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China (Washington Shot at Murdering Town!)

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Empire of China
中华帝国
Zhonghua Diguo

Timeline: Washington Shot at Murdering Town!
Flag of the Qing dynasty (1889-1912) Seal of the Great Qing
Flag Coat of Arms
Capital
(and largest city)
Beijing
Language
  official
 
Chinese (Mandarin)
  others Cantonese, various minor dialects
Emperor Qianfeng
Prime Minister Liu Yi
Area area km²
Population 1.0 Billion (home country)

1.2 Billion (Colonial Empire)
1.5 Billion (Total East Asian Confederation)
 

Established 221 B.C.E (Unification)

1644 (Qing Dynasty)
1901 (Harbin Convention)

Currency Yuan

The Empire of China (Mandarin:中國帝國, Zhonghua Diguo) ,the shortened name otherwise known as the Middle Kingdom of the Great Qing is one of two independent nations based from Asia along with the Ottoman Empire. China is the head of the wider East- Asian Confederation and The Chinese Colonial Empire. The ruling Qing Dynasty that has ruled China since 1644 is the latest incarnation of a series of eras for the oldest surviving civilization in the world. In contrast to most European based empires, China by itself has more people than the wider empire. Being formed as an absolute monarchy it has sense transitioned to administrative representation which grants limited political rights to the majority of the population. China's economy is supported by its own vast diversity in landscapes and natural resources with additional materials being imported from its colonies. China is also the only imperial seat within the Global Security Conference to not hold some form of Christianity as its official religion. Buddhism instead is the official religion with Confucianism being the official "thought" of the state's secular affairs.

History

The Qianlong Emperor Viewing Paintings

Qing Court Painting, 18th century Prior to modern times imperial China produced many achievements but did not forcibly spread them around the world.

China, under the reigns of the Qing Dynasty and the Manchu people entered modern times, as the most populous, country and the largest economy on earth. As the only classical civilization to survive intact into modern times, In the 18th century China's character differed from the world's other superpowers- all of which were European and most of which were sea based. Until the rise of European Exploration, Chinese civilization was the most advanced in the world for thousands of years irrespective of what happened elsewhere. Large and strong she was self sustaining, without the immediate need to explore, much less colonize outside of East Asia. Even within her sphere of influence China led more by example than by force. A diplomatic system revolving around the imperial emperors put adjacent countries into tributary status. Nations such as Manchuria, Tibet, Korea, and Vietnam often gravitated to Chinese culture as a choice but, China's direct influence ended here. With few exceptions, China neglected opportunities to project power over far away places. When Europeans began to explore the wider world, the native Chinese Ming Dynasty grew ever more inward, banning oceangoing voyages and closing major port cities. Extreme isolationism led to economic collapse and the emergence of Qing Manchu leadership. Over the 1700's the Qing restored order and the country underwent an era of prosperity. While less isolated than previous regimes the early Qing still retained ancient policies, China continued to stagnate despite enjoying security and economic growth.

The First Reforms

Chinese junk 1804

A British American Drawing of Zhao Jintu's expedition to the west, reaching Philadelphia aboard the Xuexi known in English as the learning.

Government officials with connections to western people were the first to engineer the modern state. Old China while ruled by emperors depended on a massive bureaucracy, with politics being based on the ideas of groups of government employees. The School of Practical Learning persuaded the Qing royal family to explore western scientific and technological advancements. Countering resistance from traditionalists officials argued that learning from outsiders was well in lines with Confucian morals if it spurred people's prosperity, and practical learning was not just correct but a necessity to serve the emperor with the best diligence. Led by the ambitious bureaucrat Zhao Jintu the school lobbied for the Qianlong's emperor support to construct new western style academies in military technology, engineering and natural science. Jintu, was a practical idealist, knowing how to navigate court politics to successfully push for change. In the 1780's Jintu organized a trip for fifty of his friends and students to visit Great Britain, the Netherlands and the fledgling United Provinces of America for five years. Their visit was akin to that of Marco Polo's medieval trip to China in creating cultural exchange between China and West, unfortunately upon their return Jintu had been forced into exile by an aging emperor. reactionary officials waged a campaign to keep practical learning affiliates from having any power. An embassy in 1795 from the British greatly interested the Practical Learning School but they were unable to take action on their own behalf

Upon the retirement of Qianlong in 1795, reform officials found their opportunity to influence the new emperor Jiaqing,who they had befriended in earlier years. Though initially a conservative Qianlong became convinced that innovation was a possible solution to the empire's problems. Local revolts became catalysts for change, using models brought by the British earlier the Qing government started manufacturing rifles for his banner armies. Crushing rebels in their wake, Jintu urged economic reforms were necessary to quell the people and to halt the trading deficit with British India

A turning point came in 1810 with the rise of Ching Shih the pirate queen and her Red Flag fleet, numbering in the tens of thousands and visibly unbeatable. Admirals were eager to test their new fleet which had been in construction for a decade, An elderly Jintu suggested cooperation with the British East India Company was necessary to overturn the pirates. The coordination was dramatic as this was the first time China officially dealt with a foreign power on equal terms. Mutually the two allied fleets narrowly prevailed over Shih, paving the way for future British-Chinese relations.

Opening the Jade Gate

Modernization efforts strained the imperial treasury, as the reform movement became more popular the School for Practical Learning splintered between those who favoured only millitary reform and those who envisioned far reaching changes to turn China into an industrial market economy. Changes, came slowly as most ordinary Chinese living away from the coast had yet to be effected by bureaucratic maneuvers.

Overseas Ambitions

The early 20th century

As a global partner

Politics and Government

Subdivisions

China is divided into 29 provinces and two integrated protectorates (marked in green):

District Capital
Anhui Hefei
Fujian Fuzhou
Gansu Lanzhou
Guangdong Guangzhou
Guangxi Nanning
Guizhou Guiyang
Hebei Beijing
Heilongjiang Qiqihar
Higgan Tongliao
Henan Zhengzhou
Hubei Wuhan
Hunan Changsha
Jehol Chengde
Jiangsu Nanjing
Jiangxi Nanchang
Jilin Changchun
Liaoning Shenyang
Mongolia Da Khure
Ningxia Yinchuan
Qinghai Xining
Shaanxi Xian
Shandong Jinan
Shanxi Taiyuan
Sichuan Chengdu
Suiyuan Hohhot
Taiwan Taipei
Tibet Lhasa
Wusuli Jixi
Xinjiang Urumqi
Yunnan Kunming
Zezen Zhoybalsan
Zhejiang Hangzhau
Flag of the Qing dynasty (1889-1912)   Members of the East-Asian Confederation   Flag of the Qing dynasty (1889-1912)
Member Nations

Brunei | Burma | Campuchea | China | Dai Viet | Hawai`i | Japan | Korea | Malacca | Okinawa | Pahang | Siam |

Special Members

Kedah | Kelantan | Maguindanao | Mongolia | Perak | Sulu | Terengganu | Tibet

Associate Members

Ethiopia | Madagascar | Witu | Zanzibar

Flag of the Qing dynasty (1889-1912)   Members of the Chinese Colonial Empire   Flag of the Qing dynasty (1889-1912)
Nations

China | Mongolia | Tibet

Colonies

Chinese Antarctic Territory | Chinese East-Indies | Chinese East-Africa | Chinese Polynesia

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