China (simplified Chinese: 中国; traditional Chinese: 中國; pinyin: Zhōngguó), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state located in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.38 billion. The PRC is a one-party state governed by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces; five autonomous regions; four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing); two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau); and claims sovereignty over Taiwan.
China is a cradle of civilization, with its known history beginning with an ancient civilization – one of the world's earliest – that flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties. Since 221 BCE, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the country has expanded, fractured and reformed numerous times. The Republic of China (ROC) replaced the last dynasty in 1912, and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil War. The Communist Party established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, while the ROC government relocated to Taiwan with its present capital in Taipei. Both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China.
The poorly large China suffered heavily loses in their losing war against Shugarists. The Shugarist Invasion of China from 6 August 1953 to 29 May 1954 marked as one of the worst wars in Chinese history, with over 40 million Chinese soldiers and civilians being killed or taken as slaves by Japanese, Korean and Shugarhai forces. After the end of Shugarist Invasion of China and a peace treaty was signed on 30 May 1954, China lost Manchuria to Korea and one of famous sea ports to Shugarhai Union. Afterward, the country went into bankruptcy for ten more years until a economic reform was passed in 1978, allowing China to modernize its economy and became the largest superpower in world, replacing United States since the 2000s.