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Point of Divergence
On April 14, 1865, conspirators including John Wilkes Booth kill President Abraham Lincoln, Vice President Andrew Johnson, and Secretary of War William Seward. President pro tempore of the Senate Lafayette S. Foster became the 17th President of the United States, and the United States claimed that the Confederacy was responsible for the assassinations. Therefore, the United States disregarded the peace agreement and sent troops into Virginia, starting another part to the War.
|American Civil War|
|Civil War Continues Timeline|
France (From 1865)
Britain (From 1867)
Canada (From 1867)
|Commanders and leaders|
Ulysses S. Grant
George B. McClellan
William T. Sherman (KIA)
John C. Breckinridge
Robert E. Lee
Stonewall Jackson (KIA)
Joseph E. Johnston
|Casualties and losses|
~177,000 Killed in Action/died of Wounds
~435,000 Total Dead
~125,000 Killed in action/died of wounds
~370,000 Total Dead
Civil War (Starting 1865)
The Civil war appears to come to a close at General Lee's surrender at Appomattox. However, just five days later, conspirators kill Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, and William Seward. New President Lafayette S. Foster believed that Slavery was unethical but constitutional. However, he was close to Johnson and Seward, and extremely upset with what had occurred. Four days after the assassination, Foster ordered George McClellan and Ulysses G. Grant to gather troops and invade the Confederacy. Grant marches West from into Virginia, and after Alexandria is captured, militia forces in Virginia begin to gather. Grant attacks the city of Manassas, and local militia forces are slaughtered, with many scared townspeople evacuating. At this point, the Confederacy declares war on the Union, as they broke their promise from the treaty. Judah Benjamin, the Confederate Secretary of State, urges Britain, Spain and France to all declare war on the United States. France agrees, because "they can not tolerate a country breaking its promise to what it claims to be its own people", when really this was an excuse to benefit from the Southern cheep cotton, and retain their satellite Mexican empire under Max 3. With this raised morale, the South manages to get more people to enlist, but has a shortage of uniforms, ammunition, guns, boats, and nearly everything other than manpower. Britain sympathizes with the Confederacy but does not want to declare war. They agree to supply the Confederacy with weapons, and refine the Southern cotton into uniforms, but the Confederacy takes a loan from the British to pay for this. However, the British North American Colonies join together to form the Dominion of Canada, to protect from a Union invasion. The Union forces generally advance into Confederate territory, trying to punish Confederates. However, the Confederacy, with help from the French and British, are able to regain control of the Mississippi River. Also, Joseph E. Johnston begins to push William T. Sherman's forces southwards, regaining Columbia, South Carolina. Finally, the 13th amendment is passed in December, abolishing slavery.
Lafayette Foster re-institutes habeas corpus, because it does not make sense to go to war with people for unconstitutional acts while committing unconstitutional acts. Meanwhile, Confederate Congress passes a law that allows the hanging of any blacks captured while in a Union uniform, and a different law restricting Blacks to serve in the military. The Confederacy, without having any gold to back its currency, seemed to not be able to pay its loan, and Britain stopped sending supplies and soldiers. This caused the Union to become slightly more successful, and was victorious in the Battle of Natchez, causing the Union to regain control of the Mississippi. But the Confederacy made a bold move, and decided to invade the Union in the midwest, becoming successful in capturing Evansville, Indiana. This became key, as the Confederacy would go east along the Ohio River. They also regained Augusta, Georgia, continuing to push Sherman back from his campaigns. In September, Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Potomac caused a further Confederate retreat in the battle of Culpepper. In November, outnumbered French troops held out in Gordonsville, causing Grant's forces to go slightly west and protecting the key railroad. In December, Robert E. Lee's forces along with forces from Kentucky led by Simon Bolivar Buckner prepared for battle in Charlottesville. A French messenger arrived in Charlottesville saying that the French troops were pushing Grant westward towards Charlottesville. When Grant arrived at Charlottesville, he did not expect a more than militia forces, and immediately retreated southward. The French, knowing that Grant would not cross back over the Rivanna River, had prepared themselves Southeast of Charlottesville. As Grant retreated, he ended up at , and was surrounded (by the Confederates on one side and French on the other). After being attacked from behind by Robert E. Lee's Forces, the Union army disperses, and the most Union deaths of any battle in the Civil War, with 5,500 Union deaths, and over 30,000 Union casualties. Grant manages to escape, but is alone and injured. Also in December, the Confederacy holds a Presidential election, with John C. Breckinridge winning along with running mate Robert M.T. Hunter. That "Centralist" ticket defeated the "Confederalist" ticket of Zebulon B. Vance and Joseph E. Brown, among others.
In January, Japan buys "Russian America", aka Alaska, from Russia, after the US, France, and Britain all turn it down. At the Second Battle of Atlanta, Joseph Johnston picked up forces from Alabama to help him, and overwhelmed Sherman's force, and Sherman was captured. Georgia was never invaded again by the Union, and Atlanta slowly began to rebuild. Jefferson Davis, as he was preparing to leave office, sent Secretary of State Judah Benjamin to Britain to try to get them to join the war. In March, Breckinridge takes oath as the next President, and Jefferson Davis decides to join the Confederate Army. Later in March, the good news returns that Britain will begin to prepare for war with the United States. In April, William T. Sherman was hanged, creating a boost of morale especially in the deep south. Also in April, the Union decided to invade Missouri, attempting to eventually regain the key city of St. Louis, which is on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. By August, the Union had captured all land North of the Mississippi River in Missouri and Kansas, but could not capture anything in the South, including Jefferson City. The Confederacy, after completely outnumbering the Union in the Eastern Front, decides to invade and head towards Washington. They recapture everything in Northeastern Virginia, capturing Alexandria in September. Just days later, Britain declares war. Britain invades and wins the Battle of Plattsburgh in October, just like it did in the war of 1812. In November, after Plattsburgh and also Burlington, Vermont had been captured, Lincoln asks the Confederacy for a peace agreement. In December, people from the USA, CSA, Great Britain, and France all meet in Washington to discuss peace treaty. Another convention is held in Saratoga Springs with the USA and British Canada, but that is not attended by Lincoln. In the Treaty of Saratoga, the only border change that occurs is that a small portion of Northern Maine becomes part of New Brunswick.
The Washington Agreement, granted the Confederacy Independence, and was agreed upon in February. It dealt with which states would be Confederate, with main debates surrounding territories, West Virginia, and Kansas. It was decided that Kansas, the Unorganized Oklahoma Territory, and the Arizona and New Mexico Territories were given to the CSA, and West Virginia stayed with the Union. The Union was not allowed to invade again, and the Confederacy was not allowed to use Cotton Diplomacy in order to receive the diplomatic upper hand. This ends the Civil War, and the Confederacy becomes independent and recognized by the USA, Britain, and France. Later, they get recognition from Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Russia, Prussia, Belgium, Italy, and Mexico.
Recovery, Post War, and Barren Years (1868-1876)
Recovery process begins in the South. Their economy has suffered greatly, and its currency collapses just three months after the war, especially due to the lack of payment to conscripts and lack of taxes. To change this, Breckinridge implemented his new three stepped system. He first created the New Confederate Dollar, with new designs and printing on the front and back. Second, set up mints in Richmond, New Orleans, Memphis, and Montgomery. Finally, he ordered construction of Fort Breckinridge, which would be a major Confederate fortress, Army training Academy, mint, and storage place of all of the government's precious belongings (similar to Fort Knox), and it would be located in South Carolina on the Savannah River, near Augusta, Georgia. Breckinridge then tries to install a tax system. This was heavily critisized by the Confederalists, but he raises the capitation tax of each state. Breckinridge also created a law that stated that the government may buy land from any private owner, and they may own land in new territories. He also allowed the government to own slaves. This allowed the government to get cotton for itself to sell to the British and French Empires for Gold andother goods. In 1868, Breckinridge set the Confederacy on the right path economically. In the North, Foster realizes that he has no chance of re-election, especially as he was never even on the ticket. He makes a law specifying the succession and the appointment of new officials after succession, and the 14th amendment passes, granting citizenship to all African Americans and women. In the new election, Foster is nominated, but knowing that he would not win, he declines. Benjamin Wade was chosen as the Republican Presidential candidate, with his running mate being Henry Wilson. The Democrats chose Thomas A. Hendricks as the Presidential Candidate with James W. Denver as his running mate. The Wade-Wilson ticket won by a large margin, as it was an extreme ticket that showed promise after such a loss.
Breckinridge makes the new currency official, with denominations of $1.00, $2.00, $5.00, $10.00, $20.00, $50.00, and $100.00, as well as $0.50 and $0.10. He puts Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, John C. Breckinridge, Stonewall Jackson, John C. Calhoun, Robert Toombs, Judah Benjamin, Andrew Jackson, and Slaves working on the front of the bills, and on the back he puts drawings in memory of major civil war battles. Breckinridge argues in favor the Confederate Bill Of Rights, basically the same as the United States Bill of Rights, which gets passed in February. He then proposes four more amendments: One defines citizenship, and grants all white men citizenship, regardless of religion (especially for Jews). Another would grant women equal protection under the law, but not the right to vote. A third would restrict Congress from passing any law that would end the internal slave trade. The Final amendment mainly focused on the judicial system, determining that the Supreme Court could only rule on whether or not laws were constitutional, interstate cases, and cases where the state was sued. This means that for criminal cases, the state court is the highest court of appeals. The Third and Fourth proposals passed congress in 1869, and the First passed just the house in 1869. Breckinridge also set up more naval bases, and ordered the construction of ships to combat the weakness exposed by the Union Blockade. Key bases began construction in Norfolk, Pensacola, Charleston, New Orleans, St. Louis, Wilmington, Galveston, Mobile, and Savannah. Two naval training academies would be in Mobile and Norfolk. In the North, Benjamin Wade is sworn in as the 18th US President. The 15th amendment passes, granting African-Americans the right to vote. Wade focused in on the rights of African Americans, including the passing of a law that ensured equal compensation of Blacks and Whites in the military. He also proposed a bill that restricted non-American citizens from crossing the US-Confederate border to search for escaped slaves, which was not passed until 1870, and supported the Freedmen's Bureau. Wade next focused on Women's rights, trying to eventually sway enough people to grant women the vote.
