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The Republic of Chile is a nation located in South America.
Prior to arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, northern Chile was under Inca rule while the indigenous Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile.
The Chilean War of Independence was part of the larger Spanish American independence movement, what began in 1822, and it was far from having unanimous support among Chileans, who became divided between independentists and royalists.
Like in other places, the Chilean soldiers initiated a guerrilla war against the Spanish regiments in the country. Little by little, the independentist movement occupy great part of the central zone of Chile, achieving an important victory in the Battle of Concepción, in 1824.
However, at beginning of 1825, more Spanish troops came from outside and from the Chiloé Island they initiated a counterattack. The combats lasted almost two years, until finally in 1826, Spain was forced by other european powers (France) to negotiate with the leaders of the insurrection in America, including O'Higgins, and to recognize the emancipation of the colonies.
The Independence of Chile was proclaimed officially On February 12, 1828. The last combat, occurred on January 10, 1828, when the Chilean Army defeat to the Iberian Troops in the Battle of Valdivia.
Conservatives & Liberals
In the middle of 1828, to avoid a civil war between the principal parties of Chile (Conservative Party and the Liberal Party), Bernardo O'Higgins was proclaimed the first President of Chile, governing the nation for two periods, until 1840.
After O'Higgins, the Conservatives governed Chile between 1840 and 1855. In the elections of 1855, they were defeated by the Liberals, who reached the presidency with Francisco Antonio Pinto.
In 1860, the tensions in South America increase and threaten to unleash a war. The government of Pinto tries to support the fragile peace, but the rest of the liberals promote to sign an military alliance with Brazil.
Pinto dies suddenly this year, and is replaced by Domingo Santa María, who decides after to join to Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia, in his fight against Argentina, Peru and Venezuela. After four years of combats, the Chilean army is defeated, and the country loses territories.
Civil War & The Unity Governments
After the defeat in the Second Latin American War, the Conservatives (and a faction of the Liberal party headed by Benjamin Vicuña Mackenna) initiate a revolution against the government of Santa Maria. The Civil war lasts almost two years, culminating with incarceration of Santa Maria and the exile of the liberals that supported it.
Conservatives and Liberals shape a "government of unity" in 1865 headed by Diego Portales. After paying the indemnifications in 1867, the economic recovery of Chile was difficult and takes several years, but since 1885, with the election of the General Manuel Baquedano, the country began a process of political, social and economic stability.
The National Unity Coalition ended with the Presidency of Pedro Montt, in 1910.
First Presidential Republic
In 1910 is elect as President, Gonzalo Bulnes Pinto (son of the former military and president Manuel Bulnes), and the following year begins the Second Global War. At first, Chile remains neutral to the conflict, but when Peru and Argentina were decisively defeated by 1914, the government of Bulnes decided to enter of the side of the Grand Alliance. With the end of the war in 1916, Chile recovers the lost territories almost 50 years before.
During the next years after the war, the industrial and economic development of Chile continues, unlike in the social area this not occurs same. However, between 1918 and 1920, the Chilean vice president, Arturo Alessandri, best-known as the "Lion of Atacama", assumes the presidency, replacing to the president Vicente Reyes, who die this year. Alessandri completes the rest of the Reyes's term, but in this short time just, he made some historical social reforms; this would allow him 10 years after, to reach the presidency of Chile.
During the 1930's, like the rest of the world, Chile was affected by the 1931 Crisis. The negative repercussions of event was taken advantage by the NSPCh, a movement created in 1927 inspired in the Argentinian's National Socialism, which since your foundation began to promote attempts of revolts in Chile, mostly unsuccessful, but that with the crisis intensified yours plans.
In this difficult scenario, Arturo Alessandri Palma from the Liberal Party, was elect head of state in 1932, with the support of the emerging middle and working classes, which by this time reached a important political relevance. Despite of opposition of the politics elites, the Alessandri's presidency was successful in achieving historical social, economic and political changes in the country, which soon allowed to Chile recover to the crisis.
After six-years of a successful administration, Alessandri ran for re-election in 1938 (now with the official support from Conservatives) against 2 candidates of the opposition (one national-socialist and one radical), and won with a wide margin. During his second term, Alessandri continues the indutralization of the country, in charge of the Industrial Development Corporation (Spanish: Corporación de Desarrollo Industrial, CDI), created previously in 1935, and that expanded several areas of the chilean economy and national defense.
