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Chancellor of the
United Cygnian States
Seal of the Chancellor of Cygnia
Cancellarial Seal
Flag of the Chancellor of Cygnia
Flag of the Chancellor
Julia Gillard 2015
Incumbent
Julia Gillard

since 3 January 2017
Ministry of the Chancellor and Cabinet
Style The Right Honourable (formal)
Chancellor (spoken)
Member of CabinetNational Security Council
Residence The Chancellery
5 Charlotte Avenue
Northam, TS 1005
Appointer The Queen
Term length At Her Imperial Majesty's pleasure
Inaugural holder Sir Frederick Northam
Formation 6 June 1792
226 years ago
Deputy Vice Chancellor
Salary £400,000 annually
Website chancellery.gov

The Chancellor of the United Cygnian States, referred to constitutionally as the Chancellor of the Union, is the head of government of Cygnia. The individual who holds the office is the most senior Minister of the Crown, the leader of the Cabinet and the chairperson of the National Security Council. The office is the most powerful congressional position in Cygnia. The Chancellor is appointed by the Queen.

According to Article Two, Section 4, Clause 1 of the Constitution, the Chancellor must "command the confidence of the House of Representatives". In practice, the Chancellor is therefore the leader of the majority party or largest party in a coalition of parties in the House of Representatives.

The Chancellor is formally appointed by the Queen to serve "at Her Majesty's pleasure", though due to constitutionally fixed congressional terms, his/her term lasts as long as a congressional one — for a period of four years. In all, 41 individuals have served as Chancellor. Five Chancellors, John Russell (10th), William E. Gladstone (11th), Alfred Deakin (18th), Andrew Fisher (20th) and Julia Gillard (39th), served two separate chancellorships each. On 3 January 2017, Julia Gillard became the 39th and current Chancellor, and is currently serving the 58th official term. The next general election is to take place in late 2020; the newly-elected Chancellor will then take office on 3 January 2021.

Origins

In 1783, George III, King of the United Kingdom, fled to Cygnia following his deposition by his French subjects and the establishment of the new French Republic. He thereafter declared the six Cygnian colonies' Federation crowning himself King of Cygnia, while maintaining his existing titles as sovereign of the United Kingdom and its colonies, though the United Kingdom itself no longer existed. In creating a new Cygnian royal government, the King created a new Federation Congress, which acted as both a legislative and collective executive authority.

A French invasion of Cygnia began in 1785 in an attempt to "restore" French rule to the Cygnian colonies, precipitating the Cygnian War of Independence. King George I promptly declared war on France, and declared Cygnia's independence. Former Governor of Carolina Frederick Northam, who had become a member of the Federation Congress, was appointed to command Cygnia's armies. Ultimately, Cygnia achieved victory against the French, and in 1792 the Treaty of London was signed, ending the war and affirming Cygnia's nationhood. However, Britain itself became a republic as a result of the subsequent Congress of Vienna, and George I was forced to relinquish his claim to the British throne.

The Constitutional Convention of 1792 was convened shortly after the conclusion of the war to draft the new Imperial Constitution. Following the ratification of the new Constitution by all six States in 1793, the Constitution came into effect in March. The new Constitution replaced the largely ineffectual Federation Congress' executive powers with a new, stronger executive, the Chancellorship of Cygnia, named for the original British position of Lord Chancellor, which was the highest political office in the United Kingdom after the King. However, in spite of the King's protests, the Convention voted to restrict the Chancellorship to members of the House of Representatives, in effect making the Chancellor an elected official.

Under the new constitution, the Chancellor became the head of George I's new Imperial Government, and was to be appointed by the King. Article Two, Section 4 of the Constitution states that the Chancellor "shall be he who will command the confidence of the House of Representatives"; in practice, the Chancellor is therefore determined through the makeup of Congress, and the leader of the largest political sect or party becomes the Chancellor.

Appointment

While all other members of the Government are appointed by the monarch after nomination by the Chancellor, appointment of the Chancellor themselves is not explicitly addressed in the Constitution. However, as Article Two, Section 4, Clause 1 of the Constitution requires the Chancellor to "command the confidence of the House of Representatives", the Constitution effectively renders the Chancellorship an elected position.

