Chinese Civil War (Napoleon's World)

The Top Left: Monarchist cavalry in Northwest China. The Top Right: Communist rebels in Manchuria. Bottom: Imperial Constitutional Troops marching in a forest near Guangzhou.

Date 1908 - 1917
Location Mainland China
Result Decisive Imperial Constitutionalists victory
  • Imperial Constitution instituted, Chinese government restructured
  • Westernization is adopted in China

Imperial Constitutionalists

20px CPC

Flag of the Qing dynasty (1889-1912) Qing Empire

Casualties and losses

9,450,000 Dead 16,740,600 Wounded

14,330,470 Dead 20,820,110 Wounded

The Chinese Civil War was a conflict waged between 1908 to 1917 between supporters of the more liberal Imperial Constitution and the reactionary Monarchists, begun by the attempted Tiananmen Coup in 1908. There was also a notable and strong communist third party that was defeated soundly at Guangzhou in 1915 by the Monarchists. As many as 27 million people are estimated to have died in this period, mostly civilians dying of starvation or disease. The war resulted in a victory by the Imperial Constitutionalists, led by the Emperor Zaifeng and his top commander, Chiang Kai-Shek, over the Absolute Monarchists and the bulk of the Chinese Imperial Army. The victory resulted in the signing of the 1920 Constitution of China, which established the Imperial Constitution that China works under today.

Background to Conflict

Opposition to 19th Century Western Influence

Growth of Japanese Power and Yellow Sea War

Theory of "Imperial Constitution" and Political Schism

Qingdao Affair and Tiananmen Coup