The Chinese Civil War was a conflict waged between 1908 to 1917 between supporters of the more liberal Imperial Constitution and the reactionary Monarchists, begun by the attempted Tiananmen Coup in 1908. There was also a notable and strong communist third party that was defeated soundly at Guangzhou in 1915 by the Monarchists. As many as 27 million people are estimated to have died in this period, mostly civilians dying of starvation or disease. The war resulted in a victory by the Imperial Constitutionalists, led by the Emperor Zaifeng and his top commander, Chiang Kai-Shek, over the Absolute Monarchists and the bulk of the Chinese Imperial Army. The victory resulted in the signing of the 1920 Constitution of China, which established the Imperial Constitution that China works under today.