As a result of the same clause, there is a constitutional requirement for the Chancellor to be a member of the House of Representatives. The Treasurer is also traditionally a Representative, although there is no such requirement for the Treasurer in the Constitution. The Chancellor, as a member of the Federal Executive Council, is entitled to the title of The Right Honourable (usually abbreviated as The Rt. Hon.), which he/she holds for life.

The Chancellor is, unlike other ministers, sworn in in a public inauguration ceremony. The oath or affirmation of office is normally administered by the Chief Justice of Cygnia in the presence of the Sovereign, who then presents the Chancellor with the commission (letters patent) of office. When defeated in an election, or upon resignation, the Chancellor is said to "hand in the commission" and actually does so by returning it to the Sovereign. Ministers serve "at Her Imperial Majesty's Pleasure" (Article Two, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution), so theoretically, the monarch can dismiss a minister at any time, by notifying them in writing of their termination of their commission; however, his or her power to do so except on the advice of the Chancellor is heavily circumscribed by convention.

If a government cannot get its appropriation (budget) legislation passed by the House of Representatives, or the House passes a vote of "no confidence" in the government, the Chancellor is required to immediately advise the monarch to dissolve both Houses of Congress and call fresh elections, pursuant to Article One, Section 6, Clause 5 of the Constitution.

Following a resignation in other circumstances, removal from office, or the death of a Chancellor, the Sovereign under Article One, Section 5 of the Constitution must appoint the Vice Chancellor to the Chancellorship. Should the Chancellor be incapacitated, the Vice Chancellor also becomes Acting Chancellor until the Chancellor declares or is declared to be fit for office.

Powers and role

Most of the Chancellor's powers derive from being head of government. All decisions made by the Chancellor and Cabinet require the support of the Federal Executive Council, but as the Chancellor is themselves a member of the Federal Executive Council, the Council's assent to government decisions is in practice largely a formality. The powers of the Sovereign to grant Imperial Assent to legislation, to dissolve and prorogue Congress, to call elections and to make ministerial appointments are exercised on the advice of the Chancellor. The Chancellor also nominates all leaders of the civil service, such as Secretaries of the Ministries, but these nominations also require the approval of the Senate.

The Chancellor is also the responsible minister for the Ministry of the Chancellor and Cabinet, which is tasked with supporting the policy agendas of the Chancellor and Cabinet through policy advice and the coordination of the implementation of key government programs, to manage Aboriginal policy and programs and to promote reconciliation, to provide leadership for the Cygnian Public Service alongside the Cygnian Public Service Commission, to oversee the honours and symbols of the Union, to provide support to ceremonies and official visits, to set whole of government service delivery policy, and to coordinate national security, cyber, counterterrorism, regulatory reform, cities, population, data, and women's policy.

The power of the Chancellor is subject to a number of limitations. Chancellors whose government loses a vote of no confidence in the House of Representatives are expected to advise an election of the lower house or resign the office. If they fail to do this they will be dismissed by the Sovereign.

The Chancellor's party will normally have a majority in the House of Representatives and party discipline is exceptionally strong in Cygnian politics, so passage of the government's legislation through the House of Representatives is mostly a formality. Attaining the support of the Senate can be more difficult as government usually lacks an absolute majority because the Senate's representation is based on the overall proportion of votes and often includes minor parties.

Privileges of office

Since 1983, the Chancellor has earned a £400,000 annual salary, along with a £50,000 annual expense account, a £100,000 nontaxable travel account, and £19,000 for entertainment. The most recent raise in salary was approved by Congress and Queen Elizabeth in 1981, and went into effect upon the inauguration of Bob Hawke in 1983.

The Chancellery in Northam, TS, serves as the official residence for the Chancellor. As well as access to the staff of the Chancellery, facilities available to the Chancellor include medical care, recreation, housekeeping, and security services. The government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the Chancellor pays for person, family and guest drycleaning and food; the high food bill often amazes new residents. Northam House in Cape Leeuwin, Augusta, is used as a country retreat and an alternative residence for the Chancellor if needed.

