Classical era timeline ("Krater'oi")
June 10th, 323 BC- Craterus is summoned to Babylon by Alexander the Great. After Alexander's death, two conflicting theories about who will succeed him arise; one faction who believes he said "Krater'oi", leaving his empire to Craterus, and those who believe he uttered "Krat'eroi" (to the stronger). Those whose believe the empire should go to the stronger general rallied to Perdiccas.
The Craterian Dynasty
The Seleucid Rebellion
As the debate over Alexander's successor continues, hostilities begin to develop among the generals. Tensions flare when Perdiccas is killed by an assassin near the Temple of Marduk. Craterus is accused of foul play by Seleucus and the other generals who supported Perdiccas. They call for Craterus's immediate execution. When he fails to convince the other generals, Seleucus sends Laomedon and a small force to kill Craterus. Craterus escapes, and reveals the assassination plot to the generals. Many of Seleucus's supporters abandon him and join Craterus. Seleucus himself is killed by one of his own soldiers. Those who conspired alongside Seleucus flee Babylon and try to escape into Persia, but are caught and killed by Ptolemy I Soter. Craterus was then pronounced emperor of the Macedonian empire on July 29, 323 BC.
Upon hearing news of Alexander's death, several Greek cities revolted and besieged Antipater at the fortress of Lamia. Craterus sent a fleet and an army to relieve Antipater, then move inland to suppress the Greeks. The resistance ended on April 14, 322 BC, with the Macedonian victory at the Battle of Thespiae. This and other victories in Asia Minor solidified Macedonian control over the region.
One of Alexander the Great's dreams was to conquer the Carthaginian empire. Before his death, Craterus had been charged with the task of constructing a fleet to embark on such a campaign. After dealing with the Greeks, Craterus turns his full attention to finishing the fleet and conquering Carthage. On March 3rd, 321 BC, Craterus sets sail with 1030 warships and about 76,000 soldiers. In addition, he sends Ptolemy I Soter with 20,000 cavalry to conquer Libya and attack Carthage by land. Upon reaching Malta, Craterus sends the general Meleager and 18,000 troops to capture Sicily, while he led the main force into Africa.
Upon reaching Carthage, Craterus immediately lays siege to the city. However, he soon receives word that several neighboring cities and Numidian tribes are gathering forces to relieve Carthage, forcing him to divert some of his forces from the siege. At the battle of Zama Regia (Oct. 320 BC), Craterus defeats most of Carthage's allies, but is unable to rout the Numidians. This changed, when Ptolemy's forces arrive at Sufetula (Feb. 319 BC), forcing the Numidians to pull back in order to confront him. Craterus used this distraction to seize the Numidian city of Thugga and conquer the Carthaginian city of Hadrumento. With the Numidians pacified, Craterus was now free to return to Carthage.
Ptolemy's campaign across Africa went easily, meeting little resistance from the Carthaginians. At Sufetula, he meets a large Numidian force, which he defeats in battle. After defeating the Numidians, Ptolemy marched north toward Hippo Regius, conquering the remaining Numidian forces as he goes. Upon reaching his destination, he receives reinforcements, along with orders to continue the campaign as far as the Pillars of Hercules (the Gibraltar Strait). Again, Ptolemy meet little resistance until he arrived at Iol (June 319 BC). It was there that the Massaesyli Numidians were able to halt his campaign after a lengthy battle. While the Greeks came out victorious, Ptolemy did not have the men to continue any further.
After hearing news of the Numidians defeat, the king of Carthage decided that capitulation was the only way to save his people. On August 1st, 319 BC, Carthage officially surrendered to Craterus, giving up all territory in the Mediterranean.