Divergence of timeline
The Charles Darwin as the first anti-psychiatric thinker timeline diverges from OTL in 1832, when Charles Darwin during his journey with the ship HMS Beagle, more specifically during his visit in Brazil, makes one of his rainforest expeditions along a different walking path than in OTL. He thereby avoids the insect bite that gave him the invalidating Chaga's disease in OTL, and returns to England from the voyage with the HMS Beagle as a healthy man.
In 1837, one year after returning, he uses that health to visit a scientific discussion club at a café in central London. There he meets an atheist woman, Sandra Tanner. The two fall in love and marry. She persuades him to be more open and pushy about his ideas that humans may be related to the other animals on Earth. Charles Darwin, who is healthy and not as conflict-fearing as in OTL, allows himself to be persuaded to do so. This results in his publication of the book "Conjectures on the common descent of all living things" in 1839.
The same year, Sandra Tanner publishes her own book "Problem solving in low-ranking individuals in animal groups". In the book, she notes from studying Darwin's naturalist notebooks from the HMS Beagle expedition that in hierarchical animal groups, the lowest ranked individuals always need to be the best problem solvers. She concludes that the notion of women being naturally less good at technology and engineering than men is incompatible with the notion of natural male dominance. This makes the book one of the most important works for early feminists, possibly the most important one.
The theory of evolution and small-brained animals
As Charles Darwin and Sandra Tanner frequently discuss naturalist questions, they develop the theory of natural selection as the (main) mechanism of evolution together earlier than Charles Darwin did on his own in OTL. In 1840, they publish the book "Natural selection as the mechanism for the transmutation of species". This makes the theory of evolution the predominant explanation of the origin of species.
Fearless of arguing against the Christian view of human nature, Charles Darwin makes no effort to reconcile it with the theory of evolution. He lets the actual zoological data guide his research on the origins of the brain. This includes noting the presence of family units with mutual aid in very small-brained animals such as insects. Charles Darwin, therefore, never develops the theory that mammals evolved larger brains than most other animals for empathy. Instead, he theorizes that since larger brains consume more nutrients and therefore increases the nutritional requirements of the individual, selection for mutual aid (and parental care, for that matter) means selection against big brains.
Charles Darwin publishes these theories, along with many insect examples to support them, in the book "Evolutionary implications of mutual aid in the smallest brained animals" in 1841. The book set a trend to take the brain's nutritional consumption into account among evolution researchers. Among other things, the book did contain the conclusion that egoism and altruism were not fundamentally distinct mental functions. In the book, Darwin also theorized that it was most nutrient-economic for the brain to use the same mechanisms for both recognition and for planning actions. This left Darwin with the conclusion that the notion of emotion and cognition as fundamentally distinct from each other and thoughts as simple servants to emotions, was simply not true.
Sandra Tanner also published the book "Limits to sexual selection" in 1841. In this book, she pointed out that in species where only the males do mating display, they shed their expensive ornaments after the mating season (e.g. moose shedding their horns). This, she argued, meant that the constant nutritional cost of large human brains could not be a male-specific fitness indicator. She also noted that in the case of species in which both sexes do mating display, the display ceases when they have offspring to raise, especially if both sexes invest in the offspring. She theorized that this may be due to handicap effects being an indicator of the ability to survive with the handicap only, and not of the ability to invest in both offspring and handicap at the same time. She noted that the constant nutrient cost of big human brains was therefore not consistent with sexual selection for them at all. In a footnote, she noted the contrast between the increased cost of growing human brains from early childhood and the fact that the nutritional investment in mating display handicaps in animals begin at puberty, when their nutritional requirements no longer depend on their parents feeding them.
Controversies with psychiatry
As a result of these conclusions, Charles Darwin extended his slavery abolitionist views to encompass psychiatry abolitionism as well. He published the book "Slavery and psychiatry" 1844, in which he argued that slavery and psychiatry were both scientifically unfounded and oppressive. In the book, he argued that the definition of race and the definition of mental illness were both arbitrary.
Slavery advocates and psychiatrists both argued that while the exact limit was arbitrary, it was necessary to draw the line somewhere, or else society would descend into chaos. To this Darwin replied, in a book titled Limits and conversion partly edited by his wife Sandra Tanner and published in 1845, that relevant characteristics were measurable in their own right and did not have to hide behind arbitrary limits. He also added that the theory of evolution allows for conversion, that organs evolved originally for one function can suddenly become useful for another function at a critical threshold. Therefore, Darwin argued, the theory of evolution did not have to imply any necessity of drawing arbitrary limits somewhere.
After publishing the book, Darwin got many angry letters from parents who argued that the book caused their teenage sons and daughters to protest against legal coming of age limits and to deem them unnecessary (though the book itself did not explicitly mention age). These parents also contacted various censorship agencies. This led to the French translation of the book being banned in France. And independently of such parental protests regarding some of the implicit implications of the book, the explicit anti-slavery content led to the book being banned in the American South.
The Russian connection
In Russia, Czar Nikolai I considered banning the Russian translation of the book "Limits and conversion", but decided not to do so. Instead, he funded an investigation to find out the actual situation in psychiatry. As chief of the investigation, he appointed the psychiatrist Pjotor Mordovin.
As part of his investigation, Mordovin read the Russian translation of "Limits and conversion". In his spare time, he also read the Russian translations of other works by Darwin. Inspired by Darwin's works on small-brained animals, Mordovin set out on a search for the function of big brains. He did so by examining microcephalic patients.
When Mordovin experimented with metronomes that could be adjusted to tick at different rates, he found that when trained to reply only at specific ticking rates, microcephalic patients were less discriminating in regards to ticking rate than the big-brained control group. Mordovin published the results in the book "Effects of brain size on discrimination learning" 1848, in which he argued that while small-brained patients could never become equals, most psychiatry patients including all big-brained ones should be released from psychiatry (and imprisoned if they had committed any crimes). Czar Nikolai I followed the advice, reforming and downsizing Russian psychiatry, and gave Pjotor Mordovin a large monetary reward for which he bought a farm.
On his farm, Pjotor Mordovin continued his research. This time on animals. At this stage, Mordovin's research was not only about psychiatry, but about evolution in general. He wanted to find out whether or not the effects of brain size on discrimination learning also generalized to animals, whether or not discrimination learning could fill Darwin's blank on the function of big brains. His studies supported the idea. To collect more data, he also imported bigger-brained animals than those generally found on farms, including a chimpanzee. He found that the theory held up, and published it in the book "Effects of brain size on discrimination learning in animals and the implications for the theory of evolution" in 1850. In the book, he argued that the discovery solved the mystery of why big brains had evolved. Charles Darwin, who read the English translation of the book in 1852, gave it a highly positive review.
On june 3, 1853, Pjotor Mordovin spilled hot borstj all over him and got severe burns. On june 28, he died from infection in his wounds. His son, Vladislav Mordovin, sold the farm and decided to use the money to approach the problem of evolution from a different take: fossils.
Fossils in Africa
Knowing about the Ice Age, Vladislav Mordovin reasoned that Europe was the wrong place to look for human origins, and that they should be sought in tropical regions. Following Darwin's observation that chimpanzees and gorillas were humanity's closest relatives, Vladislav Mordovin went to Africa. On his journeys there, he learned English and French.
As soon as he started to dig, ancient stone tools turned up. He found that while there was an upper layer of improving tools, the older layers under it showed a much longer period of unchanging stone axes. The British and French colonial authorities argued that the primitive and unchanging tools were made locally by black people, while the more advanced tools were introduced by early white settlers. Vladislav Mordovin, however, refuted that by pointing out that the improvement of the tools began from the technological level of early unchanging tools, not from a higher level as would be expected if the more advanced tools had been brought there by immigrants who were already technologically superior to the locals at the time of their arrival. Vladislav Mordovin concluded that there was an African origin of technological innovation that was not of white origin. He published these discoveries and arguments in the book "African origins of innovation" 1856. The book was harshly reviewed by both British and French colonial authorities. It was banned in the French colonies, but after the English edition was approved by Charles Darwin, the English colonial authorities decided not to pass an outright ban against it.
Being persona non grata in the French empire, Vladislav Mordovin continued to dig fossils in the British colonies in Africa. He found evidence of a gradual increase in brain size during the period of technological stasis, but not much during that of technological progress. He specified the brain size at which technological progress began. He published these discoveries in his book "The brain threshold" in 1859.
Against the Queen
In British Egypt, Vladislav Mordovin examined mummies. He discovered that all the pharaohs were underbrained, below the brain size threshold of technological innovation. After reading the egyptological studies on royal family incest in ancient Egypt, Vladislav Mordovin wrote the book "Small brains and the incestuous origins of political power", published in 1861. In the book, he argued that royal families used inbreeding as means to ensure that their descendants remained below the brain threshold. He cited Darwin's observations of seemingly complicated political interaction in small brained animals as evidence that politics did not require intelligence.
Mordovin also compared the way the Czars spoke to the way most people spoke and noted limitations in Czar speech. In particular, an inability to distinguish scenarios showing the nonsensical conclusions to disprove the premise (reductio ad absurdum) from belief in the nonsensical conclusions. Vladislav Mordovin argued that the ability to realize that distinction led to reason over power, making it incompatible with autocracy. He cited Darwin's nutrient economy based brain model of underlying identity between recognition and planning as evidence against objections based on distinctions between emotions and cognition.
Furthermore, he cited Darwin's observations of inbreeding in plants to show that many generations of "mild" inbreeding (e.g. cousins or half-cousins) build up to become worse than a single generation of parent-offspring or sibling-sibling incest. Mordovin applied the observation directly to the royal families in Europe, including but not restricted to Russia. Not only did he argue that the official definition of incest, judging each generation out of the context of previous inbreeding, was created by royal families as a smoke curtain, but he also argued that all royal families in Europe were inbred and probably underbrained.
When the British colonial authorities got hold of the book, they saw it as an attack on the Queen and banned the book. They also arrested Vladislav Mordovin himself. He was sentenced to being deported to Russia. Knowing that he would in turn be deported to Siberia if he returned to Russia, he bribed the captain on the ship to drop him off in the United States of America instead. The U.S., being a republic, welcomed Vladislav Mordovin as a hero for attacking the royal families.
In Russia, Czar Nikolai II banned all works by Vladislav and Pjotor Mordovin as well as those by Charles Darwin and Sandra Tanner. Many Russian naturalists continued to read them secretly, though. The Czar also restored the old psychiatric system in Russia.
Against the President
The same year, the American Civil War began. Vladislav Mordovin, being foreign, was not egible for military service, but was promoted to government scientific advisor in Washington D.C. He was, however, disappointed at the fact that Abraham Lincoln did not ban slavery in the few Union states that had not banned it. As he listened to the language of the President and the Congress members, he noticed similarities to Czar speech. When Mordovin talked to them, he noticed their lack of distinction between reductio ad absurdum and belief in the absurd conclusions.
At first, Vladislav Mordovin speculated that it may simply be an occupational hazard. When noticing that many chairs in the Congress were empty while their nominal owners got fully paid, he started to ask questions to the owners of the empty chairs. It turned out that most of the "evaders" could not bear the political environment. They were, in particular, unable to bear the anti-analytical nature of "either with us or against us". Vladislav Mordovin noticed that unlike the members present in the Congress, the "evaders" could distinguish a reductio ad absurdum from a belief. He also noticed that the "evaders" invested much of their pay so that they remained financially stable after their term, even though they of course did not get a renewed political office. Vladislav Mordovin concluded that it was not the political environment that had ruined Congress members.
Then Vladislav Mordovin asked questions about the presidential elections. In particular, he noticed that the parties appointed their candidates in primary elections. Vladislav Mordovin began to speculate that it was possible for followers of one party to sabotage vote for idiotic candidates on the other party in the primary elections, making sure that when the actual presidential election came, people only had two total fools to choose between. After reading about the parliamentary systems in Great Britain and France, in particular the guarantees for pay throughout the term, he theorized that there was an international pattern of making intelligent members of parliaments quit. Vladislav Mordovin even began to theorize that the existence of intelligent politicians like Benjamin Franklin early in independent United States history was, from the viewpoint of the political nucleus, a "children's disease" of a young country still in the process of building arrangements for making intelligent politicians quit in a way that looked democratic.
Vladislav Mordovin published this in the book "How to make intelligent politicians quit" in 1864. In the book, he argued that the skewing in favor of stupidity and against intelligence made democracy a pipe illusion, and that all states were in fact dictatorships. Vladislav Mordovin was deported to Russia, then to Siberia where he died in 1865, the same year as the Union won the American Civil War. In the timeline, Abraham Lincoln was not killed, but at the end of his term he was replaced by Jacques Descartes, who said that the abolition of slavery was Darwinist and anarchist. He repealed the ban against slavery. While he allowed the slave states to resume slavery, he did not allow them to secede.
The chicken farmer
Ernest van Leeuwenhoek was not happy about how events had unfolded. He had been a great friend of Vladislav Mordovin, whom he met as an "evader" in the Congress that he had joined as an abolitionist. Because of his abolitionism, his father had disallowed him from inheriting the family's chicken farm. But for the pay he got for being a Congress member, even though he was only physically present in the Congress for the first few weeks of his term (finding the political environment unbearable), he had bought his own chicken farm.
During the Civil War, Ernest van Leeuwenhoek had been drafted to military test. When the testers found out about his marriage, he was deemed unsuitable for military service. He openly discussed as an equal with his wife Anne Tanner and did not like submission or dominance no matter who was in what role. This was considered sexually deviant by the military, so he was not drafted to actual service. Since he knew the theory of evolution very well, this made him think about the selective breeding effects on humans of men considered suited for military service being killed in war while men considered unsuited survived the war.
On his chicken farm, on which he as an abolitionist had no slaves and therefore worked himself, Ernest van Leeuwenhoek noted that chickens that were punished by other chickens for breaking social rules in the pecking order had lesser reproductive success. One day, he was talking about his observations with his friends. One of them, who was an animal rights advocate, accused him of being cruel to animals for not preventing the chickens from pecking each other. He asked why he was blaming him and not the high ranking chickens. When the animal rights advocate said that people could help their actions while chickens could not, Ernest van Leeuwenhoek replied that selective punishment and blaming of individuals capable of helping their actions would selectively breed against the ability to help one's own actions. Therefore, he argued, any morality or law specifically aimed at individuals capable of conscious choice was a grave threat to the very existence of intelligence.
Ernest van Leeuwenhoek wrote this in his book "The selective breeding effects of punishment" which he published in 1871. In the book, he theorized that laws and moralities specifically judging conscious choices may have been created by stupid rulers as means of forcing their subjects to hide their intelligence and not really use it. He followed this up in his 1872 book "The stupidity norm", in which he suggested that the belief the belief in emotion being a separate "mechanism" distinct from thought may have been created as a means to make intelligence look like a tool of social manipulation, serving stupid rulers in making intelligent people ashamed of their intelligence. He wrote that this hypothesis may solve the mystery raised by Darwin in pointing out the evolutionarily unstable energy waste of such a neurologically fundamental distinction.
Maps and maps
The same year, Germany was indeed united just like in OTL, but with the difference that the war between Prussia and Austria led to more national autonomies within Austria, making it the Austro-Hungaro-Tyrolo-Slavic Empire rather than merely the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
This allowed the Czech explorer Vaclav Jiri to get state funds for his expeditions. He visited many tribal peoples around the world. He discovered that agriculture was more common among them than was previously thought, among other things he discovered that most Native American tribes had some degree of agriculture and were not purely hunter-gatherers. He wrote his discoveries in his book "Degrees of agriculture among tribal peoples" in 1876. In the book, he noted that pure hunter-gatherers lived in significantly smaller groups, bands, than the proper tribes of agricultural or semi-agricultural people falsely classified as hunter-gatherers.