For ground travel, the Chancellor uses the cancellarial state car, which is an armoured limousine built on a heavily modified Holden-based chassis. One of two identical Douglas-Royce MAC-30 aircraft, which are extensively modified version of DR-80 airliners, have since 2015 served as long distance travel for the Chancellor and are referred to as Air Force Two while the Chancellor is on board (although any Cygnian Imperial Air Force aircraft the Chancellor is aboard is designated as "Air Force Two" for the duration of the flight). Domestic trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes while international flights are handled with both, one primary and one backup. Any civilian aircraft the Chancellor is aboard is designated Executive Two for the flight. The Chancellor also has access to a fleet of twenty Cygnian Imperial Marine Corps helicopters of various models, designated as Marine Two when the Chancellor is aboard any particular one in the fleet. Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the Chancellor is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

The National Security Intelligence Agency is charged with protecting the sitting Chancellor and his/her family. As part of their protection, Chancellors, their spouses, their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned NSIA codenames. The use of such names was originally for security purposes and dates to a time when sensitive electronic communications were not routinely encrypted; today, the names simply serve for purposes of brevity, clarity, and tradition.

Post-Chancellorship

Beginning in 1963, all living former Chancellors were granted a pension, an office and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval. Retired Chancellors now receive a pension based on the salary of the current government's ministers, which was £200,000 per annum in 2016. Former Chancellors may also collect congressional pensions. The Former Chancellors Act, as amended, also provides former Chancellors with travel funds and franking privileges. Prior to 1997, all former Chancellors, their spouses, and their children until age 16 were protected by NSIA until the Chancellor's death. In 1997, Congress passed legislation limiting NSIA protection to no more than ten years from the date a Chancellor leaves office. On 8 February 2013, Queen Elizabeth signed legislation reinstating lifetime NSIA protection for then-Chancellor Tony Abbott, his predecessor Julia Gillard, and all subsequent Chancellors. A spouse who remarries is no longer eligible for NSIA protection.

Some Chancellors have had significant careers after leaving office. A prominent example includes Edmund Barton's tenure as Chief Justice of Cygnia. Charles Grey, Robert Peel, John Russell, William E. Gladstone, Alfred Deakin and Andrew Fisher all served additional terms as Chancellor after first leaving office. Many former Chancellors have continued to serve their district in the House of Representatives after leaving the Chancellery. For example, Hunter Alston was re-elected to the House four more times after his Chancellorship before retiring in 1879 due to ill health.

Chancellors may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of Cygnia to state funerals and other important foreign events. Gough Whitlam after leaving office became a major Cygnian diplomat, being appointed in 1999 as Ambassador to UNESCO by Chancellor John Howard and was lauded as an elder statesman. Howard has also worked as an informal ambassador.

Living former chancellors
Portrait Bob Hawke (8215440121) Paul Keating - 2007-crop John Howard.jpg Kevin Rudd headshot Tony Abbott October 2014 Malcolm Turnbull at the Pentagon 2016 cropped
Name Bob Hawke Paul Keating John Howard Kevin Rudd Tony Abbott Malcolm Turnbull
Term 1985 – 1993 1993 – 1997 1997 – 2009 2009 – 2012 2013 – 2015 2015 – 2017
Age 88 74 79 61 61 64

Oath of office

The Oath of Office of the Chancellor of Cygnia is the oath or affirmation that the Chancellor takes after assuming the Chancellorship but before he or she begins the execution of the office. The wording is specified in Article II, Section 4, Clause 3 of the Constitution. It is administered during the inauguration ceremony by the Chief Justice and in the presence of the monarch.

I, [name], do solemnly swear/affirm that I will well and truly serve His/Her Imperial Majesty [name of monarch], His/Her heirs and successors according to law, in the office of Chancellor of the United Cygnian States. I will to the best of my ability serve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Union, and I will do right to all manner of people after the laws and usages of the Union, without fear or favour, affection or ill will. (So help me God!)