The 11th Confederate amendment, which defines the roles of the Supreme Court, is passed. John C. Breckinridge decides to install two holidays; One would be Independence Day, celebrated February 3rd. The other would be Remembrance Day, celebrated April 12. These would remain Confederate holidays for the rest its history. In March, Breckinridge passed a law allowing the federal government to restrict trade with any specific Union state, with the punishment for trading with those states being a fee. This passed a majority of both houses, and in May, Breckinridge restricted trade with California. The Supreme Court of Texas, however, determined that this law was unconstitutional, calling it a tax that would need to pass two thirds of congress, not just a majority. Texas resumed trade with California. Since this law had already been ruled constitutional, Breckinridge had no choice but to sue the state of Texas. In Breckinridge v. Lubbock, the Supreme Court ruled five to three that the state courts can deem federal laws as null if they are determined unconstitutional by a state supreme court. Breckinridge, a centralist, then proposed yet another amendment, which would end nullification. However, this did not pass the Senate as the senate had enough Confederalists to reject it. The 12th amendment passed, defining citizenship in the Confederacy. In December, the 13th amendment also passed, restricting congress from banning the internal slave trade. Breckinridge was beginning to become hated by State governments. Breckinridge, however, was shocked when he heard the Robert E. Lee had died, and Breckinridge saw this as a chance to grant more war heroes high ranking offices. In the North, Ben Wade was pushed back about women's suffrage, but managed to pass the 16th amendment, granting women the right to vote in local elections in all future territories newly admitted to the Union. Ben Wade raised taxes, especially tariffs, and tried to cut off ties with the Confederacy, as they would collapse without urbanization. Wade ordered the construction of railroads, national banks, and military hospitals, and raised the pension from the Civil War. However, he would soon find that the United states was beginning to lack key resources, and not have enough trade partners to help. Britain, France, Spain, Canada, and the Confederacy all where now against the USA, and they had lost the production of raw materials, especially cotton, during the Civil War. In October 1870, the economy began to collapse due to Wade's policies, and in December, Wade lifted almost all tariffs, hoping that this would cheapen trade. Instead, many Federal agencies were bankrupt and began to shut down.
In the South, Breckinridge saw the coming economic crisis in the North, and decided to shut down all trade with each Northern State. He was smarter this time, though, requiring jail time, instead of a fine, for smuggling. No state Supreme Courts ruled this unconstitutional, and the Confederacy isolated itself from the Union, and advised Britain and France to do the same. In 1871, the Union managed to find some trade partners in Spain, Portugal, Russia, and Belgium, though they could not provide anything close to what Britain and France offered to the Confederacy. The Union had realized that they needed good tropical land to grow their own cotton on, and asked Spain to purchase the Dominican Republic. Spain accepted at a price of $10,000,000. In order to pay this, the Union raised taxes and began to print more money. This caused inflation, and an economic disaster. However, with the USA now in control of the Dominican Republic, they set their sights on Haiti. The United states thought that they could capture a key source of Sugar and Rum, and that would help their trade, especially as they sold mass produced goods in the markets of Haiti. In 1871, the United States, just four months after buying the Dominican Republic, invaded Haiti, sparking the Haiti Conflict. Haitian President Fabre Gerrard claimed that this was a religious war, and that the Catholics where being massacred by the Protestants. At this point, the pope denounced the United States, and Russia and Spain began to have a rift with the USA, continuing the decline. In 1871, the Haitian military successfully fended off the Americans, who had no more funding, and won the two month long war. Wade, now basically causing a complete collapse of the economy, asked countries worldwide if they would purchase the Dominican Republic. The only country that accepted was the Confederacy. It was sold to the Confederacy for just $7,000,000 because of the destroyed property, land, and government. The Confederacy happily introduced the Dominican Territory, and installed slavery there. Fire-Eaters saw this as a chance to reopen the triangle slave trade, as they now had the means to make rum. The Fire-Eaters organized as a political party, becoming the first in the Confederacy to do so, and soon the Confederacy became partisan. The Fire-Eaters appealed to Confederate nationalists by proposing to colonize parts of Western Africa, and began to prepare for colonization. In the Union, the economy experienced a depression, as they had become insulated but not able to be self-reliant. Wade, for causing the collapse of the economy, was blamed by the growing Democratic Party. In November, he was impeached, and put on trial for his actions. However, after finding that he did nothing illegal, just wasn't good at his President, he remained in office. He sought new allies in Europe, and found trade partners in Italy and Germany, who had just unified and also needed trade. They traded with Germany and Italy, and they managed to stop declining.
The USA was aligned with Germany and Italy, and the CSA was aligned with Britain and France, causing a major rift between the two. to go further, the Confederacy had been proven better then the Union twice now, once in the Civil War and the other in the Haiti Conflict. The newly unified Germany was interested in restarting the Holy Alliance, and Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia all joined together. They would all become key trade partners and allies of the United States. The United States used their new strength to help rebuild after the Civil War and economic collapse, and Ben Wade decided to no longer have an ambassador to France or Britain, but had an ambassador to each of Germany, Russia, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, who had forgiven the USA after the pope denounced them. The Confederacy passed the 13th and 14th amendments, granting all white men and then all white women born in the lands of the Confederacy who remained loyal to the Confederacy citizenship, but not yet granting women the right to vote. The Confederacy established a small coastal African Colony called New Richmond. Both the USA and CSA prepared for a new Presidential election, the first one that they both had at the same time. The Confederacy had its first election with established political parties, with the Centralist, Confederalist, and Fire-Eater Parties. The Centralists chose Robert M.T. Hunter as their Presidential Candidate, and Albert G. Brown as Vice Presidential Candidate. The Confederalists chose Zebulon B. Vance and their Presidential Candidate again, this time choosing Thomas H. Watts as his running mate. The Fire-Eaters chose Louis T. Wigfall and William P. Miles as their ticket. The Confederalists won, and Zebulon B. Vance was the new President of the Confederacy. In the North, President Ben Wade ran for President, but he had lost support of the Republicans, and was not chosen at the Republican National Convention in Boston. Instead, Hannibal Hamlin was chosen as the Republican Presidential Candidate, and John Sherman would be his running mate. The Democrats chose Samuel S. Cox as their Presidential candidate, and George H. Pendleton as his running mate. Cox defeated Hamlin, as the Republicans had developed a bad reputation after losing the Civil War and causing the economy to collapse. Samuel S. Cox and Zebulon B. Vance prepared to become the new Presidents.
Vance and Cox are sworn in on March 4th. Vance decides to veto almost every bill proposed, as he wants no progress in the federal government, just state governments. Vance, thinking that the state government of Virginia is having issues sharing a capital with the country, proposes to move the capital to a city on the border of two states. He gave congress seven proposed cities for the new capital (Savannah, GA; Augusta, GA; Columbus, GA; Memphis, TN; Kansas City, MO; Natchez, MS; Vicksburg, MS). Congress, not completely happy about moving, originally did not approve a move. Vance then threatened to veto everything, and make every bill require two thirds of each house to pass any bill. Congress agreed to move the capital, and debated the best city to move to. The favorites were Savannah and Augusta. In the end, Augusta was chosen as it was not as easily accessible in case of war. Vance then spent the rest of the year preparing for the move, and decided to declared Augusta as a separate capital district, similar to the District of Columbia. Georgia became dissatisfied with Vance, as he had taken away some of the voting power of the state. Georgia claimed that this was against his promise of states' rights. This became the main source of attacks from Centralists on Vance. In the North, Cox introduced new policies regarding civil service and westward expansion. Vice President Pendleton managed to get his Civil Service Act passed, changing how government jobs were given. Cox then urged to accept Colorado into the Union, which was accepted in November. He also urged congress to give government owned railroads to get to the west, with users paying a fee, and the money making more railroads. This system, he believed, would create an extreme boom in the crippled American economy, and make the United States an economic Superpower. Cox also tried to improve economic relations with Mexico, which only bordered the United States at California, as he believed that it would help the west succeed.
Vance completes the move to Augusta. He tries to lower federal taxes, but this becomes tough with the expensive move. Vance vetoes as much as he can, and begins to be hated. Centralists such as Thomas Bocock and John Reagan were very mad at Vance, and used this as a source of mudslinging. Since a new congressional election was coming, the Centralists decided to blame the lack of progress on the Confederalists, so that they would win enough seats in the next election to override his vetoes. However, when he vetoed a bill regarding escaped slaves, the two Fire-Eater senators and seven Fire-Eater Representatives were maddened, and began to discuss impeachment. They realized, however, that he had the right to veto. So, they ended up becoming aligned with the Centralists, joined together against Vance. In the North, Cox continued to improve the economy, through his trading with Mexico and railroad construction. The infrastructure of the United States was growing, and more and more people were moving West due to the promise and fresh start they were promised. California began to grow, and Cox urged congress to approve the statehood of Utah despite the Mormon dominance of the state, as the First Amendment protected their rights and freedom of religion. However, Congress did not approve. In the Confederacy, the new election was held, and Confederalists had a major loss, with over 70% of the seats going to Centralists. The Confederalists had only about 25% of the vote, and the Fire-Eaters lost seats, down to about 5%. After the election, the Fire-Eaters merged with even smaller third parties, creating the Conservative Party. This would soon create the Second Party System of the Confederacy, with the Conservative Party soon becoming the second largest party.
