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|Collective Security Treaty Organization|
|Formation||March 2nd, 2010|
|Secretary General||Leonel Fernández|
|Former name||Warsaw Pact|
The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) (Russian: Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности) is an organization meant to promote closer ties between the USSR and its allies, helping coordinate a common defense and military conduct. Some older academics, in organizational terms, find this organization to be similar to the former Warsaw Treaty/Pact organisation.
The proposal was announced on the 12th of December 2009 following a press conference in Krasnoyarsk headed by Aman Tuleyev. He stated that this would "...improve relations between the remaining socialist nations" and "...pave the way for a future broader organization covering both military and economic issues". Tuleyev visited his allies in early February 2010, in order to formally present them with his idea. The treaty was formally ratified on March 2nd, 2010, which was followed by celebration and fireworks in Siberia's capital, Krasnoyarsk.
Since then, the organization has grown, as the Confederation of African Marxist Countries became a regional partner in Africa on April 13th, 2010. The organization is also actively helping Nicaragua and Costa Rica with rebels on their respective borders. This is the first joint operation of the CSTO.
The charter reaffirms the desire of all future participating states to abstain from the use or threat of force. Signatories are not be able to join other military alliances or other groups of states, while aggression against one signatory would be perceived as an aggression against all. To this end, the CSTO will hold yearly military command exercises for the CSTO nations to have an opportunity to improve inter-organization cooperation.
The CSTO employs a "rotating presidency" system in which the country presiding the CSTO alternates every year. The current leader is the Dominican Republic, with Leonel Fernández as the current head of the organization, as the former one died in September, 2011.
States that are full-time members of the organization:
- People's Republic of Angola
- Dominican Republic
- Polish People's Republic
- Union of Sovereign Socialist Republics
Joint shows of force are rather difficult to excercise, as many member states are quite far apart from each other. Siberian military advisors do however maintain a permanent presence in most of them.
These countries and organizations have agreed to cooperate with the CSTO regarding regional problems, while abstaining from any larger military commitment:
- Confederation of Socialist West African Nations - joined late 2011.
Collective rapid reaction force
The proposal also outlined the creation of the Collective Rapid Reaction Force (KSOR). The force is intended to be used to repulse military aggression, conduct anti-terrorist operations, fight transnational crime and drug trafficking, and neutralize the effects of natural disasters. The first brigade of the KSOR was created in October of 2010 and since then, two more have been formed. The KSOR has a permanent base in Nueva Gerona, as most member states are in the Caribbean.
These forces have replaced Siberian troops that were deployed in Nicaragua in May, 2011. Their mission is to secure the border with Costa Rica and to stop the drug trafficking in the region originating in the cross-border area.