List of Chancellors

     Federalist      Tory
     Liberal      Conservative      Protectionist      Free Trade      Labour      National Labour      Nationalist      Unionist      National
# Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Term of Office Political Party Government Monarch
Term
(Election)
Took Office Left Office
1 OlderPittThe Younger Frederick Northam
Member for Kelmscott
(1739–1806)
1
(1792)
13 November 1792 3 January 1805 Federalist Northam King George III of England by Johann Zoffany
George I
2
(1796)
3
(1800)
2 Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey by Sir Thomas Lawrence copy Charles Grey
Member for Flinders
(1764–1845)
4
(1804)
3 January 1805 3 January 1809 Federalist Grey I
3 Lord Castlereagh Marquess of Londonderry Robert Stewart
Member for Leeuwin
(1769–1822)
5
(1808)
3 January 1809 12 August 1822
Died in office
Tory Stewart
6
(1812)
7
(1816)
8
(1820)
George IV 1821 color
George II
4 George Canning by Richard Evans - detail George Canning
Member for Fremantle
(1770–1827)
12 August 1822 8 August 1827
Died in office
Tory Canning
9
(1824)
5 Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Bt by Henry William Pickersgill-detail Robert Peel
Member for Darling
(1788–1850)
8 August 1827 3 January 1829 Tory Peel I
(2) Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey by Sir Thomas Lawrence copy Charles Grey
Member for Flinders
(1764–1845)
10
(1828)
3 January 1829 3 January 1841 Federalist Grey II
William IV,
William
11
(1832)
12
(1836)
Queen Victoria
Victoria
(5) Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Bt by Henry William Pickersgill-detail Robert Peel
Member for Darling
(1788–1850)
13
(1840)
3 January 1841 3 January 1845 Conservative Peel II
6 Robert Bridges Harrison Redford
Member for Penn
(1808–1854)
14
(1844)
3 January 1845 8 August 1854
Died in office
Federalist Redford
15
(1848)
16
(1852)
Hunter Alston
Member for Albany
(1817–1886)
8 August 1854 3 January 1861 Federalist Alston
7 17
(1856)
Liberal
8 Lord John Russell John Russell
Member for Perth
(1792–1878)
18
(1860)
3 January 1861 3 January 1865 Liberal Russell I
9 William Gladstone by Mayall, 1861 William E. Gladstone
Member for Moreton
(1809–1898)
19
(1864)
3 January 1865 3 January 1869 Liberal Gladstone I
(8) Lord John Russell John Russell
Member for Perth
(1792–1878)
20
(1868)
3 January 1869 3 January 1873 Liberal Russell II
10 Disraeli Benjamin Disraeli
Member for Stirling
(1804–1881)
21
(1872)
3 January 1873 3 January 1877 Conservative Disraeli
(9) 1271754717 william-e.-gladstone William E. Gladstone
Member for Moreton
(1809–1898)
22
(1876)
3 January 1877 3 January 1885 Liberal Gladstone II
23
(1880)
11 Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery - 1890s Archibald Primrose
Member for Bunbury
(1847–1929)
24
(1884)
3 January 1885 3 January 1889 Liberal Primrose
12 Robert cecil Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Member for Melbourne
(1830–1903)
25
(1888)
3 January 1889 3 January 1893 Liberal Gascoyne-Cecil
13 100px William Harcourt
Member for West Sydney
(1827–1904)
26
(1892)
3 January 1893 3 January 1897 Liberal Harcourt
14 Picture of Henry Campbell-Bannerman Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Member for Newcastle
(1836–1908)
27
(1896)
3 January 1897 3 January 1901 Liberal Campbell-Bannerman
Edward VII in coronation robes
Edward I
15 Edmund Barton Edmund Barton
Member for Hunter
(1849–1920)
28
(1900)
3 January 1901 24 September 1903 Protectionist Barton
16 AlfredDeakin Alfred Deakin
Member for Ballaarat
(1856–1919)
24 September 1903 27 April 1904 Protectionist Deakin I
29
(1904)
17 ChrisWatsonSepia Chris Watson
Member for Bland
(1867–1941)