In the Confederacy, a sizable group of Confederalists leave the party and join the Conservative Party. These people are mostly more moderate on the topic of Centralist or Confederalist, and were very conservative in their beliefs. This change in power causes Vance to become nearly useless, as anything he vetoes gets overturned. Because of this, he loses the approval of his cabinet, and in September, his Vice President, Thomas H. Watts resigns. This creates the perfect chance for the Centralists to impeach Vance for the corruption and disruption of progress he caused, vetoing more than four fifths of all bills sent to him. Thirteen Articles of Impeachment were submitted, detailing his crimes. The senate, which was now less than one quarter Confederalist, seemed to be hostile towards Vance. Chief Justice West Hughes Humphreys presided over the trial. Before the trial finished, another Confederate amendment was passed, changing the electoral system of the presidency to allow for election of a Vice President by default, and not separate from the President (though at this point, all Vice Presidents were running mates of the President). Vance handpicked John Milton, a Confederalist senator from Florida. Milton was immediately rejected by Congress and Vance was forced to try again. He then asked for Tennessee governor Isham Harris, who was also declined (in a closer vote). After Vance's third choice, Edwin Reade, was denied, the office of Vice President remained vacant. In the North, Cox successfully got both North and South Dakota admitted to the Union, to continue his campaign to improve the economy through westward growth. Cox continued his railroad system, which had really taken off. He also pushed in favor of civil service reform, and sought to improve the postal service in the west. Cox began trade with Japan, as the USA was now a presence in the pacific and Japan owned Alaska, and the two countries exchanged embassies.
In January, the Vance trial ends with the vote of the senate. Of the 28 senators, 19 were required to vote in favor of the impeachment for Vance to be removed. 18 senators were Centralist, three were conservative, and seven were Confederalist. The vote came out at 20-8, and Vance was impeached. With no Vice President, it was ruled that President pro tempore of the Senate, Robert M.T. Hunter, would become President until a special election was held in June. This meant that there would be four months to campaign and hold Conventions to nominate candidates. In February, these conventions were held, with the Centralists in Montgomery, the Confederalists in Mobile, and the Conservatives in Memphis. The Centralists chose Robert M.T. Hunter, technically the incumbent, with John H. Reagan as his running mate. the Confederalists chose Isham G. Harris, with John Milton as his running mate. The Conservatives chose Civil War hero Jubal Early and James Chestnut, Jr. as his running mate. In June, Robert M.T. Hunter was elected, essentially reversing the election of 1872. Hunter remains as President, but vows that he will not run again so that it does not seem unfair as the Confederate Constitution allows for only one term for a President. Hunter, however, also becomes useless, as he vetoes almost nothing in order to go against Vance. Not much is done, but hostilities begin to erupt with the Indians in the Indian territory. In the United States, another Presidential election occurs. Cox and Pendleton are again chosen from the Democratic Party, and Ulysses S. Grant is chosen from the Republican Party with James Garfield as his running mate. Cox and Pendleton were re-elected. Also in this year, Cox signs a treaty with Mexico, which does not state that the two are allied, but creates an informal alliance.
The Tense Era (1877-1883)
In 1877, Hunter begins by unveiling his new plans for a permanent "government square" in Augusta. This includes Presidential and Vice Presidential quarters, a permanent Capitol building, a supreme court building, a treasury, and a civil war memorial. The construction of this does not begin until October. Hunter also begins to use the same westward expansion policy as Cox, beginning the fund for building railroads to the west. Hunter decides to send military units to push the Native Americans in Oklahoma more and more North, close to the border with the United States. The Native Americans in the Arizona Territory are pushed northeast into Oklahoma to eventually go to the same reservations. However, this trek includes enemy tribes, and fighting breaks out between tribes. The Confederate officers are given order to warn the "Indians" to either agree to peacefully go to reservations, or be shot, or become enslaved. Hunter passed a law making it a crime for Native Americans to fight back against removal, which was punishable by becoming slaves of the Confederate Government. As certain tribes fought back, the survivors would become slaves of the government, which caused the government to gain profit and cut costs. Hunter, however, was sure to keep taxes at the same rate in order to increase the amount of military, including pensions for civil war veterans who had joined the military due to conscription. He also proposed a law that promoted conscription in times of war, so long as drafted soldiers are sufficiently treated and paid. In the North, separate battles with the Native Americans occurred, with many casualties on both sides. Cox spent most of the railroad money this year on improving the railroad accessibility to the Dakota and Montana Territories for the purposes of being able to send military over quicker. As the government was now gaining some sort of a monopoly on the railroads going to the West, Cox decided to finally stop building new railroads and have all of the money go to paying railroad workers, lowering the cost of a ticket, and maintenance.
In the south, Tennessee Senator Gustavus Henry, Georgia Senator Benjamin Hill, Louisiana Senator Judah Benjamin, and North Carolina Representative Burgess Gaither formed the Industrialist Party, which was the Confederate rebirth of the Whig Party, in anticipation of the upcoming election. This party focused on policies to modernize the south with industry, thinking that slaves could work factories in cities. This also favored a lack of government intervention once the Confederacy had fully industrialized. In the 1878 Presidential election, the Centralists held their convention in Wilmington, the Confederatlists in Jackson, the Conservatives in Pensacola, and the Industrialists in St. Louis. The Confederalists chose Edwin Reade for President and John Milton as his running mate. The Conservatives chose Jubal Early and Josiah Turner as his running mate, the Centralists chose John Reagan and Thomas Semmes, and the Industrialists chose Judah Benjamin and Gustavus Henry. The Confederalists won no states, the Conservatives won Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina, the Industrialists won Tennessee, Missouri, and Louisiana, and the Centralists won all remaining states. However, there was no candidate who won a majority, just a plurality, so the House of Representatives was allowed to choose, and it obviously went Centralist, causing John Reagan to be President. However, In the 1878 congressional elections, the Industrial Party and Conservative Party each made large gains, and the Centralist party lost its unbreakable two thirds of both houses, and after only three seats in the house and two seat in the Senate remained for the Confederalist Party, it disbanded as Vance had tarnished its reputation. With the Confederalists no longer existing, the issue was no longer the strength of the federal government. For this reason, the Centralists decided to rename themselves as the Democratic Party. In the North, Cox continued to push Native Americans North. They had been pushed into Canada, and the Natives attacked a small Canadian trade camp. This caused Britain to be outraged, as the United States' egotism had caused the death of some of their people. Britain was very mad, and basically gave the Union one final warning before war would occur. The Union, knowing that the Confederacy was allied with the British Empire, asked Japan and Mexico for formal alliances. They both agreed, creating the North American Triple Alliance of Japan, USA, and Mexico.
John Reagan takes his oath, and he orders faster construction of government buildings in Augusta. He also orders higher taxes in order to improve the military for wars with native Americans. He makes many new federal offices such as a patent office and a census administration. He orders the construction of many new army and naval bases, including along the Savannah River to protect the new capital. He improves the postal service, and continues improving railroads. He also organizes congressional committees, such as finance, war, and foreign affairs. In the North, Cox meets with the Prime Minister of Canada, John MacDonald. He tries to improve their relations, and open up trade. Thomas Edison makes a new light bulb and demonstrates incandescent lighting in Menlo Park. Cox also makes a law regarding female lawyers, which allows them to serve in Supreme Court cases.
In the Confederacy, it is agreed that the new Native American Territory will be the Oklahoma Panhandle. The rest of Oklahoma is agreed to be unassigned land, and a land rush ensues in Oklahoma. Oklahoma quickly grows in population, and becomes a newly organized territory. The Confederacy also divides the Arizona Territory into the Arizona and New Mexico Territories. In the Congressional election, the three parties end with nearly equal seats in the house, with a slight Conservative plurality, and nearly equal seats in the senate, with a slight Democratic majority. The Industrial Party, however, is still growing and pushes to have increased railroad production and new anti-monopoly laws as well as a larger federal reserve bank. In the US, Cox makes a law regarding Asian immigration, which has reached a new high in California, which is more inclusive. With the upcoming election, the Republicans hold their convention in Cleveland, and the Democrats hold theirs in New York. Samuel Cox declines to be the Democratic candidate, and instead Samuel Tilden is chosen with Samuel J. Randall as his running mate. George W. McCrary was chosen as the Republican Candidate, with Henry M. Hoyt as his running mate. McCrary and Hoyt won as they both had military and legal experience and tensions were rising. However, the Democrats took a large number of seats in Congress.
As McCrary takes office, he immediately orders a raise in taxes and a higher military presence, as he senses a possible war with the Confederacy and Britain. He stations many troops on the border between Virginia and West Virginia, and orders construction of more bridges across the Ohio River into West Virginia. McCrary sent Hoyt to Mexico to meet and ensure that they will be allies in case of a war with the Confederacy. Hoyt offers much of the land of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico to them in case of victory. McCrary withdrew many troops from the Territories, who were fighting with the Native Americans, to send them to the border with the Confederacy. He also stations troops near Missouri's border with his own state, Iowa, as this is the only major border not based on a river. In the Confederacy, Reagan pushes for more construction of weapons, and pushes for more industrialized cities. In his railroad construction fund, with war imminent, he builds railroads within the states that border the Union for easier access in case of war. He is not as concerned, though, as McCrary, and focuses on moving the Native Americans.
McCrary begins to campaign to have more power to the judicial branch of the government. He does this by passing a series of laws. McCrary then places extreme tariffs from on any goods imported from Britain, France, or the Confederacy, and makes immigration increasingly difficult. He makes a law detailing conscription, which raises the suspicions of the Confederate political leaders, and causes the Confederacy to build new army and navy bases, especially along the Ohio and Potomac Rivers. McCrary, being overly scared of a war with the Confederacy, proposes to move the capital to Boston, New York, Philadelphia, or Chicago, claiming that in case of war, the Confederacy would be at a major advantage by having their capital 500 miles away from the border, while America's capital was on the border. However, Democrats accuse him of being too focused on war, without any sure signs of war coming. Former President Samuel Cox scolds him for using the train fund money for military when it has no use. In the South, the Confederacy asks France and Spain to join with Britain and form an alliance, just like the alliance of the USA, Mexico, and Japan. They declined until Germany began to look like it was aligned with the North, at which point France backed the United States. Reagan also finally moves to the new Presidential Residence in Augusta, which would be called the Davis House in honor of Jefferson Davis. The Capitol is also close to being constructed. Reagan also constructs new railroads heading south and west in order to access the border with Mexico faster.
