|Cold War (1970–1980)|
|Cold War (1981–1990)|
The Cold War is an ongoing conflict between the United States of America which leads its NATO allies and its non-NATO friends against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and its satellite states and allies. Its start is usually stated as being 1947 and is ongoing. It is called the Cold War because it has not resulted in direct armed conflict between the major powers. The major reason, often cited, for this is the numerous nuclear arsenals the two side possess, which would lead to Mutual Assured Destruction (M.A.D).
There have been several armed conflicts between client states or ideological allies. The major conflicts include: the Korean War (1950-1953), the Vietnam War (1959-1979), the China Crises (1979-2012), Iran- Afghanistan War (1979-1983), the Persian Gulf War (1991), the Korean War II (2003). While the Arms Race portion of the Cold War has slowed since 1970, the Space Race has been the driving force between the two superpowers. Fortunately, the two countries are now experiencing a period of Détente in the Space Race with several joint missions of exploration and their first research project (attempt at anti-matter production on Mercury) is in development.
1947-1953The Cold War period is the period that started with the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to the conclusion of the Korean Conflict in 1953. The cold war started right after the end of World War II and lasted through most of the 20th century. It was during this early period of the Cold War that the United States started a policy of containment of the Soviet Union to stop the expansion Soviet led communism, after Greece and Turkey both were threatened by communist takeover.
The death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in 1953 to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. This was a tense period but there was a thaw between the major players. Though there was unrest in the Eastern Bloc following Stalin's death, there was a reduction of tension demonstrated with the signing of the Austrian State Treaty that allowed Austria to reunite - as well as the Geneva Accords to end the fighting in Indochina. Despite these improvements, the Arms race continued during these years, as the United States adopted a policy of massive retaliation and the Soviets a belief in Nuclear deterrence. The Cuban revolution also happened during this period, putting a Soviet ally a short distance from the United States.
This period is marked by Cuban Missile Crisis - the most tense time in the Arms Race up until now, to the intensifying of the Space Race. During this time the United States had a President (Kennedy) call on America to go to the moon by decade's end. It is also during this time that the American efforts in Vietnam intensified and Soviet leadership in international socialism is challenged with their split with China.
The Vietnam war intensified throughout much of the decade. Yet the Nixon Administration was seeking to slow the money going to the war and move some the funding into the space program to counter the Soviet funding increases.