~1600: 100 years after the Twenty-Year War, the German population has completely recovered and even grown further. The German nobles repeatedly raised taxes, which the peasants in Saxony, Thuringia, Franconia and Swabia can't pay any more, because in these areas, the peasants divide their lands among all kids - so their plots become smaller and smaller. The revolters demand a "jubilee" (when all debts are to be cancelled), no lord except emperor, pope and God, liberation of the serfs, election of the clerics by the people, peace among Christians, restitution of their old rights and lower taxes. The uprisings are mixed with religious movements (which are, sadly, often antisemitic). Except for the Swiss confederation, the uprisings are defeated everywhere. Those who can, try their luck elsewhere - some going even to Atlantis.

1607: University of Gran (old capital of Hungary) re-founded.

The Sixtine Calendar (technically equivalent to OTL Gregorian Calendar) is introduced in Western / Central Europe. Only the Gottesfreistaat Münster refuses to introduce it, which will happen later in 1679.

1612: After the death of king Eduard I of the Netherlands, his younger sons receive small shares too (Namur and Frisia). Namur secedes soon and is subsequently swallowed by France.

1615: After the lost war against Vladimir-Suzdal, Poland elects mighty king Henry V of England new king.

1616-19: "Island uprising" in Sardinia and Corsica after trying to reform the administration too fast (after French example). Florence proves unable to overwhelm them again, but gets the promise from France that they won't try to conquer them.

1627-32: Second Swiss-Savoy War. At the beginning the Swiss are in advantage, but later the rebellion in the Triple Monarchy of England-Castille-Portugal gives France the opportunity to strike against the Swiss. In the peace of Turin, the Swiss have to give the French-speaking area around Geneva, some fortresses in Alsace and at the Rhine (like Kehl) to France, and Savoy joins the Alliance des Alpes, becoming a French satellite.

1628: Florence, still grumbling, bribes the Portuguese commander of the fortress Ceuta, so he gives them the city, which they keep, to protect their connection to Atlantis.

1629: The disgraced commander of the Mediterranean fleet, a duke Francisco of Álvarez, goes to Sicily, together with the occupation forces fled from the Marches and Algeria, sets up the (unrecognized) kingdom of Sicily (incl. Tunis, Malta, the Baleares). Threatened by the Rum-Seljuks, he makes an alliance with France.

1630-35: France and Denmark-Braunschweig fight the Netherlands in the Anti-Dutch War. In the peace of Bremen, the Dutch choose to keep their Caribbean colonies, give Denmark-Braunschweig Nieuw-Nederland. France gets a good part of Flanders and all of Hennegau / Hainaut. As the Dutch say, now their Silver Age has also ended.

1631: Florentines finally part with the Triple Monarchy of England-Castille-Portugal, since the Florentines want to annex the Duchy of the Marches. They make a compromise with France: While the former Papal state is still nominally under the pope, Florence will "administrate" it for him. This is also seen as a compensation for the pope staying in Avignon, while many Italians still wish for his return to Rome. In addition, Florence has to allow France's ally Venice to annex the more valuable North: Bologna, Ferrara and Ravenna.

1634: Spain and Sicily make a contract: Spain acknowledges the independence of Sicily (not however, the fact that Sicily is a kingdom), gets the Baleares back. King, duke and elector Ernst V of Denmark-Braunschweig dies without a son, makes his daughter Margarethe new queen.

1637: Poland joins the HREGN, to be better protected against the Russians, and even gets one electoral vote. Its German neighbors secretly claim that this is for keeping them in check.

1638: Reforms in the Netherlands after the lost war give more power to the parliament, which is democratically elected by all adult men who own a house above a certain value.

1639: Sicily conquers Corsica and Sardinia with their fleet. France and Spain are preoccupied and can't interfere.

Princess Mary of Spain's plan to marry her sister Isabella to "the other Francisco", king of Sicily, fails.

1640: King Erik XVII of Sweden, Northern Norway and Mecklenburg founds the Baltic League with Prussia, Brandenburg-Silesia and Franconia-Pomerania against Polish or Russian threats.

1642: Government of the "Twin princes" François / Ferenc III (also king of Poland) and Charles / Károly IV begins. Introducing enlightened absolutism, they practice religious tolerance, thus stabilizing the until then very shaky Hungary (having Catholics in Hungary and Slovakia, Orthodox in Transsylvania and Bohemian brothers in, well, Bohemia, made governing the state extremely difficult). Even the Jews and Muslims in the country profit from the new tolerance.

Chaos TL in blocks
Earlier in time:

Central Europe 1550-1600

Central Europe


Later in time:

Central Europe 1650-1675

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