This year was the main year of buildup to a major war. The main issue was major countries worldwide picking a side. When China agreed to a de facto alliance with the Confederacy after a meeting with secretary of State Judah Benjamin, China and Japan began to have increasing buildup to conflict. In Europe, Spain agreed to join the Confederacy's alliance, while Italy, Russia, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire join the USA. Other countries, such as Portugal, Belgium, and the Netherlands, were repeatedly asked to pick a side, but remained neutral. This rift was partially caused by the beginnings of the Scramble for Africa, which had pitted Europeans against each other on other continents. John Reagan, now understanding the severity of the situation, began to recruit new army members, as well as construct many Gatling Guns. Tensions were at an all time high when Native Americans had gone into Kansas from Oklahoma and successfully attacked and killed many Americans. McCrary was outraged, claiming that the Confederacy had caused this by pushing their Native Americans towards the border, but then the same thing happened and Canada and he was called a hypocrite. Then, after disputes with Britain in Central Asia, Russia became aligned with America, causing the Ottoman Empire became aligned with the Confederacy. War seemed obvious as everyone began to pick sides.
World War I (1884-1888)
This year saw the early stages of World War I (also known as the Great War, the Global War, and the Bloody War). In Europe, Bulgaria had unified, sparking a war in the Balkans. First, Serbia declared War on Bulgaria. Soon Greece joined in, and then the Austro-Hungarians. Due to the alliances that had developed, Italy and Russia each declared war on Bulgaria. With five countries ready to massacre one, the Ottoman Empire took Bulgaria's side, claiming that it was immoral. In actuality, the Ottoman Empire was focused on invading Russia from the Caucasus Mountains. Meanwhile, a war erupted in Asia between China and Japan over control of the Korean Peninsula. These remained separate wars for the rest of the year, with Japan winning early battles and Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire losing early battles. In America, Mexico had declared war on China due to their alliance with Japan. The United States, however, did not do this in fear of foreign intervention. With a campaign occurring, McCrary did not want to seem like he put the country in jeopardy. Grover Cleveland was chosen as the Democratic Presidential candidate, but lost all but two states. McCrary remained President, and then declared war on China. In the Confederacy, however, things were different as Reagan could not run again. The Industrialists chose Burgess Gaither as their Presidential Candidate and Howell E. Jackson as his running mate. The Conservatives chose George W. C. Lee, Robert E. Lee's son, as their candidate, and Joseph E. Johnston as his running mate. The Democrats chose Augustus Garland and Clifton R. Breckinridge, the son of John C. Breckinridge. The Conservative ticket was chosen due to both people being civil war veterans. George Washington Custis Lee was set to take office in March.
|World War I|
Once Lee is sworn in, McCrary has already gained the approval of Congress to declare war, and does. When this occurs, the World War becomes large scale. Britain, Spain and France declare war on the United States and Mexico. Mexico declares war on the Confederacy. Then when Germany declares war on France, the three different fronts (North America, East Asia, Europe) have become connected, and the war has globalized. Japan is not focused on Alaska, and does not invade British Canada. This allows Canada to invade the United States from the North, while the Confederacy does in the South. Mexico begins to invade Arizona, but are shocked when they hear that the Yucatan is being invaded by the Spanish from Cuba and the British from British Honduras. Mexico withdraws most of its troops to fight in the Yucatan, but the Confederacy invades from the North. The war in the Americas begins heavily in favor of the Global Powers. In Europe, Bulgaria is defeated multiple times, and is close to being recaptured. The Ottomans decline to help them and instead finish crossing the Caucasus mountains. They now are in Russia, and are fully ready to invade. In the Pacific, Australia and New Zealand start to help China against Japan, and France also sends some help. France strongly encourages the Netherlands to join the war, and once they do, the Dutch East Indies help in defense of China. However, Japan still overpowers China. In Europe, Germany begins by invading France, and in many deadly battles, not much progress is made. Spain attacks Italy, and together with British Gibraltar, they close off the Mediterranean. Meanwhile, the Ottomans close off access to the Black Sea, and the British Navy restricts trade leaving from the North Sea. The European Allies are restricted from sending troops oversees or receiving goods from worldwide trade partners. Sardinia is mostly captured by Spain.
Russia, Serbia, Austria-Hungary, and Greece all make their final push into Bulgaria, successfully capturing Varna, where the capital had been moved, and Bulgaria surrendered. the four countries then decided to split up the land. Sofia and the land west of it was given to Serbia, Plovdiv and the land South of it was given to Greece, the remaining land east of Ruse, including Ruse, was given to Russia, and then remaining land was given to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With this now settled, Russia asks Serbia, Greece, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire to attack the Ottomans. Russia smartly also focused on this offensive, in an attempt to reach Constantinople and force the Ottoman Empire to either surrender or have their ke city be captured. As joint Greek and Russian forces captured Adrianople, the Ottoman Empire realized the mistake they had made, and that they could not bring their soldiers back from the Caucasus mountains in time. The Ottomans decided to make a final push, and conquered Eastern Crimea in November. As for the Western European front, Spain captures all of Sicily by May, but then loses two different attempts to invade mainland Italy in July and October. After successfully holding off Spain in the South, Italy attacks France, along with the German invasion. Italy captures Nice and Cannes, and Germany remains in a bloody stalemate. However, as Britain and the Netherlands continue their conquests, the British victory at Dusseldorf causes Germany to withdraw many troops from France. France, as a result of this, pushes the German troops backwards into Germany, now attacking into Germany. In Asia, Japan, now against China, French Indochina, the Dutch East Indies, Spanish Philippines, British Australia and British New Zealand, is finally stopped from crossing the Yalu River, and instead of invading China from Korea, they attempt an invasion of Shanghai. This results in a long battle, with constant fighting lasting for twelve days, before Japan finally retreats. Japan instead invades Tsingtao, and conquers the city, then going on to conquer the Shandong Peninsula. Japan also began plotting to capture Tianjin, which also had British and French influences. In North America, as the Confederacy, Spain, and Britain push into Mexico, Mexico surrenders, and signs a treaty at Merida, in which the Yucatan Peninsula is divided between Spain and Britain. President Lee sent Walker Fearn, a diplomat, as well as Texas Representative Franklin B. Sexton and Florida Representative John M. Martin, telling them to not take land more than a tiny strip of land South of the New Mexico Territory, that would include Ciudad Juarez. He siad that reparations would be more important as this war was costly. Mexico did not agree to give up Ciudad Juarez, but did allow $5,000,000 worth of gold paid in yearly increments of $200,000. With no more war with Mexico, and Britain making great gains into Alaska in the Summer, the United States was now fighting two separate fronts, and the Confederacy made great gains. The troops which were withdrawn from Mexico headed west towards California, and they head towards the growing city of Los Angeles in order to cut off Southern California from Northern California and take over all of the South. Confederate forces in the Eastern United States advance into Pennsylvania, capturing Chambersburg, and then begin to circle back to head for Washington. This time, British forces invading do not head for Lake Champlain, but instead they take control of Detroit and Buffalo. This is much smarter, but meanwhile American troops invade Quebec, but are unable to cross the St. Lawrence River before October, when it begins to freeze. This causes the plan to backfire, as the Americans did not have enough food or warm clothes to camp in Canada, and they retreated to try to gain back Buffalo.
The British-Canadian forces continue to invade past Buffalo, heading for Rochester. When they reach Rochester in June, they are met by a large American force back from a failed invasion of Canada. The Canadians engage in a large battle at Rochester, which Canada loses. The Canadian forces retreat back towards Buffalo. But American re-inforcements arrive along the way, and the Canadians are forced to hurry back into their own territory. In December, they prepare to cross back over the Niagara River, but decide to burn Buffalo, leaving the Americans no choice but to stop chasing them. Canada does not attack any more, just holds it border, which includes Detroit. In the South, Confederate troops capture all of Southern California, and march North towards the San Francisco Bay. On the Eastern Front, the Confederate forces decide to continue North to capture Harrisburg, the Pennsylvania state capital. They win the battle of Harrisburg in May, and Vice President Hoyt, who had previously been the Governor of Pennsylvania, urged McCrary to make peace now before they went back to attack Baltimore and Washington. Joseph Wheeler, the leader of the Confederate forces on the Eastern Front, decided to attack the major cities in the North instead of circling back to Washington, and headed East for Philadelphia. He was seeking revenge for Sherman's March to the Sea. In December, Wheeler reached and besieged Philadelphia, and finally took control after two weeks. When the news of Philadelphia's capture reached McCrary in the fall, he then finally asked President Lee to discuss a peace treaty. In Asia, Japan successfully invaded Tianjin, then also captured Jinan, causing their control from Tsingtao to Tianjin. Japan, however, decided to not yet try to capture Peking and instead invaded Taiwan in April, conquering all of it by November. In Europe, Russia began to have major losses in Crimea, and also had major casualties in the Battle of Silivri, and the citizens began to hate the Romanov regime, and a revolution began in Russia, in order to have democracy installed. Russia's soldiers backed out of the war, and moved to the Civil War that was occurring. The Ottomans saw this as their opportunity to take even more North of Crimea, and continued to march towards Kiev. However, the Greek and Serbian forces had almost made it to Constantinople, and the government officials fled and set up a final government at Bursa. Constantinople fell in September. Italy, considering the war useless now, asks Spain and France for a peace treaty, in which Spain is granted Sardinia but not Sicily. Spain declines, saying that they want Sicily or all of Italy's holdings in Africa in addition to Sardinia, and France says that it wants something too, thinking about Eritrea. Italy, after a failed further invasion into France, agreed to give Sardinia and half of its holdings worldwide to Spain, and the rest of its African holdings to France. Italy had left the war, and had managed to keep Sicily. France, now only occupied with Germany, made its final invasion.
