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The Republic of China (Zhōnghuá Mínguó) was founded in 1912 and governed China. As an era of Chinese history, the republic was preceded by the Qing Dynasty. Sun-Yat-Sin served briefly as its first president. Sun's Kuomating(KMT, or “Nationalist Party”), then led by Song Joiran, won a parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, army leaders of the Beiyang Clique, led by President Yuan Shikai, retained control of the central government. After Yuan's death in 1916, various local military leaders, or warlords, asserted autonomy. In 1925, the KMT established a rival government in the southern city of Canton, now Guangzhou. The economy of the North, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed in 1927-1928. In 1928, CHiang Kai-SHel, who became KMT leader after Sun's death, defeated the warlord armies in the North Expedition. Chiang's National Revolutionary Party was armed by the Russian States and was advised by Mikhail Borodin. The Beiyang army was backed by Japan. Once Chiang established a unified central government in Nanjing, he cut his ties with the communists and expelled them from the KMT. By 1938, the Republic had annexed Mongolia completely.
Official Languages: Madarin,
Other Languages: Candonese, Mongolian,
Type of Government: Republic
President: Wu Bangguo