier league exists, with eight clubs playing in the large cities. But average attendance is around 2,500 per match, and Basketball ANZC (the sport's sanctioning body) faces an uphill battle in building basketball as a major national sport.
ANZC athletes are approaching world-class status in several Olympic sports, such as swimming and track and field.
The most popular women's sports include association football, basketball and netball. The national netball league, the ANZ Championship has drawn crowds upwards to 12,000 spectators.
American football has gained longevity and popularity as a niche sport within the ANZC, its growth fueled by expats and refugees from the United States. The Oceanic Football League was founded in Samoa in 1991 as the American Football League, to tie it to the sport of American football and to distinguish the league from the Australian rules and rugby codes. Teams from across the Commonwealth and its associated states participate, located in:
- Adelaide Rams
- Auckland Raiders
- Brisbane Cowboys
- Canberra Colts
- Darwin Bears
- Newcastle Giants
- Pago Pago Dolphins
- Tasmania Browns
American football has certainly not surpassed the traditional sports of Australia and New Zealand, but it has become an important niche sport. After much discussion amongst owners, the AFL approved a name change to the Oceanic Football League in a hastily arranged owners meeting in mid-December 2009. The next month, the owners voted to maintain the league headquarters in Pago Pago but revisit bids from Auckland and Canberra in 2011.
The OFL also is seeking to build ties with recently discovered gridiron leagues in the former United States, as well as to help sponsor the relocation of a Professional Football Hall of Fame to Green Bay, Superior.
During the 1980s and early 1990s it looked as if baseball would join American football as a popular niche sport in Australia. The Australian League was formed in 1986 with six teams, and lasted until 1995. The Claxton Shield, the AL's successor, lasted from 1997 to 2002. Today, baseball is played at an amateur and youth level by Australian enthusiasts and the children of expatriate Americans; the ANZC Baseball Federation governs the sport, most particularly the ANZC's participation in international competition. Supporters are not optimistic about the sport reaching the level of popularity and participation as American football, much less the other football codes.
The highest-drawing sports in 2008 were the Australian Football League (36,000 per match), the Super 12 (21,000), the ARL (16,000), the A-League (13,000), the American Football League (12,000) and the ANZ Championship (8,500).
In accordance with the Remembrance Act of 1995, no sporting events of any kind are played in the Commonwealth on the 26th of September.
The islands of Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand are home to many Aboriginal people. These people are different from the Whites in every way from religion, one of which is "dreamtime", to clothing and language. Many of these aboriginals, unlike the Native Americans have preserved their culture and way of living.
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The ANZC is a global leader in all facets of popular music, from production to promotion to equipment.
The most popular forms of music include adult contemporary, lite rock, electronica, folk, punk, country and a genre known as "Christian praise". The American diaspora has been influential in the redevelopment of the national music scene, particularly in the country and adult contemporary fields.
The ANZC has produced several of the world's most popular music acts. One of them is Keith Urban, from Brisbane, the leading adult contemporary/pop star in the country. Another is Darren Hayes, formerly of the pop duo Savage Garden, and now in the midst of a solid solo career. Silverchair, from Newcastle, is one of the top rock acts in the world.
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Classical music and operaEdit
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Many of the performing arts companies throughout the ANZC receive some form of government assistance, although fund-raising is also an important part of their budgets. Each state in Australia has its own symphony; opera in Australia and New Zealand is governed by Opera ANZC.
The Newcastle Opera House - a near-identical copy to the famed Sydney Opera House - was completed in late August 1997, and opened with much fanfare two weeks before Christmas. Great care was taken to replicate the famed opera house as much as possible. The home for numerous concerts and performances of classical music, opera, and pop and rock music, the Newcastle Opera House is also considered an important cultural symbol for the entire Commonwealth, linking its pre-Doomsday past with its post-Doomsday future.
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Other forms of musicEdit
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Radio and television broadcasting within Australia and New Zealand is governed by the ANZC Broadcasting Authority, an organization jointly created by the Australian and New Zealand governments after the Commonwealth was established in 1995.
The official state network is the ANZC Broadcasting Corporation (ANZBC), which was created from the merger of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation.
It is state-funded but enjoys editorial and programming autonomy, and competes with a host of privately-owned broadcasters, including Capital Radio Network; SBS; and Star FM. ANZBC also operates affiliates in all associated territories. The ANZBC (formed by a merger of the Australian and New Zealand Broadcasting Corporations when their two countries merged) competes with the Seven and Nine Networks and SBS (also publicly owned) for viewers.