Britain, France, Spain, and the Netherlands all pushed into Germany. French and Spanish forces captured Frankfurt on the same day in March that British and Dutch forces captured Hanover. Now that the Germans had lost about half of te country, they surrendered in March. The countries of Europe and North America were asked to meet in Amsterdam to devise a peace treaty. However, Greece, Russia, the Ottoman Empire, and Serbia all declined, and they would not join until the fall of Constantinople in June. Several countries attended, and the Treaty of Amsterdam was drafted. The seventh draft of the Treaty was finally agreed upon by all of Europe plus many other countries in August of 1888. All German colonies in Africa were given to France and England, while German colonies in Asia would be given to the Dutch and all other German holdings to Spain. Germany and the United States were forced to pay reparations. The Ottoman Empire was forced to disband and become Turkey, and Constantinople was returned to Turkish control. In the Americas, The Confederacy was to be paid reparations by the Union, and were also given control of Southern California and West Virginia, granting them access to the Pacific Ocean, and Mexico was forced to give up control of the Yucatan to France and Spain. The Treaty set up an International Congress, to be centered in Antwerp, which would be an international city in the neutral country of Belgium. It was decided that countries would be voted on permission of ability to join. There would be two houses: In the parliament, every country would have an equal say in voting. In the council, however, there would be three rotating countries, with a majority also required. The councils would have one spot rotate every two years, so that one country serves on the council for six years. The first council was set up as Britain, France, and Spain, with the next five members also set up as the Netherlands, the Confederacy, Belgium, and Portugal. Germany, Italy, and The Ottoman Empire were not allowed to be members of the International Congress for five years following the treaty. Meanwhile, in Asia, China finally agreed to give up Manchuria, Taiwan, and Korea to Japan. Japan also asked for Hong Kong from Britain, but Britain threatened to vote against them for membership of the International Congress, and Japan agreed to sign the Treaty of Hong Kong. The war was now completely over in October. In the United States, an election occurred. Having lost twice to the Confederacy, the Republicans had major losses, with parties such as the Greenbacks, Prohibition Party, and Progressive Party all growing. It became obvious that the democratic candidate would win. The many candidates included George Pendleton, Grover Cleveland, Adlai Stephenson, John Mitchell, Arthur Gorman, and even Samuel Cox. Originally, Cox declined to be nominated, but as he saw the state of the country and the amount of support for him, he accepted the nomination. Cox was chosen as the Presidential candidate, but Grover Cleveland was chosen as his running mate. Cox was elected to his third term, again given the task to recover from the war.
Interwar Period (1889-1907)
As the Confederacy recovers from the war, they begin by accepting West Virginia into the Union. With the war now over, a Progressive Movement is founded, focusing on freeing the slaves. Lee, with the economy now much more stable following incoming gold from American and Mexican reparations, begins to accept Industrialist policies, beginning with a minimal wage of an employee of the government, including the post office and all other federal employees. The south industrializes more and more, with cities growing. With the Oklahoma panhandle now the only remaining place for Native Americans, Oklahoma begins settlement. Lee's railroad program resumes, mimicking the old one by Cox, and a Trans-Dixie railroad begins construction. It would be from Charleston to Los Angeles, running through Augusta, Atlanta, Montgomery, Jackson, and more. In the North, Samuel S. Cox takes office in March. He begins to set in place some of the policies for recovery from the war, especially regarding foreign policy and trade with the Americans. However, he became ill in October, and died in December, with about three years remaining in the term, Grover Cleveland took over as President. Grover Cleveland's first order of business was to veto any pensions requested for veterans by congress if it had been rejected by the Pensions Bureau.
With the Confederacy growing into a global power, they decide to begin to build a Pacific navy as they were now in control of Southern California, and imperialism was sparking up again. The Confederacy also begins to expand further inland into Africa to grow New Richmond. With the Scramble for Africa becoming fiercer, and the countries of Europe wanting it to be peaceful following the war, the neutral Belgium offers to hold a meeting in Antwerp regarding African colonization. It is attended by nearly every European country, in addition to the USA and CSA. With the Rule of Occupation, the CSA ends up with the only land in Africa owned by a country of the Americas. The majority of Europe is divided among Britain, France, Spain, Belgium, Portugal, and the Netherlands. The Confederacy continues to expand west with its rapid railroad construction, and industrialization continues. The cities of New Orleans, Charleston, St. Louis, and the rebuilt Atlanta all become major cities. The Confederate election occured, with the three main issues being recovery from the war, Industrialism, and Imperialism, the political favorites had changed. The Industrialists again chose Burgess Gaither, this time choosing World War I general Thomas Rosser as his running mate. The Conservatives chose World War I hero Joseph Wheeler as their candidate with Mississippi governor John Marshall Stone as his running mate. The Democrats chose John G. Carlisle and Samuel D. McEnery. Each party focused on one of the three main issues (Democrats for recovery, Industrialists for industrialization, and Conservatives for Imperialism). Wheeler won eight of the fifteen states, but with three strong parties, his 59 electoral votes were eight short. Burgess Gaither was just three electoral votes behind, and the House of Representatives decided that industrialization would be the cure to recovery, thus gaining support of the Democrats and winning the election for the Industrialists. Burgess Gaither was to become the oldest Confederate President. In the North, Grover Cleveland began to further progressive tasks, and the Prohibition Party and women's suffrage lobby began to grow. Cleveland also focused on recovery, ending tariffs, and improving relations with Britain, France, Spain, and the Confederacy.
Burgess Gaither takes his oath in March. Gaither, seeing that Cleveland want to improve relations, asks for a meeting between the two countries. Cleveland agrees, asking for the meeting to occur in Washington. In anticipation of the meeting, Gaither founds the Confederate Secret Service, the counterpart to the American Secret Service which had been founded by Lincoln. He arrives in Washington by train in July and stays there for a week, before returning. In Washington, Gaither basically makes many agreements with Cleveland, including an exchange of embassies, a lifting of tariffs, a trade agreement, and Gaither's word that he would end the status of US states that had been cut off from trade. In return, Cleveland agreed to join a new alliance pact with Britain, a new Canada, Spain, France, and the Confederacy. Gaither returned with some opposition to his cause, and returned to helping to industrialize the country. However, he was greatly helped by the opening of trade with the United States, as the trade continued to grow both economies. Gaither also continues construction of a Pacific navy, with the main hub of the navy being in San Diego. With African slaves being brought into the Confederacy from New Richmond, and no more expansion allowed in Africa, the Confederate Conservatives urge the government to annex Hawaii. Railroads continue to be built, especially in the Louisiana-Texas-Arkansas region. In the North, Grover Cleveland begins to levy tariffs, especially those coming from friendly countries (which now included the Confederacy). Cleveland did not use the spoils system for appointing his lower officers, and kept every Republican worker who was good at their job. With California losing a lot of its territory, Cleveland carefully made sure that all congressional districts and representative tallies were based on the census, and part of the Cleveland-Gaither agreement involved allowing American Nationalists to move within the borders of the States if they lived in Southern California or West Virginia. Finally, Cleveland successfully got Wyoming, North Dakota, and South Dakota accepted into the Union.
In early 1892, Burgess Gaither dies after less than one year in office as President. Thomas Rosser became President, and in his inauguration speech, he promised to continue the precedent set by Robert M.T. Hunter of not running for another term as President. In fact, his first order of business was to propose this as an amendment to the constitution. The amendment passed in October. Rosser's other main actions included reducing tariffs for business and industrial growth and continuing to improve relations and trade with the United States. Rosser also nominates a new supreme court justice who is very helpful to companies. The railroad fund begins to focus back on the Eastern Confederacy, so that it can more easily industrialize. Grover Cleveland also continues to improve business, similar to Rosser, levying tariffs, and increasing trade with the Confederacy. After a failed assassination attempt on Cleveland, he improves the secret service, and makes a law regarding a minimum amount of secret service agents that must be with the President and Vice President and the number that must be in the White House and Capitol. In November, the Presidential election occurred, pitting Grover Cleveland and compromise running mate James Weaver against Republicans Benjamin Harrison and William McKinley. Cleveland narrowly won, mostly thanks to the western states and the help of James Weaver to attract votes in the West.
Following the Russian losses in WWI, a revolution of the Proletariat begins in Russia, led by Viktor Chernov, starts in Russia. A Civil War ensues, between the Revolutionaries, which hoped for a democracy, and the Loyalists, who favored the Tsar. Tsar Alexander III began to attempt to defend the tsardom, but the Revolutionaries successfully defeated the military in Moscow, and had forced Alexander III to abdicate by October. A new government and constitution was set up in Moscow, in which there would be an election for a Council, which would be a legislature of 30 people, as well as the chairman of the council, who would get 5 votes. Three parties emerged: The people who favored communism by rule of the educated, the people who favored Marxism by rule of the workers, and the people who favored democracy. In the Confederacy, Rosser had supported the Revolutionaries in the Civil War, and sent a new ambassador to Russia. At home, Rosser was faced with the difficult task of deciding whether or not to introduce slavery to the formerly free Southern California. He chooses to not have slavery be allowed in Southern California. South California is accepted as a state into the Confederacy, becoming the first state in the Confederacy to allow women to vote. Rosser also passes a federal law that federally accepts divorce of a white man and a white women due to cruelty of either party. Rosser would later be called the first Progressive Confederate President for these steps towards human rights. In the United States, the States of Washington and Montana are accepted into the Union, each accepting the right of women to vote. With Idaho seeming obvious to come soon, an amendment granting women the right to vote is proposed to Congress. It does not pass the house, but debate begins about whether or not it could have passed the senate. With the women's suffrage amendment being proposed, a prohibition amendment was also proposed, but did not pass.
