960: Zhao Kuangyin is defeated in his attempt to capture the throne of Northern China. As such, the cycle of successive 'universal' Chinese Imperial dynasties is broken. The Song Dynasty (ref )is never established, but instead eight strong and independent different kingdoms consolidate in geographic China by 1200 AD:
- Later Shu 后蜀
- Later Zhou 后周
- Liao 遼朝
- Northern Han 北汉
- Southern Han 南汉
- Southern Ping 荆南
- Southern Tang 南唐
- Wuyue 吴越
Due to interstate rivalries during this period, there are several technological advances in China, including printing and gun powder weapons.
1209: The Mongols attack Turkmenistan as the beginning of their raids against the known world. In 1211, they attack Later Zhou (Northern China) and by 1234, they had subdued all Chinese kingdoms but Liao and Wuyue.
1248: The Mongols defeat the Franks and sacked Lutecia. In 1249 Rome falls under the Mongols. In 1254 the Mongols capture London. By 1255, only Iberia, Scandinavia and Helvetia are free from the Mongols.
With Japan, Liao, Wuyue, and India, these are the only focuses of Civilization in Eurasia spared by the Mongols.
Generalities of the timeline
Competition between Chinese States prompted technology, mainly military technology, and a better understanding of the Art of War. But also, trading technologies.
In the 13th Century, the Mongols, unite and began an expansion process. They conquer several Chinese states but some others resist, as well as Japan. In the West they reach Europe, conquering northern France, Germany, the Balkans and Italy. The Alps, Scandinavia, and Iberia were spared.
However, the Mongol empire disintegrates into several Khanates with local elites replacing the Mongol elites. Han peoples tend to dominate most of the eastern half of former Empire, while the Russians tried to dominate most of the western half.
By the 15th Century, Chinese navigators have circumnavigated the world, soon stabilizing trading ports in Africa, Europe and South America.
In the following centuries, many of this trading ports became colonies, disputed between different Chinese states, as well as the Koreans, the Japanese and the Russians.
The World Today
While ethnic Han people are almost a quarter of the population, more than one half of the World's 6,000,000 people either speaks some Chinese language, professes a Chinese religion or is heavily influenced by Chinese culture.
- The most widely used writing system is Han-I: the Chinese ideography.
- For international affairs, Cyrillic is used between peoples when any of them do not use Han-I.
- Cyrillic is also used in most countries to show pronunciation of Han-I ideograms in the local language.
- The largest Christian denomination is Russian Orthodox (West and East).
- There are five Orthodox popes, and two Catholic popes. The most important of them is the Pope of Constantinopla (Orthodox).
- Islam is practiced in Europe. The most important Muslim cities in Europe are Granada, Palermo, Sarajevo, Budapest and Vienna.
- Anatolia is Christian. The Republic of Turkey lies in Central Europe.
- There are several ethnicities that have expanded and founded colonies and new nations after the Mongols, spreading their languages, writing systems and religions: