The Republic of Chile, commonly referred to as Chile is a country on the Pacific coast of South America. It borders Peru and Martinia to the North, and the Rio de Plata to the East over the Andes Mountains. Chile possesses a protectorate over vast areas of the Eastern Pacific, and claims large areas of Antarctica.
Before the arrival of the Spanish in the 1500s, the majority of Chile was ruled by the Inca empire, with the Southern region begin inhabited by the Mapuche. After Napoleonic France annexed Spain in 1814, Chile declared its independence. It was a belligerent in the American theatre of the Napoleonic Wars, and along with Brazil and the Rio de Plata helped limit Napoleon's advance to greater Columbia. Chile's large navy enabled it to take possession of many Pacific Islands, making the former colony a colonial power in its own right.