After five years, Germany, Italy and Turkey all apply to join the International Congress. All three pass in parliament, but the Council of the Netherlands, Britain, and the Confederacy reject Germany (0-3 vote), they reject Turkey (1-2 vote, Confederacy voted in favor), and accept Italy (2-1 vote, Britain voted against). Italy left the international congress by October, after Germany continuously urged them to leave and they never voted with the rest of parliament. In December, Germany, Italy, and Turkey created a Triple Alliance to combat the Quintuple Alliance of Britain, France, Spain, USA, and CSA, and to protest the Treaty of Amsterdam. Germany refused to pay their next round of reparations, and Turkey declared themselves the Turkish Empire, and began to reconquer some of the unorganized free countries in the middle east, such as the Free State of Damascus, which included much of OTL Syria and Lebanon. Turkey began a genocide of Armenians, beginning by forcing all Armenian men to hand the government a weapon. In the Confederacy, Rosser's policies help the industrialization process, and the Central Confederate Railroad Co. takes off, becoming the most successful railroad company in the country. Rosser, with a new Navy, begins to assert the Confederacy's Pacific power by aiding in a coup in Hawaii. He then plans to take over Hawaii, and make it a new territory, due to its vital spot in the Pacific. However, because he is no longer interested in the expansion of slavery, he manages to get congress, which is now had 45% industrialists, 35% Conservatives and 20% Democrats, to agree to sell New Richmond to whichever country bids the most. In a bidding session held in London at the Confederate Embassy there, Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal all place bids, and France wins the bidding. However, a telegraph is sent to the Confederate Capital by Germany, saying that they should have been invited and would have paid more. In the United States, a major Antitrust Act was passed to combat the growing monopolies. Democrats won major gains in the midterm election. In Russia, Victor Chernov was voted as the first Chairman of the Legislature, and began to implement Marxism, making a very high minimum wage, raising taxes for owning businesses to about 25% of the business, and giving that money back to the proletariat. Japan ups their militarist ideals, and eyes Spanish Philippines for themselves.
Tensions arise between Portugal and Spain after several border disputes, and Portugal leaves the International Congress, debating whether or not to join the Triple Alliance. The Quintuple Alliance does not believe that anyone would ever want to go to war again after such devastating losses, and they would continue this policy that would lead to appeasement. Germany builds a new model of a U-Boat, which ends up being extremely effective, while Italy builds a new model of machine gun. Germany and Italy would build up their military, especially using industrial factories to construct them. Germany also asks Mexico and Japan to join them, but neither does yet. The Confederacy, led by Thomas Rosser, annexes Hawaii, and establishes it as a new territory. Meanwhile, the railroad program focuses on South California and the Arizona Territory this year. St. Louis, New Orleans, Louisville, Richmond, Atlanta, and Charleston are the main Industrial cities, with Kansas City, Los Angeles, Houston, Savannah, Norfolk, and Augusta quickly growing into major industrial cities. Rosser passes an official amendment making anyone who has ever taken oath as President unable to run for President again, including Rosser being unable to run in 1896. Conservative Murphy Foster is the first to announce his candidacy for President, which he does in September, and other candidates soon followed, bringing on early campaigns for other candidates such as Industrialist William MacCorkle, Conservative John M. Martin, and Democrat William Bate, though more would later come. In the United States, progress is made in Panama towards a canal, along with help from Spain and Britain, who each have nearby colonies in the area. They also survey Nicaragua to check if that would be an easier canal location, as Lake Nicaragua and San Juan de Nicaragua River.
Idaho and Utah are accepted into the Union, with Idaho allowing women to vote. Portugal and Mexico agree to join the alliance with Germany, Turkey, and Italy, and war becomes increasingly likely again in Europe and North America. The Confederacy continues to colonize Hawaii. The Confederacy invests money in the Central American Canal, and debate continues about whether to have it in Panama or Nicaragua. In the American elections, the Democrats choose incumbent Grover Cleveland and William Jennings Bryan. The Republicans chose William McKinley and Levi Morton. For the first time in a while, the Republicans won, and William McKinley would take over as President. In the Confederacy, Richard Bland is chosen and William MacCorkle as his running mate from the Industrial Party. The Democrats chose Civil War hero Simon B. Buckner and Joseph Blackburn as their running mate. Murphy Foster and John Martin are chosen from the Conservative Party. The Democrats managed to get one electoral vote over a majority, and Simon B. Buckner would become the next President of the Confederacy. The first Olympics are held in Athens.
Uprisings in Cuba are put down by Spain, Britain, the US, and the Confederacy. In the United States, McKinley, after being sworn in, immediately shot down inflationary proposals, keeping the Union on the gold standard. McKinley also immediately put very high tariffs on Italy, Germany, Turkey, Mexico, and Japan. He also put lower tariffs on Russia, China, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium, and other non-aligned countries. McKinley also helped some westward expansion, and as the population grew in the west, so did the women's suffrage lobby. Meanwhile, an amendment allowing senators to be chosen by popular vote passes congress, and is ratified by five states. Baseball grows in popularity in the North. Also, the City of New York annexes surrounding counties, making the five boroughs. In the Confederacy, Arizona is accepted into the Confederacy as a state, with no mention to slavery in its state constitution, and New Mexico, Oklahoma, Hawaii, and the Indian Territory remain the only territories of the Confederacy. The Confederacy builds a major naval base near Honolulu in Hawaii, as they sense a hostile Japan. For the same reason, the US increases their fleet in Seattle, by threat of a Japanese attack from Alaska.
As Britain pushed into South Africa, Germany sends troops to defend the Boers. This culminates in a proxy war in South Africa, and it causes the Dutch Empire to grow increasingly mad at the British. With the British showing early signs of victory, Germany initiates uprisings by Ireland, and gets the Turkey to invade some of the British holdings in the Middle East. As Spain tries to barge into the war by helping defend against Ireland, Germany gets Japan to start an independence uprising in the Philippines. However, only Germany knows that all of these were tied to them, and Britain slowly decides to back off in South Africa. But when Spain stops their funding of the campaigns in Ireland, Britain is also forced to stop sending supplies to the Middle East. The Anglo-Turkish War ends just seven months after it began, with the Treaty of Aleppo transferring all British owned land North of the line from Yafo to Amman to Turkey. Turkey had now begun to recreate the Ottoman Empire that had been disbanded as a result of World War I. Britain would eventually win in Ireland, and the Philippines continued to fight for independence. The Dutch East Indies and Japan began to help the rebels, and the Confederacy and Union joined Spain, in the war which would continue. But these events were key to increasing the tensions, and also caused the Netherlands to join the German side. In the United States, McKinley is shot in August, and dies in November. Levi Morton took the oath as President, and in December, the amendment was passed allowing the direct election of senators by popular vote. Levi Morton met with Simon B. Buckner in December. Buckner had been focusing on the heated debate of the Antitrust law, which was finally passed in October. Also, the Confederate technological hub of New Orleans establishes an important metro system.
In January, the Philippines formally declares independence, and war with Spain picks up. Meanwhile, Siam backs out of the Philippines and instead focuses on conquering Malaya from Britain. In the war with Spain, the Philippines conquers the important Panay Island with help from the Netherlands after winning the key Battle of Iloilo on January 28th. The International Congress began to fall apart, with a majority of countries falling on the side of the British-French-Spanish-American-Confederate Quintuple alliance, but Belgium, Portugal, and Japan forming a Council of two of their enemies and one neutral country. So when the Philippines applied to join, they were voted against by the parliament, and five countries simultaneously agreed to leave the International Congress: Mexico, Netherlands, Siam, and Council Members Japan and Portugal. As tensions continue to rise, Morton and Buckner reach an agreement to back out of the Quintuple alliance and become "neutral", therefore not being tied to war. They instead created a list of countries which they would together embargo, and filled the gap with looser borders for easier trade. In June, Ethiopia, with help from Turkey, invades French Djibouti. The French try to fight back, but are unsuccessful. Britain begins to impose a patrol of the Suez Canal, which they have shut off to many enemies. After France tries to take Cabinda from Portugal, a war breaks out in Africa between Portuguese Angola and French Guinea. Unconditionally, Belgium is forced to choose a side. They side with France, as their power of hosting the International Congress favors France now. France, Belgium, and Britain swiftly take Angola, and agree to use it to buy Belgium onto their side. In the International Congress, a Confederate Diplomat claims that it should be hosted by a more neutral country, proposing it to be hosted in Lausanne, Switzerland. France, following their agreement with Belgium, do not want to upset them, and cause the Confederacy and the Union to both become angered at their former alliance. When gold is discovered in Alaska, Japan begins to become richer, and Britain plots their invasion from Canada. In Russia, Georgi Plekhanov wins the election for Chairman over Vladimir Lenin, Julius Martov, and incumbent Viktor Chernov. However, all sides agree to rename Russia as the Soviet Union.
William McKinley places tariffs on all imported goods from Japan, Mexico, Portugal, and Germany. The CSA and USA are now more aligned than ever before, both no longer bound in writing to a formal alliance, but effectively part of the British-Spanish-French alliance. McKinley threatens Spain with embargoes if they don't back off of the Philippines, and the Spanish refuse to back off until they experience more losses in September at the battles of Tacloban, Zamboanga and Spratly Reef. When Spain finally backed off, Philippines was recognized as independent, and ended up politically and economically dependent on the USA and the Confederacy. Britain agrees to give Siam Malaya, but have Britain keep Singapore and for Siam to not be allowed to conquer any of the Islands in the East Indies. The construction of the Panama Canal nears completion, set to be opened specifically to the USA and CSA in 1901. In the USA, an amendment successfully passes allowing senators to be elected by popular vote. This passes in August, but it does not take effect until the 1902 elections. In the 1900 Presidential election, McKinley and Morton are chosen again over democrats Arthur P. Gorman and George McClellan Jr. The Olympics are held in Stockholm, Sweden, as it is one of the largest cities in a completely neutral and peaceful country. In the Confederacy, the Oklahoma Territory continues to be settled and urbanized, and Arizona's request to become a state is turned down over border disputed with Southern California and issues over the lack of protection of slavery. In the Soviet Union, Plekhanov installed more Marxist ideals, including income taxes at extremely high rates, especially for the business owners, and giving the money to workers. He also tries to improve the modernization of the country.
