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China (Fatherlands)

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中華民國
Republic of China
Timeline: Fatherlands
Flag of the Republic of China Republic of China National Emblem
Flag Coat of Arms
China map
China in green.
Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China, National Flag Anthem
Capital: Nanking
Largest city: Canton
Other cities: Shanghai, Peiping, Taipei, Hangchou, Chungking, Hong Kong, many others
Language:
  official:
 
Chinese
  Other languages: many others
Religion:
  main:
 
Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhaism, Islam
  Other religions: Christian, Cathoilc
Ethnic group: Chinese
Type of government: Parliamentary republics
  government: Representative democracy
President: Ma Ying-jeou
Premier: Vincent Siew
Area: 25,325,741 km²
Population: 1,742,718,213 
Established: 1912
HDI: 0.874
Currency: Chinese Yuan
Internet TLD: .cn,.中國
Calling code: 8
Organizations: United Nations, Coalition of Axis


China, (Republic of China,中華民國) is the largest country in the world as well as in Asia. China beginning a democracy in 1948.

The ancient Chinese civilization - one of the world's earliest - flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River which flows through the North China Plain. China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies (also known as dynasties) from the time of the Xia (approx. 2000 BC). However, it was the Qin Dynasty that first unified China as a nation in 221 BC. The last dynasty, the Qing, ended in 1911 with the founding of the Republic of China (ROC) by the Kuomintang (KMT), the Chinese Nationalist Party.

In WWII, China joined the allies in 1939 changed sides and joined the Axis in 1941. China is one of the winners of WWII. China also a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a permanent member of the Coalition of Axis Relation Council.

China has the highest GDP in the world and the third highest GDP per capita in the world. The average wage is $37,255 ,just lower than the highest one the Britain Isles. The gini coefficient of China is only 0.25. The Chinese countryside is as modern as the cities. China welfare is well specially the elders, they can gain the great pension for their life and have a good quality of life. China is the largest agricultural producers, the 31% of food and commodity of world are made by China. China has a great product quality, just lower than British Isles, Mainland Italy and Northern Europe.

In the modern era, China is a one of the world Superpowers and has a powerful influence, a biggest power of space exploration, such as the Heavenly Palace Space Station. In culture, the Chinese has a influence of culture in Asia which began more than 9 centuries ago, the Chinese culture still continues to influence Asia now.

History

Empire Era (221BC-1911AD)

Republican Era (1911AD-1914AD)

Warlord Era (1914AD-1927AD)

Dictatorship under Kuomintang (1927AD-1937AD)

Against the expansion of Japan (1937AD-1945AD)

Post War (1945AD-1948AD)

Constitution and Democratization (1948AD-1950AD)

Clivi War (1950AD-1955AD)

After Reunification of China (1955AD-1973AD)

Becomes superpower (1973AD-1989AD)

Becomes propers (1989AD-1993AD)

Modern China (1993AD-)

Geography and environment

Republic of China is the largest country in the world by land area and depending on the definition of total area. China's total area is generally stated as approximately 25,325,741 km2. China has the longest land borders in the world, measuring 38,212 km from the mouth of the Severnaya Zemlya to the Gulf of Tonkin.

China borders 14 nations, more than any other country except Russia, which also borders 14. China extends across much of the East Asian continent bordering Indochine and Burma in Southeast Asia; India and Bhutan in South Asia; Afghanistan, Turkestan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia; and the United States, Russia and Korea in Northeast Asia. Additionally, China shares maritime boundaries with Korea, Japan, Vietnam and the Philippines. China claims over the entirety of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea, and the southern-most extent of these claims reach Zengmu Ansha (James Shoal), which would form a maritime frontier with Malaya.

In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands are visible. Southern China is dominated by hill country and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west, major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas, and high plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. China's highest point, Mt. Everest (8848m), lies on the Sino-Indian border. The country's lowest point is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (-154m) in the Turpan Depression.

Northern Asia was glaciated in the Pleistocene, but this played a less significant part in the geology of the area compared to the part that it played in North America and Europe. The Scandinavian ice sheet extended to the east of the Urals, covering the northern two thirds of the Ob Basin and extending onto the Angara Shield between the Yenesei River and the Lena River. There are legacies of mountain glaciation to be found on the east Siberian mountains, on the mountains of the Kamchatka Peninsula, on the Altai, on Tien Shan, and on other small areas of mountains, ice caps remain on the islands of Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya, and several Central Asian mountains still have individual glaciers. Siberia itself has permafrost, ranging in depths from 30m to 600 m and covering an area of 9.6 million km².

China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons, wet monsoons, which lead to a pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-altitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower altitudes are warm and moist. The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's extensive and complex topography.