ANZBC has affiliates in all of the Commonwealth's associated states, and includes SBS programming in those areas; Seven and Nine provide network and syndicated programming for stations known as "Channel Two" in all of the ANZC states. All Australian networks also syndicate programming throughout Asia, Europe and North America and in select parts of Africa, the Caribbean, Central America, Siberia and South America.
The Australian government operates an Australian Broadcasting Channel for government purposes; the ANZBC provides similar services for the New Zealand, Samoan and Micronesian governments, giving those respective governments total editorial and programming control (as mandated by law) while providing equipment and studios.
The ANZBC operates numerous local radio stations, in addition to seven national networks and international service Radio ANZC.
ANZBC Local Radio' is the Corporation's flagship radio station in each broadcast area. There are 66 individual stations, each with a similar format consisting of locally presented light entertainment, news, talk back, music, sport and interviews, in addition to some national programming such as AM, PM, The World Today, sporting events and Nightlife.
ANZBC Radio National broadcasts more than 60 special interest programs per week covering a range of topics including music, comedy, book readings, radio dramas, poetry, science, health, the arts, religion, social history and current affairs.
ANZBC NewsRadio, previously known as the Parliamentary and News Network, is a rolling news service. The service was established to broadcast federal parliamentary sittings, to relieve the local Australian Broadcasting Corporation radio affiliate from this intermittent task, and to provide a news service at other times. The network broadcasts news on a 24/7 format with updates on the quarter-hour. Much of its news content is produced by the ANZBC itself. Some programming comes via tape from the Celtic Alliance's RTE network.
ANZBC Concert FM came from the merger of ABC's Classic FM and Radio New Zealand's Concert network. It broadcasts classical music and opera, along with regular news updates. Its format borrowed heavily from community stations that eventually founded the Fine Music Network in Australia, as well as the BBC Radio 3 radio station in the former United Kingdom.
Triple J is the national youth radio network, and broadcasts contemporary alternative and independent music; it is targeted at people aged 18–35. While the network plays music from around the world, it has a strong focus on local artists.
Dig Music is aimed at fans of popular music from PNG, Indonesia, Singapore and the Philippines.
ANZBC Jazz carries different styles of jazz music.
ANZBC Country broadcasts country and western music, including pre- and post-Doomsday varieties from America.
Within Australia and New Zealand, the ANZBC operates four channels.
ANZBC1, the Corporation's primary television service, receives the bulk of funding for television and shows first-run comedy, drama, documentaries, and news and current affairs. In each state and territory a local news bulletin is shown at 7.00 p.m. nightly.
ANZBC2 shows repeated programs from ABC1, as well as some original content including news programs, children's shows, animation, and music shows.
A children's channel, named ANZBC3, launched in December 2009.
ANZBC4, also known as News24, is a free-to-air news dedicated channel.
SBS, Seven, Nine commercial television networksEdit
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Capital Radio, SBS radio, Star FM and other commercial radio broadcastersEdit
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Australia greatly depended on the newspapers in Canberra, Brisbane, Adelaide and Darwin to spread news and information after Doomsday, and since then they have become important sources of news and opinion in the region. Auckland and Jervis Bay's papers have joined that group.
In the aftermath of Doomsday, the then Australian aeronautical facility of Woomera remained largely unused, as space exploration and missile testing was seen as a pointless venture. However, more than thirteen years after Doomsday, the newly formed ANZC saw space exploration and, more importantly, the launching of communications satellites as a vital part of future faster coordination between itself and other nations. Thus, the Woomera facility was renamed into the Woomera Space Center and significant funds were were used to make the Space Center one of the most important hubs of space exploration. The first test rocket was launched in 2000 and was simply called the ANZC-1, while some time later the ANZC-2, was launched on the newly developed rocket payload system called the "Kiwi"
Since January 12, 2009, the facility is officially under LoNASO jurisdiction, while the Woomera Prohibited Area remains under ANZC jurisdiction as it is a matter of national security.
The site was most recently used to launch the third and fourth GLONASS satellites into orbit, the "James Cook" and the "Tasmanian devil", respectively. These were the first satellites of the network not to be launched from Siberia.