27 April 1904 18 August 1904 Labour Watson
18 George Reid cph 3c31684 George Reid
Member for East Sydney
(1845–1918)
18 August 1904 5 July 1905 Free Trade Reid
(16) AlfredDeakin Alfred Deakin
Member for Ballaarat
(1856–1919)
5 July 1905 3 January 1909 Conservative Deakin II
19 Andrewfisher2 Andrew Fisher
Member for Wide Bay
(1862–1928)
30
(1908)
3 January 1909 3 January 1913 Labour Fisher I
King George V 1911
George III
20 JosephCookPEO Joseph Cook
Member for Parramatta
(1856–1919)
31
(1912)
3 January 1913 17 September 1914 Conservative Cook
(19) Andrewfisher2 Andrew Fisher
Member for Wide Bay
(1862–1928)
17 September 1914 27 October 1915 Labour Fisher II
Hughes15-16 Billy Hughes
Member for West Sydney, Bendigo and North Sydney
(1862–1952)
27 October 1915 3 January 1925 Labour Hughes
21 National Labour
32
(1916)
Nationalist
33
(1920)
22 Portrait of the Right Hon. J. H. Scullin James Scullin
Member for Yarra
(1876–1953)
34
(1924)
3 January 1925 3 January 1933 Labour Scullin
35
(1928)
23 Joseph Lyons Joseph Lyons
Member for Wilmot
(1879–1939)
36
(1932)
3 January 1933 7 April 1939
Died in office
Unionist Lyons
Edward VIII Portrait - 1936
Edward II
King George VI crop
George IV
37
(1936)
24 Earle Page Earle Page
Member for Cowper
(1880–1961)
7 April 1939 7 October 1941 Unionist Page
38
(1940)
25 JohnCurtin John Curtin
Member for Fremantle
(1885–1945)
7 October 1941 5 July 1945
Died in office
Labour Curtin
39
(1944)
26 Frank Forde 1941 crop Frank Forde
Member for Capricornia
(1890–1983)
6 July 1945 13 July 1945 Labour Forde
27 Benchifley Ben Chifley
Member for Macquarie
(1885–1951)
13 July 1945 3 January 1949 Labour Chifley
28 Portrait Menzies 1941 Robert Menzies
Member for Kooyong
(1894–1976)
40
(1948)
3 January 1949 3 January 1965 National Menzies
41
(1952)
Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Portrait Herbert James Gunn
Elizabeth
42
(1956)
43
(1960)
29 HaroldHoltPortrait1953 Harold Holt
Member for Higgins
(1908–1967)
44
(1964)
3 January 1965 19 December 1967
Died in office
National Holt
30 Sir John McEwen John McEwen
Member for Murray
(1900–1980)
19 December 1967 10 January 1968 National McEwen
31 John Gorton Crop John Gorton
Member for Higgins
(1911–2002)
10 January 1968 10 March 1971 National Gorton
45
(1968)
32 William McMahon 1966 William McMahon
Member for Lowe
(1908–1988)
10 March 1971 3 January 1973 National McMahon
33 Gough Whitlam PM Gough Whitlam
Member for Werriwa
(1916–2014)
46
(1972)
3 January 1973 31 August 1975 Labour Whitlam
34 MalcolmFraser1982 Malcolm Fraser
Member for Wannon
(1930–2015)
47
(1975)
31 August 1975 3 January 1985 National Fraser
48
(1976)
49
(1980)
35 Bob Hawke Portrait 1983 Bob Hawke
Member for Wills
(born 1929)
50
(1984)
3 January 1985 3 January 1993 Labour Hawke
51
(1986)
36 Paul Keating 1996 Debate Paul Keating
Member for Blaxland
(born 1939)
52
(1992)
3 January 1993 3 January 1997 Labour Keating
37 Image-Howard2003upr John Howard
Member for Bennelong
(born 1949)
53
(1994)
3 January 1997 3 January 2009 National Howard
54
(2000)
55
(2004)
38 Kevin Rudd official portrait Kevin Rudd
Member for Griffith
(born 1954)
56
(2008)
3 January 2009 30 July 2012 Labour Rudd
39 Julia Gillard Julia Gillard
Member for Lalor
(born 1961)
30 July 2012 3 January 2013 Labour Gillard I
40 Tony Abbott - 2010 crop Tony Abbott
Member for Warringah
(born 1957)
57
(2012)
3 January 2013 16 September 2015 National Abbott
41 Malcolm Turnbull at the Pentagon 2016 cropped Malcolm Turnbull
Member for Wentworth
(born 1954)
16 September 2015 3 January 2017 National Turnbull
(39) Julia Gillard 2015 Julia Gillard
Member for Lalor
(born 1961)
58
(2016)
3 January 2017 Incumbent Labour Gillard II