Following Darwin's theories, Vaclav Jiri then went on to study chimpanzees and gorillas in the wild in Africa. He noticed that while the troops of these apes counted fewer individuals than semi-agricultural human tribes, the ape troops still counted larger numbers of individuals than did human bands of pure hunter-gatherer economy. Following up Darwin's thoughts on brains as nutrient consumers, Vaclav Jiri theorized that it was the fact that big human brains consumed more nutrients than smaller ape brains that put a lower cap on the group sizes that could be fed without agriculture for humans than for apes. He published this research in the book "Effects of brain nutritional requirements on group size in apes and people" in 1881.
Many colonial authorities in various empires misquoted the book, claiming that tribal and especially band people had small, apelike brains. This as an excuse for their colonial exploitation. Vaclav Jiri thought that those claims did not at all match his observations. He decided to collect hard empirical facts on brain sizes. He visited various anthropological museums in the world and measured the insides of craniums. He concluded that all peoples, including tribal and even band people, had large human brains nothing like small ape brains. He published the data in the book "Shared large brain size of all peoples of the world" in 1883.
In the book, he theorized that the increase in brain size over the course of human evolution reduced group sizes, with a cutoff at early agriculture when group sizes began to dramatically increase. In the footnotes, he pointed out a problem with the notion that humans were better at judging others than they were at autonomously correcting their own actions. As brain size increased and group size decreased, Vaclav Jiri argued, the survival of the group became more and more dependent on its individual members. This increased the evolutionary cost of losing group members by punishing, condemning, killing or abandoning them.
Due to its criticism of the judgmental and punitive view of conduct, the book became a must-read for anarchists. It gave the anarchist movement a different, more scientific spin. Anarchists stopped naively saying that humans were good by nature. Instead, they began arguing that if humans were bad at autonomously correcting their actions, then they would have been even worse at creating laws. This new brand of anarchism became known as Jirism, after Vaclav Jiri.
In 1893, later than in OTL due to his better health, Charles Darwin died.
In 1898, a German scrap trader with economical problems named Otto Bentele discovered that his 22 year old son Erich had sneaked into his scrap store and was building things out of the scrap. Just as Otto Bentele was about to start yelling about his economical difficulties and his ownership of the scrap store at his son, Erich Bentele showed an insect-like robot that actually worked! Otto Bentele decided to let Erich Bentele experiment with the scrap, as long as the patents belonged to Otto Bentele himself.
It was not the first time Erich Bentele was sneaking in his father's scrap. He had been interested in insects, dissecting them and imitating them in machine form since his teens, during which he became interested in Darwin's ideas. Even after admitting his sneaking, Erich Bentele did not dare tell his father about his interest in Darwin. He did, however, invent many insect-inspired robots. Based on the patents, Otto Bentele created Bentele Technological Company.
Erich Bentele created many inventions in his father's name. Inspired by the complex societies of the small-brained insects, he created many types of robots that could perform very complex behaviors with extremely simple steering "computers" that barely were computers at all. He built robots that could imitate, rescue and even actively teach other robots to do things. All this accomplished with simple mechanisms. The company grew to become the largest company not only in Germany, but in the entire world. Otto Bentele became a very rich man, while Erich Bentele was still an unsung engineer.
In 1905, there was a Jirist uprising in Russia during the Japanese/Russian war. Due to the far more solid reasoning of Jirism compared to the ideas behind the uprising the same year in OTL, the revolutionaries managed to convince numerous officials that the old system was not only bad but also unnecessary. It was not until late 1907/early 1908 that the Russian Czarist state had restored order. Due to this, Russia lost its entire Pacific Sea coast and much of Eastern Siberia to Japan.
The war of the machines
Due to the greater autonomy of many groups in the Austro-Hungaro-Tyrolo-Slavic Empire, there was no shootings in Sarajevo in 1914. In 1915, however, a foolish general in said empire named Otto Fritz did, after a series of brain aneurysms, command a military legion into Serbia.
Otto Fritz had been allowed to remain a general in an attempt by the emperor to appease the anti-psychiatric movement in the Austro-Hungaro-Tyrolo-Slavic Empire. The attempt failed, due to the fact that the anti-psychiatric movement cared about people classified as insane merely because of theories of specific brain mechanisms, not of generally destroyed brains low on neurons and synapses. Also, half of the anti-psychiatrists were Jirists and were not appeased by the state anyway.
