China, officially the People's Republic of China, is the second largest nation in Asia only behind the Soviet Union and is the world's most populous nation. As the world's oldest surviving civilization, it has been enriched with tradition, culture and history. China shares borders with Mongolia and the Soviet Union to the north, Bhutan, India, Korea, Laos, Nepal, Vietnam to the south, Afghanistan, Myanmar, Pakistan, and the Soviet Union to the west.
During the 19th Century, the country experienced numerous crises especially during the rise of European imperialism. In 1912, the age of dynasties ended and a republic was established. During the following years, China suffered a civil war from warlords, attacks from Japan, and the Communist movement. During 1951, China officially became Communist and went through even more decades of hardship, but during the 1980's, the country underwent massive economic reforms.