Biodiversity

One of 17 megadiverse countries, China lies in two of the world's major ecozones: the Palearctic and the Indomalaya. In the Palearctic zone, mammals such as the horse, camel, tapir, and jerboa can be found. Among the species found in the Indomalaya region are the Leopard Cat, bamboo rat, treeshrew, and various monkey and ape species. Some overlap exists between the two regions due to natural dispersal and migration; deer, antelope, bears, wolves, pigs, and numerous rodent species can all be found in China's diverse climatic and geological environments. The famous giant panda is found only in a limited area along the Yangtze River. China suffers from a continuing problem with trade in endangered species, although there are now laws to prohibit such activities.

China also hosts a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and the Asian black bear, along with over 120 bird species. Moist conifer forests can have thickets of bamboo as an understorey, replaced by rhododendrons in higher montane stands of juniper and yew. Subtropical forests, which dominate central and southern China, support as many as 146,000 species of flora. Tropical and seasonal rain forests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a quarter of all the plant and animal species found in China.

Political divisions

495px-馬英九總統

Ma Ying-jeou, President of China

800px-ROC Presidential in Nanjing

The old Presidential Building has housed the Office of the President of the Republic of China before 1950

Government and Politics

The government of the Republic of China was founded on the Constitution of the ROC and its Three Principles of the People, which states that "(the ROC) shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people." The government is divided into five administrative branches (Yuan): the Control Yuan, the Examination Yuan, the Executive Yuan, the Judicial Yuan, and the Legislative Yuan.

President

The head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the President, who is elected by popular vote for a four-year term on the same ticket as the Premier. The President has authority over the Yuan. The President appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as his cabinet, including a Premier, who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration.


Executive Yuan

The ROC's political system does not fit traditional models. The Premier is selected by the President without the need for approval from the Legislature, but the Legislature can pass laws without regard for the President, as neither he nor the Premier wields veto power. Thus, there is little incentive for the President and the Legislature to negotiate on legislation if they are of opposing parties. After the election of the pan-Green's Chen Shui-bian as President in 2000, legislation repeatedly stalled because of deadlock with the Legislative Yuan, which was controlled by a pan-Blue majority. Historically, the ROC has been dominated by strongman single party politics. This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the President rather than the Premier, even though the Constitution does not explicitly state the extent of the President's executive power.

Legislature

The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan with 2300 seats. Seventy-three are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies; thirty-four are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties in a separate party list ballot; and six are elected from two three-member aboriginal constituencies. Members serve three-year terms. Originally the unicameral National Assembly, as a standing constitutional convention and electoral college, held some parliamentary functions, but the National Assembly was abolished in 2005 with the power of constitutional amendments handed over to the Legislative Yuan and all eligible voters of the Republic via referenda.

Judiciary

The Judicial Yuan is the ROC's highest judicial organ. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries. The President and Vice-President of the Judicial Yuan and fifteen Justices form the Council of Grand Justices. They are nominated and appointed by the President of the Republic, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan. The highest court, the Supreme Court, consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding Judge and four Associate Judges, all appointed for life. In 1993, a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process. There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.

Like most Asian democracies, the ROC still allows for capital punishment. Efforts have been made by the government to reduce the number of executions, although they have not been able to completely abolish the punishment. As of 2006, about 80% of Chinese want to keep the death penalty.

Audit

The Control Yuan is a watchdog agency that monitors (controls) the actions of the executive. It can be considered a standing commission for administrative inquiry and can be compared to the Court of Auditors of the European Union or the Government Accountability Office of the United States. The Control Yuan is sometimes also compared to an ombudsman or national human rights institution.

Examination

The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. It is based on the old Imperial examination system used in premodern China. It can be compared to the European Personnel Selection Office of the European Union or the Office of Personnel Management of the United States.

Foreign relations and military

中華民國國軍
Republic of China Armed Forces
Timeline: Fatherlands
Headquarters: Nanking
Commander-in-Chief: Ma Ying-jeou
Minister of Defence: Kao Hua-Chu
Commander: General Huo Sho-yeh
Branches: Republic of China Army
Republic of China Air force
Republic of China Naval
Republic of China Marines
Active personnel: 3,222,140
Reserve personnel: 4,712,210
Founded in: 1948
as the National Revolution Army
Ages qualified for service: 19-40
Available for service: 76,721,757 males
75,846,583 females
Conscription law: All residents must register with the Selective Service in the event that Parliament reinstates the draft
Time of service: 3 years in peacetime; until the end of hostilities in wartime
Note - Conscription is not currently in effect in all Dominions and Republics


Before 1928, the foreign policy of Republican China was complicated by a lack of internal unity—competing centers of power all claimed legitimacy. This situation changed after the defeat of the Peiyang Government by the Kuomintang, which led to widespread diplomatic recognition of the Republic of China.

After the WWII, China continue to be a member of Axis (Coalition of Axis after 1950). China starting to full democracy and constitution in 1948. China keeps a best relation with most of Axis members specially Germany, UK, Italy, Croatia, Spain, Ukraine, Hungary and Korea, and a quite good relation with US, Canada.

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