What the attempt did succeed in, however, was to cause a war with Serbia. Serbia was allied with Russia, Britain and France were allied with Russia, the Austro-Hungaro-Tyrolo-Slavic Empire was allied with Germany, and a World War was going on. Due to the automated machines built by Bentele Technological Company, Germany had more success than in OTL, managing to occupy all of France.
Meanwhile, Vaclav Jiri had overcome his reluctance to the ideology that he had inadvertently created. While hiding in a cave in British Egypt, he wrote the book "Punishment, not revolution itself, is the root of tyranny", in which he amassed historical evidence that it was the punishment of "the guilty" that caused revolutions to degenerate into new oppression. Revolutions did, in themselves, not lead to tyranny. Therefore, he argued, revolutions could be good- as long as they did not include demands for punishment or vengeance. The book was published in 1916. In 1917, Vaclav Jiri was ironically killed by an Egyptian resistor who mistook him for a British official.
In 1918, there was a revolution in Russia. It was a Jirist revolution, not a Marxist one (Marxism did not exist in the timeline at all). While the Jirists instantly disassembled all state structure on the inside of Russia, they maintained an outer appearance of a state for just long enough to sign a separate peace treaty with Germany. Russia's territorial losses in the West were the same as those in OTL.
Bentele technology made Germany very hard to defeat for the remaining Western entente countries (i.e. Great Britain and the United States of America). In 1920, the war was still going on with Germany occupying the British Channel Islands and preparing a full scale attack on London. Then, however, british engineers succeeded in reverse-engineering Bentele technology and equipped the British military with it. British troops swept across Western Europe, and Germany capitulated in 1922.
The London Treaty that ended the war, drafted by United States President Carl Pinkerton created a political map in Europe largely identical to that created by the Versailles Treaty in OTL (except the London Treaty included an independent Tyrolia), mostly dearmed Germany and its allies and declared them guilty of the war. The treaty did not contain any demands of monetary payment from Germany however. This split the German people over the London treaty, giving populist parties and movements no treaty paragraph to unite all Germans against.
Machines and science in peace
While Erich Bentele continued to test Darwinian theories on the robots, he did not dare express the ideas as long as his father was alive.
Since Charles Darwin never made any attempts to reconcile the theory of evolution with Christian concepts of "good" and "evil", he never created the empathy scale of extension that was the basis of racial biology in OTL. Therefore Sweden never created its Institute for Racial Biology, and Nazism simply never came into existence.
In Jirist Russia, there were no labor camps. Some people who were trying to reinstate the state were killed while trying to reinstate it, but there never was organized purges. Even the individual killings only extended to those still trying, never to punishment for past actions. This allowed many different interpretations of the theory of evolution, mainly based on natural selection while influenced by the vastness and desolation of the Russian plains to modify the theory to not being based on Malthusian overpopulation theory, to keep exchanging ideas and to do their research openly. They discovered penicillin in 1921. There was no central Planning Institute to give idiotic production orders. Instead, people sensibly discussed what should be produced, like a market but without the money and without the ownership. This meant, among many other things, that there was no starvation in Jirist Russia.
Albert Einstein was never born, but in 1933 a woman in Russia named Anna Penkovskija came up with the theory of relativity. The fact that Jirism rejected gender stereotypes meant, among other things, that she had no problems expressing the theory.
In 1934, Otto Bentele died and Ernst Bentele inherited Bentele Technological Company. Ernst Bentele sold the company and brought both the money and the blueprints with him, defecting to Jirist Russia. The money were placed in the hands of Jirist infiltrators acting in Germany. Ernst Bentele himself began working in a laboratory in Moscow.
This shocked the Western powers. They had an international crisis conference, and in 1937 all European countries bordering on Jirist Russia agreed to build an Iron Curtain against it. Officially said to keep Jirist Russians away from the West, but de facto used mostly to keep Western people from defecting to Jirist Russia. The wall was completed in 1940, one year after the plan due to sabotage.