In 1940, Chile declares the war to Argentina after the invasion to Uruguay by argentinian foces. Along with Colombia and the Brazilian Empire, Chile faced to Argentina and its National Socialist allies in the South America. The Argentinians invade the country by different directions and forced to the chilean troops to retreat in the south. However, the difficulty to cross the Andean mountains, where besides several small chilean units attacked and destroyed several convoys of tanks and heavy weapons, which eventually caused that the argentine offensive stopped suddenly, and allowed later to the chilean army leaded by Ramón Cañas Montalva counterattacked. The argentinians were pushed back to his own lands, meanwhile in the north zone, the peruvian and bolivian were attacked by a renewed chilean army, inferior in numbers, but more trained and with new weapons providing by Brazil. After the course of the conflict changed in favour of Allies, during 1944 Alessandri make an series of constitutional changes, like as reduced the presidential term to 4 years, and to call a plebiscite to decided if he could be reelect for a thid-term. He won and was reelected four years more.
The conflict ended finally in 1946 with the Fall of Buenos Aires, and new order in the continent was established, with Chile expanded enormously his territory, towards the north and to the Atlantic Ocean. The resources from the new acquired lands allowed to the Alessandri's government to recover from the war damages, specially in the southern cities. On January 1, 1947 Chile join to the Organization of Sovereign Nations, organism created that date for guarantee the international peace.
Second Presidential Republic
During the 1948 presidential election the Conservative-liberal alliance candidate, the Alessandri's Minister Gustavo Ross Santa María defeat easily to the Radical-Socialist candidate Raúl Rettig and the sorelist Jorge Prat Echaurren.
Social Christians' Governments
In the 2012 elections, the Evelyn Matthei (National Conservative) was elected as the first woman President in the chilean history. Matthei took office the October 5, along with the new elected Congress, where the Democratic Alliance retain his majority in both chamber.
Government & Politics
The politics of Chile takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Chile is both head of state and head of government, and of a formal multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The last presidential and parliamentary elections took place in 2008, and the nexts are scheduled for June 20, 2012.
Currently, existing two political coalitions in the country: The Democratic Alliance, formed by the National-Conservatives, Liberals and SocialChristians; and the United Progressive Front, which reunite to Radicals, Socialists and to the People's Democracy; the third force is represented by the Sorelist Party; also exist other minor political forces like the PRU and some leftist independent movements -with no representation in the congress-, generally opposed to the other coalitions.
- CURRENT PARTIES:
|Name||Initials||Current Leader||Ideology||Est. Date|
|Partido Conservador Nacional (National Conservative Party)||PCN||Jovino Novoa||Rightist, Conservative, Nationalist||1984|
|Partido Liberal (Liberal Party)||PL||Lily Pérez||Center-Right, Liberal||1828|
|Partido Social Cristiano (Christian Social Party)||PSC||Adolfo Zaldívar||Center, Christian Democrat||1950's|
|Partido Sorelista (Sorelist Party)||PSo||Pablo Rodríguez Grez||Sorelism||1948|
|Partido Regionalista Unido (United Regionalist Party)||PRU||Alejandra Sepúlveda Orbenes||Center, Regionalist||1990's|
|Partido Democracia Popular (People's Democracy Party)||DP||Ricardo Lagos Weber||Center-Left, Social Democracy||1980's|
|Partido Radical Social Democratico (Radical Social Democratic Party)||PRSD||José Antonio Gómez||Center-Left, Radicalism, Progressim|| 1864 (as Radical Party)|
|Partido Obrero Socialista (Socialist Workers Party of Chile)||POSCh||Isabel Allende||Leftist, Democratic Socialism|| 1918 (as Socialist Party)|
1980 (Union with the Communist Party)
- DEFUNCT PARTIES:
|Partido Conservador||PC||Manuel Bulnes, Francisco Bulnes Sanfuentes||Conservatism||1828 - 1984|
|Partido Liberal Democratico||PLD||Benjamin Vicuña Mackenna||Liberalism||1861 - 1920|
|||Partido Nacional Socialista||PNSCh||Marmaduque Grove, Óscar Schnake||Left, National Socialism||1825 - 1946|
|||Partido Comunista||PCCh||Luis Corvalán||Far-Left, Marxist||1919 - 1980 (union with the Socialist Party)|
Chile is situated in southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean to west, the Andean Mountains to northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. The country share borders with the Peru-Bolivian Confederation to north and with Argentina to the northeast.
Due to extension, Chile encompasses a remarkable variety of landscapes. Geographically, the country can be divided into many different parts: the far north, the near north, central Chile, the south, the Patagonia, and the far south. Each has its own characteristic vegetation, fauna, climate, and, despite the omnipresence of both the Andes and the oceans, its own distinct topography.
Chile also controls a small numbers of islands in both oceans: the Easter Island; the Sala y Gómez Island; the Juan Fernández Islands; and the Desventuradas Islands in the Pacific; and the Falklands Islands in the Atlantic.