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The colonisation of Africa has a long history, the most famous phase being the European Scramble for Africa of the nineteenth century.
The main colonial powers are France, United Kingdom and Portugal. Of lesser importance are Belgium, Italy and Spain. The German Empire's territories where given out of France and United Kingdom after World War I as specified by the Treaty of Versailles (1920).
The French Union has:
- French Protectorate of Morocco
- Protectorate of Tunisia
- French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) with its capital in Dakar. Compromises the colonies of Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.
- French Equatorial Africa (Afrique équatoriale française, AEF) with its capital in Brazaville. Compromises the colonies of Gabon, Middle Congo, Oubangui-Chari and Chad
- French Somaliland (Côte française des Somalis)
- French Indian Ocean (Océan indien francais OIF) with its capital in Saint-Denis. Compromises Réunion, Comoros and Mayotte, and
- French Territories of Sahara or South Territories (Territoire français du Sahara ou Territoires du Sud) with its capital in Alger. Compromises all territories south of Algeria.
The Imperial Commonwealth Federation has:
- Union of South Africa (Dominion status)
The protectorates of
- Kingdom of Egypt (until 1932, gained independence)
- Bechuanaland Protectorate(1)
- Kingdom of Swaziland(1)
- British Somaliland
- Sultanate of Zanzibar
The Crown colonies of
- Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (dissolved in 1932)
- British West Africa (Sierra Leona + Gambia + British Gold Coast)
- | British Nigeria
- British East Africa (Kenya + Uganda + Tanganyika Territory)
- British Central Africa or Rhodesia-Nyasaland (Northern Rhodesia + Southern Rhodesia + Nyasaland Protectorate)
- Territory of Basutoland(1)
- Suez Canal Zone
1) Administered by the High Commission Territories of Southern Africa
- Mozambique, capital Lourenço Marques
- Angola, capital Luanda
- Portuguese Guinea (Guiné Portuguesa), capital Bissau
- São Tomé and Príncipe (São Tomé e Príncipe), capital São Tomé
- Cape Verde (Cabo Verde), capital Praia
Italy has the territories of:
- / / Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) or Libya (Libia)
- / / Italian Eritrea (Colonia eritrea) or Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI)
- / / Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana)
Kingdom of Belgium has:
- Belgian Congo (Congo belge)
Spain has the territories of
- Western Sahara (Sáhara Occidental, former Spanish Sahara)
- Spanish Protectorate of Morocco, until 1931 when it became the independent Rif Republic
- Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, former Spanish Territories of the Gulf of Guinea)
The German Empire until 1920 had the territories of:
- German Cameroon (Kamerun), split between UK and France
- German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika), given to UK (British East Africa)
- German South West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika, DSWA), given to the Union of South Africa
- Togoland protectorate (Schutzgebiet Togo), split between UK and France
Since 1912, the Convention of Tangier signed between Spain, France and UK, had Tangier designated has an international territory. Italy, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, United States and Federation of Socialist Republics have adhered to the convention since then.