Jirism was also spreading in areas under colonial rule, being highly compatible with anti-colonial resistance due to its base in the shared large brain size of all peoples and its rejection of any ideas of specialized moral "mechanisms" that could otherwise have been used to "theory repair" racism in spite of equal brain size. In India, Britain built the Himalaya Wall against the Jirist areas associated with Russia. The wall was completed in 1943.
A different type of Cold War
There was no Second World War in the timeline. Instead, a type of Cold War with different ideologies in different roles began earlier than its OTL so-called "equivalent". The Jirists, being anarchists, had no chains of command. They used mostly sabotage, while also getting empirical data and idea outlines smuggled in and developing them further. Ideas were also smuggled out, allowing foreign resistors to contribute actively to the progress of science. Many scientific laboratories were built in Jirist Russia.
Since there was no WWII in the timeline, Japan continued to occupy much of China. The Japanese Empire was under strictly anti-Jirist rule, though much of the resistance against it was Jirist. Jirist communities were also established in the parts of China not occupied by Japan.
In the West, Peer Review became more fragmented and began to be considered a requirement for "good" science. As research fragmented, the unification of theories in the West ceased, and Western scientists failed to unify the electroweak force with the strong force. Western Peer Review advocates tried to explain this by increasing costs or by increasing intellectual difficulty.
The attempted explanations of the unificatory stagnation were already weakened by the American philosopher of science Thomas Perkins pointing out that earlier stages of theoretical unification accelerated contrary to the intellectual difficulty model and that more unified theories make more predictions which reduces the costs of the cheapest possible tests, when a Jirist Chinese named Cheng Tao developed unified field theory in 1952. This showed to many people that the obstacle was institutional, not any kind of necessary or inevitable effect of science already having progressed to a certain extent.
As genetics progressed, the total amount of genetic difference between human individuals turned out to be greater than those between human populations. This was, however, conveniently incorporated into colonial racist ideology as an example of a "necessity" to draw arbitrary lines somewhere, especially by the German ethnologist Hans von Hinterhofer, who were already aware of a similar gradual populationism from his physical anthropology. Hinterhofer believed that the German people was composed of all five major caucasoid subraces while stressing a strong Nordic heritage among Germans. He had, from that, concluded that no Aryan was 100% racially pure, but thought that a mixing limit had to be drawn somewhere. Attempts were made to incorporate his ideas into British and French colonial policies, but due to the lack of a theory of what it meant for the brain, it meant little in practice.
Much of the pollution problems in Western Europe were moved to the British and French colonies by building the worst polluting industries there and also dumping waste there. North American companies, and eventually also Japanese companies, were allowed to buy waste dumping shares there. In Jirist Russia, technology was invented and used to eliminate pollution altogether. Jirists in the Jirist areas started to think about what to do about global pollution, and environmentalists all over the world started to look at Jirism as a possible solution.
In 1978 in British South Africa, a Jirist resistor and smuggler named Elizabeth Mkule developed the theory of quantum gravity after reading about accelerator experiments, astronomical observations and previous theoretization done in Jirist Russia. She smuggled the results to other smugglers, who in turn smuggled it to Jirist Russia. And gender difference believing neurologists (protected by Peer Review fragmentation from falsification) had thought that she was going to be mentally retarded due to the genetic resistance that her family had evolved to the hormonally disruptive environmental poisons dumped on their farmlands!
In late 1987 to early 1988, was torn down by environmentalists. Western officials, who had up to then been forced to "do their job" for money even though they did not want to do it, defected en masse to Jirist Russia. The Jirist Russians helped them to live without their pay. As all Western officials with the brains to realize the environmental unsustainability of their old society defected, Western society began to crumble under the lack of intelligent officials in the service of unintelligence.
With the entire repressive apparatus in tatters, people began to disassemble all environmentally hazardous technology. Other technology from Jirist Russia spread across the world replacing it. At the same time, colonialism fell with the repression within their ruler countries. In the United States of America, Jirism ended slavery. Even the Japanese Empire fell.
In 1995, environmental repair of damage that had already been done was well under way.