The Chadian basin has always been a crossroad of civilizations, the earliest Chadian civilization was the legendary Sao, known for oral histories and artifacts. They were conquered by the Kanem Empire, the longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian portion. The power of the Chadian kingdoms was based off of the control over trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the nations. These states were mostly Muslim, and never expanded their control to the grasslands below besides to raid for slaves.
French colonial expansion in Africa led to the creation of the Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad in 1900. By 1920, France had full control over Chad and incorporated it into French Equatorial Africa. Their rule was characterized by an absence of policies to unify the territory and slow modernization. The French viewed the colony as fairly unimportant; only used for untrained labor and raw cotton. After World War II, the French granted Chad the status of an overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to the French National Assembly and to the Chadian assembly. Chad was granted independence on 11 August 1960.
François Tombalbaye was elected as the nation's first president. He banned all opposing parties and established a one-party system. In 1965, Muslim rebels started a civil war in the nation. Tomalbaye was overthrown and murdered in 1975, but the insurgency continued. In 1979, the rebel factions captured the capital. Armed factions, many from the north's rebellion, contended for power. Libya tried to fill the power vacuum and became involved in the war; however their adventures ended in a failure. In 1987, French-supported president Hissène Habré was elected, creating unity among Chadians and forcing Libya off of Chadian soil. However, a Marxist coup occurred in 1994, and Chadian communist leader Fidèle Moungar became dictator.
Unlike its past, Chad hasn't been in much turmoil with their new Marxist support. Neighbors Libya and Sudan have been helping keep the nation in check and have been combatting any insurgents which appear in the nation. Chad has a growing economy with a booming oil industry; the nation seems like it is finally escaping poverty.
Chad is a dictatorship with phony "elections" the only candidates for these is long-time dictator Fidèle Moungar. Political infighting isn't much common due to Libya and Sudan's good militaristic ties with the nation; eliminating any opposition parties which may spring up in the north and east. However, the regions near Niger and Cameroon have been relatively unstable in terms of unrest, and minor insurgencies have started there; however Soviet airstrikes are helping hold them back.