When the construction of the Panama Canal concludes, The Confederacy and the United States sign a deal granting unconditional access to both, and have that access be exclusive unless offered money and both th USA and CSA agree to grant passage to a specific country. In the Confederacy, Buckner began to implement progressive laws, including a parole system for convicts, new laws regarding corruption as a criminal offense, and some laws beginning to protect the rights of white workers. An amendment to the Constitution, which regarded the pay of congressmen, was passed, marking more progressivism. In the North, the military is improved, with special training for preparation for cold weather occurring in the rocky mountains, in preparation for a potential war with Japan over Alaska. They also build a major Naval Base on Bainbridge Island, just across from Seattle. The USA also begins to mass produce machine guns. The USA and CSA both recognize and trade with the Philippines, and in order to further support and influence them, they let the Philippines be the first country allowed passage through the Panama Canal. Angered, Spain becomes increasingly mad at the Union and Confederacy. When Philippines reapplies to join the International Union, they are rejected, and the United States and Confederacy agree to vote against all resolutions until the Philippines is accepted. In the first International Union filibuster, Spain condemns the United States, causing tensions among the former allies.
After Spain also condemns the Confederacy, the Union and Confederacy sign another treaty, in which they agree to be completely unaligned, leave the International Union, and help protect the independence of different groups from aggressors. In the Union, President McKinley is shot in the shoulder, and he gets enough medical attention to survive. However, Levi Morton take on a larger role while the President recovers. In the Confederacy, Presidential elections occurred. There were many nominees for each party. The Conservatives chose Benjamin Tillman as their President, with Champ Clark as his running mate. The Industrialists chose Jim Hogg with James P. Taliaferro as his running mate. Joseph C. Blackburn was the Democratic candidate, and his Vice Presidential candidate was John S. Williams. Jim Hogg won the election by one electoral vote, with the Industrialists coming in second, and being much closer to the Democrats in Congress. The Soviet Union begins to spread their Marxist ideals, and fights a war with the Caucasian states of Georgia and Armenia, conquering both and establishing them as states of the Soviet Union. Spain is embargoed by the United States and Confederacy, and they begin to lower sanctions on Italy, Portugal, and the Netherlands, who were not aggressors.
President McKinley fully recovers, but announces that he will retire at the end of his term. His Vice President, Levi Morton, is very old, and McKinley focuses on keeping the USA on the gold standard. However, McKinley was foolishly less focused on the Confederate possibility of going to a bi-metal system. Hogg constantly changed the subject when asked about whether or not he would switch to the bi-metal system. Finally, in August, he stated that he would not veto such a bill, but also would not force it. The Conservatives were against the switch, the democrats were in favor of it, and the industrialists were split, but mainly were against it. In the end, the bill submitted by Democratic senator Anselm McLaurin passed the house but not the senate, losing the senate by two votes. Hogg did, however, successfully got an inheritance tax approved, and the federal government slowly had a larger amount of money. Hogg and McKinley agree to a free trade agreement, restricting tariffs between the countries for 30 years. The Soviet Union announces its complete neutrality as far as the sides of Germany-Italy-Turkey-Portugal-Netherlands and Britain-France-Spain-Belgium go. Finland begins to have some uprisings against the Marxist government of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union implements income taxes, where the proletariat does not pay but instead receives money from the wealthy, who pay up to 40% income tax, and farmers pay a 5% income tax. After a bill passes to tax the educated class by 10% per year, Vladimir Lenin, a young council member who was in charge of the second largest political party, creates a filibuster, while beginning to build up an army in an attempt to overthrow the government. However, this plot is uncovered by the former chairman and current deputy chairman, Viktor Chernov, and Lenin flees into exile in Switzerland. his party, the Social Democratic Labour Party, ends up being disbanded. In Iowa, the Wright Brothers make the first motorized heavier than air flight, and pioneer aviation. The first world series is held, between the winner of the AL and the winner of the NL. The Boston Americans defeat the New York Giants to win the first World Series.
In January 1904, Venezuela invades and seizes Aruba, and prepares to take Curacao. Outraged, the Dutch send troops to the Caribbean, and soon Portuguese troops follow. This results in the Venezuela War, and Spain, France and Britain all send troops. When the British notice that the majority of the Dutch troops are centered in Willemstad, the British, French, Spanish, and Venezuelan troops all collectively invade. McKinley then immediately asks the British, French and Spanish to stop, citing the Monroe doctrine and asserting America's power post Civil War. Scared of losing the US and CSA as allies, Britain, France and Spain agree to give up Aruba and Curacao to the Netherlands. Britain also agrees to return Guyana to the Netherlands. France agrees to give Montserrat to Portugal, and Spain agrees to pay small reparations to the Netherlands. The USA holds elections, as McKinley announced that he would not run for President. In the Democratic National Convention in Pittsburgh, William Jennings Bryan is chosen as the Presidential candidate, with William R. Hearst as his running mate. The Republicans had a split between the progressives and the traditional republicans and the Progressives broke off to become a third party. The Progressives chose Theodore Roosevelt as their Presidential candidate and Robert LaFollette as his running mate. Charles Fairbanks was chosen among the Republicans, and John M. Thurston was his running mate. Heading into the election, it becomes obvious that the Democratic Party is dying out, and that it will likely disband if the Progressive Party defeats it. With everyone thinking Fairbanks will be the next President, Roosevelt, the much stronger candidate, is chosen as war seems increasingly likely. McKinley, in advance of leaving office, meets with Roosevelt, mainly to ensure that he will remain on the gold standard. Roosevelt agrees. The Olympics are held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as they continued to attempt to keep them in neutral countries. Baseball grows in popularity in the United States.
The year begins with Theodore Roosevelt pledging to remain on the gold standard and him taking office in March. Roosevelt stations some troops in Venezuela in order to ensure that they will not invade Aruba or Curacao again, and to protect the Panama Canal. The Confederacy establishes a law prohibiting child labor for all white children below age 15, and restricting the work day to a maximum of a ten-hour work day for white workers. While these laws are loved and successful, they begin to raise questions about slavery. The slave owner class is no longer the highest, as the company owner has become the richest job. in June, Germany, Italy, Portugal, the Netherlands, and Turkey all send diplomats to meet in Genoa, Italy. There, they sign the Genoa Pact, which states that those countries are co-aligned. This was already known, and the more important section of the agreement was the weapons exchange. All five of these countries agreed to sell each other weapons. This would allow the selling government to have the money to produce more weapons, and the buying government would have improved technology (the sellers were usually Germany and Italy). This caused an exponential increase in the militarism of these countries, and they all began to have a large amount of machine guns. However, before the convention ends, Spain and Britain announce that they will be patrolling the Strait of Gibraltar, and will not allow any boats flying a flag of Portugal, Germany, Turkey, or Italy to pass through. Soon they would say the same for the Suez Canal, and they'd add the Netherlands and Japan to the list. The delegates to the convention, especially those from Portugal, were stranded. The United States and Confederacy were both exremely mad about this, stating that unlike for the Panama Canal, Britain and Spain were obligated to allow free passage due to past treaties which they were disregarding. As the Portuguese and German diplomats rode to Germany by train, the Portuguese were preparing to board a ship from Hamburg to Lisbon, Britain and France disregarded the American and Confederate opposition, and continued their attempt to trap the Portuguese delegates by patrolling the English Channel. By this point, it is November, and the seas North of Britain have begun to freeze. The Portuguese diplomats were successfully trapped in Germany, and it began to be known as the Cardozo Affair after the former Portuguese Prime Minister, Jaco Cardozo, who was among the stranded. Also, Albert Einstein published papers on the theory of Special Relativity. Also, John H. Reagan dies, and fellow President from Texas Jim Hogg decides to make a national cemetery for the heroes of the Confederacy, especially soldiers who died in battle. This cemetery is put in South Carolina in North Augusta, across the Savannah River from the Confederate capital.
When winter ends, the Portuguese officials take off. In their "cruise", they stop in the neutral cities of Stavanger and Bergen in Norway, Torshavn in the Danish Faroe Islands, Reykjavik, Iceland, and finally Lisbon. When they made it back in June, it was announced that Portugal would institute the draft again so that they would have the means to fight in case of war, which seemed to be heavily approaching. The weapons exchange had basically been stopped for Portugal with the monitoring of the English Channel and Strait of Gibraltar. They agreed with Germany to purchase by going around England. Germany also refused to pay its reparations this year, because they had been treated as if the contract of the Treaty of Amsterdam had been nullified by the British, French, and Spanish actions. Germany, realizing that the key to their success in war was having the US and Confederacy on their side, urges Japan to sell the US Alaska. Germany offers to pay Japan an extra 50% of the settled price if the USA pledges their military allegiance to the German led alliance. Japan was already having issues in Alaska, including language barriers, distance, and the Japanese inability to keep up with the cold winters. While Japan liked the gold that was there, they found it too costly. In the end, the United States agreed to buy Alaska from Japan for $35 million as well as Japanese free passage in the Panama Canal. The United States was especially interested in the diplomatic implications, meaning that they would likely not have a war with Japan. The United States and Confederacy now were leaning in favor of the "German Gang". They decided to test the British and Spanish limits, by having an empty cargo boat go through the Strait of Gibraltar en route to Italy. The ship goes completely undetected in the strait, and when they tell this to Italy, Italy attempts as well, and the boat makes it through to Lisbon. However, this makes news stories, and the British begin to stock up boats in Gibraltar. When the American ship returns, it is shot at, and though not sunk, it is the first British attack on America. With all of the proof that they need, America signs a secret agreement with Germany, the Confederacy, and Japan to all be "Co-aligned". America and the Confederacy both state that they will still not enter the war unless attacked; but they also state that they will support the German alliance.
