The Environment, according to its broad definition, is the complex, collective system of the Earth’s flora, fauna, resources, elements, climate, geographical features, and atmosphere. This includes, but not limited to: plants, animals, minerals, water, atmosphere, plate tectonics, weather, mountains, biomes, and much more. Humans also have shaped the environment as well, creating their own environment known as a ‘built’ environment, while the natural environment is the ‘natural’ environment. It has shaped and formed human civilization over the years. Since the Industrial Revolution, the ‘built’ environment has become a large part of the Earth’s surface. There is also a concept known as geopolitics, which is an effect from the environment and the actions of humans.

For billions of years, the Earth has been through a road of numerous events, from a burning rock to a tropical paradise to the Ice Age and back and forth between the latter two. During this time, numerous species of flora and fauna, an overwhelming majority now extinct, have flourished the Earth, including dinosaurs, giant insects, first reptiles, and the famed of ancient mammals, such as mammoths and saber-tooth tigers. Concurrent with this was the origin of humans, who began as a primitive ape, which evolved over time to become the human we know today.

Until the 20th Century, it is widely believed that natural forces only had the power to shape the world. However, as technology became more advanced and knowledge began to grow and spread, humans began to mold their planet according to their desires. Some techniques, especially terraforming, have shaped the land in many ways good or bad.

This page explains the relationship between human civilization and the environment, the natural resources, biospheres, and geological shifts.

Natural Resources

Energy Resources

Fossil Fuels


See: Oil

Oil, also officially known as petroleum or crude oil, is a natural, flammable liquid that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons of various substances and other liquid organic compounds. Oil is found in geologic formations beneath the Earth’s surface. It is a fossil fuel along with natural gas, which is fuel made out of the large quantities of dead organisms, which are usually zooplankton and algae. They are buried beneath sedimentary rock and undergo a process of intense heat and pressure. It is usually excavated by using oil drilling. This latter stage come after the structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis, and reservoir characterization is done around the site. When drilled, it is refined and separated, most easily when heated at boiling point. Oil is used as fuel (petrol, kerosene, asphalt), but also in consumer products, including plastics and pharmaceuticals. It is estimated that the world uses 88 million barrels each day. However, their use has caused a negative impact on the environment, releasing greenhouse gases and pollutants that damage ecosystems. Events that involve oil such as oil spills revolve around environmental damage as well.

Natural Gas

Renewable Energy Fuels

Solar Power
Wind Power
Tidal Power
Geothermal Energy

Mineral and Metal Resources

Precious Metals

Industrial Metals




Biotic Resources (Agriclutural Resources)

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