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China, formerly known as the Imperial Qing Empire and later the Republic of China, is the world's most populous nation located in East Asia. It is one of the states that know make up the Asian Union, being the largest, most populous, and most economically valuable of them all. The state borders Tibet to its west, Mongolia to its north, the Asian Union states of Korea (northeast) and Japan to the east, and French Southeast Asia to the southwest. China has a spectacular landscape diversity, with subtropical forests in the south along with rugged mountains and valleys and plains in Manchuria and the Northern part of the country. It contains asmall bit of desert to the west which is part of the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers run through this country, creating one of the most fertile agricultural growing areas in the world. It has a 14,500 km (9,000 mi) long coastline and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East and South China seas.
The nations is said to be the world's oldest civilization, which has been through golden ages, harsh times, and conquest. The North China Plain was the birthplace of Chinese civilization, where the political system was based on dynasties. The first one of them was the Xia, based on the Yellow River basin (approx. 2000 BC) and ended with the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1937 during Great War III. Prior to 221 BC, China was a fragmented region of numerous city-states. However, the rise of the Qin Dynasty led to the first official Chinese state. Since then, the country has gone through expansion, fall of dynasties, harsh periods, fracturing and reunification, and conquest from other nations and tribes.
During the late Qing Dynasty, the country began to fall behind the technological enlightenment of Western Europe due to its refusal to modernize. This was because China was mostly self-sufficient and did not rely on foreign trade. However, the French forced the Chinese to open up trade during the South China War. At that same time, it lost South China to France. Eventually, more and more Western nations joined the pressure to open China to trade. Concurrent to that, China was falling apart due to internal crises and the independence of Tibet. The country also saw, some of its northern lands taken away from Japan and Russia until it became a rump state. Eventually, the state, as well as the chain of dynasties, was finally doomed to destruction after the Japanese overran it during 1937. Eventually, as a term of the Treaty of Washington D.C., the state was finally restored, with a majority of its land (except Tibet and some of its western lands) were returned to China.
In 1948, however, border disputes and tensions between the Washington Pact and the European Treaty Organization led to the Chinese War. This war devastated most of the Chinese region. And although the Treaty of Beijing declared a ceasefire, France did gain to provinces from the country. In 1971, though, after years of consideration, it joined with Japan and Korea to form the Asian Union.