The Soviet Union invades and conquers some of central Asia, now extending as far south as modern day Uzbekistan. Britain tries to also influence the areas that are still not specifically conquered, and the Soviet Union sees two separate enemies over the Great Game who are on different sides of the war: Britain and Turkey. In the Confederacy, a major antitrust law is passed, mainly regarding the major Confederate oil company, centered in Hogg's home state of Texas. In July, congress passes a bill that laid out a plan to switch to a bi-metal monetary system. Hogg keeps his word and does not veto. The Confederacy had a plan to be on the bi-metal system by January 1st, 1913. Immigration rates rise to an all time high in the United States, and the population rate and diversity of New York grows dramatically. In the Confederacy, the Confederate Baseball League, with teams in St. Louis, New Orleans, Kansas City, Charleston, Atlanta, Richmond, Montgomery, and Louisville. The pennant winner ends up being the Louisville Colonels, edging out the St. Louis Brown Stockings. Tensions continue to rise between the two alliance systems. Germany continues to mass produce weaponry and built more and more U-Boats, and militaries of all of the major powers build up. Mexico declares its neutrality, having learned from fighting against the Confederacy, especially now that they bordered both the Confederacy and Britain, beginning to seem like they are on separate sides of the war. In October, a Dutch gunship seen on the Schelde River near Antwerp (HNLMS Evertsen) is shot at by Belgium, and sunk, even though it was extremely close to the border. The next day, the Netherlands sends an ultimatum to Belgium. Belgium is given one month to decide. The proposal is horrible for Belgium, including paying the cost of the ship, plus supplying Netherlands with one third of the Belgian Navy, and Belgium ceding some of their northern land to the Dutch, including Antwerp. Belgium responds with a counter proposal. Just three weeks after receiving the counter proposal, the Netherlands declare war on Belgium. It would have taken them one day if they had their military ready. Holland invades Belgium, and on December 31, they win the Battle of Turnhout, the first battle of the war.
World War II (1908-1916)
At the Battle of Turnhout, it becomes obvious that the Dutch Army is much stronger than the Belgian Army,
|World War II|
|Civil War Continues|
especially because of machine guns they acquired from the Weapons Exchange. Belgium calls on France to help them, as France pledged they would. France agrees to join the war on January 10. On January 12, Germany declares war on France and Belgium. On January 13, Britain and Italy join the war on separate sides. On January 15, Spain joins the war, and on January 17, Portugal declares war on Spain and Britain. In just one week, what seems to be a minor war turned into a world war. January 17, however, also saw the first major battle between countries other than Belgium and Holland. Italy, in the hopes of conquering Corsica, attacked Bastia, and won the battle. This allowed them to control Corsica just one year later. Then, on January 23rd, Portugal's invasion of Spain is stopped at the Battle of Merida. Germany then helped the Dutch invasion of Belgium, winning the Battle of Antwerp easily by use of machine guns. The German troops, helped by the machine guns, massacre the people of Mechelen before making it to Brussels on March 8. The remaining Belgian army flees to France. The Dutch troops stay back in Belgium to ensure their control, winning the Battle of Ghent against militias in April. Now controlling all of Flanders, the Dutch force the Belgian government to surrender, and hand over Wallonia as well. The Dutch Army now controls all of Belgium, and they send some ships out to ensure control of the Congo. In May, the German troops win the Battle of Lille, and continue their steady march towards Paris. Riots break out in Ireland, and independence is declared. Britain is forced to withdraw some troops from France and fight their own civil war. As the Germans, with their machine guns, draw closer to Paris, the French build trenches in order to defend against the fire. This causes a war of attrition and a stalemate, and the battle of Oise would be drawn out for two years, and would kill over one million people. Meanwhile in the Middle East, Turkey takes back Jerusalem from British control, and continues to conquer as much as it can, in its quest to gain control of the Suez Canal. In Portugal, Trench warfare begins on the border with Spain. The first year of the war causes major deaths. The Olympics, scheduled to be held in Copenhagen, are canceled due to the war. Both the USA and the Confederacy hold Presidential elections. Theodore Roosevelt is reelected by a landslide in the USA, with Henry Wilson Temple, who had just finished his first term as a Representative, becoming the new Vice President. In the Confederacy, a strong President was wanted. The Conservatives, which were more favorable in wartime, chose former secretary of war Luke E. Wright as their candidate, with Thomas S. Martin as his running mate. The Industrialists chose Vice President James Taliaferro, with Joseph W. Bailey as his running mate. The Democrats chose Senator William J. Stone for his experience as chairman of the Foreign Relations committee, and selected Lee S. Overman as his running mate. The Democrats shockingly won when conservative stronghold Georgia voted Democratic, enough of a swing to lose the election for the Conservatives.
William J. Stone is sworn in, and Roosevelt is sworn in for the second term. Trench warfare in most of the fronts causes a stalemate. The exception is the Anglo-Irish war, which features the Irish using guerrilla tactics against the British. With the US and Confederacy now supporting the Co-aligned Powers, they send weapons and supplies to many fronts which are not based near the Mediterranean. The Anglo-Irish War becomes the main focus of these supplies, but the weapons mainly go to Portugal to fight Spain. There is a stalemate on the German-French front in the major, still going, Battle of Oise. When the British win the Battle of Dundalk, they continue to invade Ireland to try to put down the rebellion. Spain and Portugal have reached a stalemate, but there are still places along the border without trenches, which still have not been noticed. Italy finishes taking over Corsica, and now focuses on attacking the Balkans. By December, Albania surrenders to Italy. Throughout the year, the Turks slowly advance into the Sinai desert, though they are sure to advance slowly. In Southeast Asia, the Dutch East Indies, together with Siam, invades Singapore. In August, Singapore falls after Japan joins the war. It is decided that the Dutch East Indies will get control of Singapore, but Siam would get control of Indochina if the invasion of it is successful. China soon declared war on Britain and France, and began to invade British Tibet. The Portuguese also land on the strategic island of Madagascar, winning the battle of Toliara. When this occurs, France and Britain convince Colombia and Venezuela to declare war on Portugal and the Netherlands. Aruba and Curacao return to Venezuelan control quickly.
In 1910, the Germans introduce to their soldiers fighting in the trenches the hand grenade for wide use. Germany has extreme successes with this, and launches a major advance. In April, the Germans manage to finally cross the Oise River, and take over Compiegne. However, in June, the British send grenadiers to the front, and the French begin to mass produce grenades in July. By August, there was a stalemate again in the French Front. The French had a new plan though. The French send a small group of soldiers to the direct border with Germany, and launch a small invasion. The Germans had not set up trenches there, and the French conquer Freiburg in August and Stuttgart in December, before the Germans finally met the French troops and regained that area. In November, Madagascar is completely controlled by Portugal. Before this, Siam, Japan, China, and the Dutch East Indies were having trouble invading French Indochina. But then, Portugal cut off access from the Atlantic. Meanwhile, the Turkish army continues to advance, winning the Battle of Arish in May and in August they make it to the Suez Canal. They got Italian ships to join them, and they launched a joint land sea invasion of Port Said. The battle finally ends in December, with the British side losing. The Turkish and Italian forces marched towards Ismaila, en route to Suez. The Suez Canal, at this point, was shut down for everyone. In the Portuguese front, the Portuguese begin to use hot air balloons to take pictures of the Spanish trenches. This becomes extremely successful, and gives the Portuguese a slight edge. But when the Spanish see the hot air balloons, they devise their own plan for use of hot air balloons. The Spanish shoot down Portuguese hot air balloons, and begin to drop grenades on the Portuguese reserves from the air. Confederate President Stone was against intervention in the war, but Roosevelt was in favor of intervention.
With the Germans holding off the French invasion, the Germans notice a breach in the French trenches, and invade Luxembourg. The Germans make another great push, but are stopped in November by the coming winter, and the French and Germans build trenches. The Germans are forces to continue trench warfare, and attrition continues to take its toll. In September, the Battle of Suez occurs, and the city falls in November to the Turkish and Italian forces. By December, the Battle of Cairo has begun, and Egypt appears as though it will fall to Turkey. In May however, Portugal launches a major offensive into Spain, and this time is successful, winning the Second Battle of Salamanca. Now past the Spanish trenches, the Portuguese invasion quickly closes in on Madrid. In December, however, the Portuguese, Dutch, and Italian navies all launch a major invasion of Tangier, and soon hope to attack Gibraltar. In Asia, Japan takes Hong Kong, while Siam invades Indochina, winning the Battle of Battambang. The British continue to massacre Irish rebels, but remain occupied with them. The United States passes two separate progressive amendments: Women's suffrage and Prohibition. The Confederacy responds by accepting the two equivalent amendments, but also one allowing direct election of senators. The same passes congress in the United States this year.
The year begins with the greatest naval battle in history, the Battle of Gibraltar. This battle features German, Portuguese, Italian and Dutch ships against Spanish, British and French ships. The main purpose of the attack on Gibraltar was to shut off Allied entry and exit of the Mediterranean, as the co-aligned powers now held the Suez Canal. The Battle of Gibraltar began in January and ended in late March, when German U-Boats torpedoed the majority of the Spanish navy, in addition to many of the French and British ships there. This allowed an Italian invasion of Spain. In May, Italy began its blockade of Valencia, which would fall to Italy in July. Italian forces advanced further east, while the opening of a second front for Spain caused Portugal to also move quicker towards Madrid. In March, Britain had nearly completely finished putting down the revolt in Ireland, and were prepared to help Spain and France out enough to change the war. But instead, everything changed in August when Colombia, which was part of the allies, invaded Panama. Immediately when this happened, Canada sent a telegram to the United States, stating that they were going to declare independence from Britain and asked for help against a British invasion. In the United States, there was already a very strong pro-war movement, but the Confederacy was more reluctant. However, in August, Canada declared its independence, and the United States and Confederacy declared war on Colombia and Britain (France and Spain declared war on USA and CSA four days later). Britain, more concerned with Europe, agreed to recognize Canadian independence if they did not contribute to the war. Canada accepted, though the USA was not extremely thrilled that Canada would not help. In December, not having anything to do with the American intervention, Siam and Japan gained control of southern Indochina after winning the Battle of Saigon. Also in December, the American and Confederate troops begin their invasion of Colombia, beginning with Baranquilla. Teddy Roosevelt is re-elected.