The colonisation of Africa has a long history, the most famous phase being the European Scramble for Africa of the nineteenth century.

The main colonial powers are France, United Kingdom and Portugal. Of lesser importance are Belgium, Italy and Spain. The German Empire's territories where given out of France and United Kingdom after World War I as specified by the Treaty of Versailles (1920).

The only independent states are Liberia and Ethiopian Empire.

Specifically Egypt (until 1932), Bechuanaland, Swaziland, British Somaliland, Zanzibar, Morocco and Tunisia are protectorates of the Imperial Commonwealth Federation or French Union.

Colonial Territories

The French Union has:

  • Civil ensign of French Morocco French Protectorate of Morocco
  • Flag of French Tunisia Protectorate of Tunisia
  • AOF French Union French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) with its capital in Dakar. Compromises the colonies of Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.
  • AEF French Union French Equatorial Africa (Afrique équatoriale française, AEF) with its capital in Brazaville. Compromises the colonies of Gabon, Middle Congo, Oubangui-Chari and Chad
  • Alternative flag French Somaliland French Somaliland (Côte française des Somalis)
  • Madagascar French Union Madagascar
  • Flag of the Minister of Overseas France French Indian Ocean (Océan indien francais OIF) with its capital in Saint-Denis. Compromises Réunion, Comoros and Mayotte, and
  • Flag of the Minister of Overseas France French Territories of Sahara or South Territories (Territoire français du Sahara ou Territoires du Sud) with its capital in Alger. Compromises all territories south of Algeria.

The Imperial Commonwealth Federation has:

The protectorates of

  • Flag of Egypt (1922–1958) Kingdom of Egypt (until 1932, gained independence)
  • Flag of Botswana Bechuanaland Protectorate(1)
  • Flag of Swaziland 1894 Kingdom of Swaziland(1)
  • Somaliland Brit British Somaliland
  • Flag of the Sultanate of Zanzibar Sultanate of Zanzibar

The Crown colonies of

1) Administered by the High Commission Territories of Southern Africa

The Portuguese territories compromise the Overseas Provinces of:

  • Flag of Portuguese East Africa (proposal) Mozambique, capital Lourenço Marques
  • Flag of Portuguese West Africa (proposal) Angola, capital Luanda
  • Flag of Portuguese Guinea (proposal) Portuguese Guinea (Guiné Portuguesa), capital Bissau
  • Flag of Portuguese Sao Tome and Principe (proposal) São Tomé and Príncipe (São Tomé e Príncipe), capital São Tomé
  • Flag of Portuguese Cape Verde (proposal) Cape Verde (Cabo Verde), capital Praia

Italy has the territories of:

  • Flag of Italy (1861-1946) / Flag of Fascist Italy (fictional) / Flag of Italy Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) or Libya (Libia)
  • Flag of Italy (1861-1946) / Flag of Fascist Italy (fictional) / Flag of Italy Italian Eritrea (Colonia eritrea) or Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI)
  • Flag of Italy (1861-1946) / Flag of Fascist Italy (fictional) / Flag of Italy Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana)

Kingdom of Belgium has:

Spain has the territories of

  • Western Sahara (Sáhara Occidental, former Spanish Sahara)
  • Flag of Spanish Morocco Spanish Protectorate of Morocco, until 1931 when it became the independent Rif Republic
  • Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, former Spanish Territories of the Gulf of Guinea)

The German Empire until 1920 had the territories of:

  • Reichskolonialflagge German Cameroon (Kamerun), split between UK and France
  • Reichskolonialflagge German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika), given to UK (British East Africa)
  • Reichskolonialflagge German South West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika, DSWA), given to the Union of South Africa
  • Reichskolonialflagge Togoland protectorate (Schutzgebiet Togo), split between UK and France

Since 1912, the Convention of Tangier signed between Spain, France and UK, had Tangier designated has an international territory. Italy, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, United States and Federation of Socialist Republics have adhered to the convention since then.

See also

Black Nationalism

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