On June 5th, 1944, on the eve of D-Day, it was a critical moment. The Allies of World War II were about to launch the largest military operation of the 20th century, yet the weather didn't look supportive of an attack. Although most weather experts thought it would rain through June 6th, General Dwight "Ike" Eisenhower refused to delay the invasion, which if he did, would be postponed to June 19th. D-Day went forward, and was a success; a costly one, but a success.
But what if the invasion was postponed? In OTL, on June 19th, the worst storm since the 1920s swept the English Channel. One of the two "mulberry harbors" was destroyed, and an invasion in this climate would have been impossible. So if the invasion was postponed, imagine a D-Day failed. When Ike made that critical choice not to attack, who knew he would change the fate of the entire war?
World War II (1944-1947)
June 6th: General Eisenhower postpones Operation Overlord.
June 19th: The invasion of Normandy takes place during the worst storm to hit the English Channel in years. Few Allied troops even land, and those that do are gunned up by German troops.
June 30th: The failure of the Allies D-Day invasion motivates Hitler and the Nazis to launch a counter-offensive on the Italian Front.
July 24th: German forces re-capture Rome.
August 6th: The Allies again attempt to invade France, but fail. Hitler sends 1,000,000 troops to France to repel any more attacks.
August 14th: The Hamburg Project begins, as Germany comes into the latter stages of developing an atomic bomb.
December 16t: Germany launches Operation Solstice on the Eastern Front, and pushes Soviet troops several hundred miles back East. The Soviet advance is delayed by six months.
June 6th: Operation Beginning of the End is put into action, and 5,000,000 Allied troops invade Normandy. This time, the invasion is a success, and the Allies secure a beachhead in northern France.
July 2nd: After months of intense combat, Warsaw falls to Soviet troops.
July 16th: The American atomic bomb test, Trinity, proceeds at Las Alamos. The Target Commission plans for the bombs use against Germany and Japan.
July 22nd: Before the USA has a chance to use the Atom Bomb, Germany drops an atomic bomb on Warsaw. Allied leaders are shocked Germany had developed it so quickly.
August 4th: President Truman announces the "Every Day" doctrine, and that every day, the United States would drop the atomic bomb on Axis targets until surrender.
August 6th: The USA nukes Hiroshima
August 7th: Germany nukes Moscow. The USA nukes Berlin.
August 8th: The USA nukes Paris.
August 9th: The USA nukes Nagasaki
August 10th: Germany nukes Vienna, the USA nukes Osaka.
August 15th: Japan surrenders to the United States.
August 22nd: Mushroom Day: Germany nukes over 70 targets at once on both fronts, killing over 5 million people. World War II is now declared a nuclear war.
From August, 1945, until the end of the war in 1947, World War II turned into a nuclear war. Neither side advanced as countries used the bomb as their primary method of offensive. On August 22nd, Germany dropped over 70 atomic bombs on various targets on both the Eastern and Western Front. The anti-war movement grew strongly. Little advances took place on either side during the war. In the spring of 1947, the United States created a gun called the Fat Man - a missile launcher that shot mini-nukes at targets. This technological feat led to a slow advance on the Western Front. By the Fall of 1947, Allied forces have almost reached the River Rhine. But riots are rocking both sides, and both sides are desperate for peace, bankrupted, and had little capability to fight.
On September 3rd, 1947, the Great Peace was made. Both sides agreed to a ceasefire. The United Nations was created, and its first task was securing a "demilitarized zone" between France and Germany, and Germany and the Soviet Union.
Between the wars- 1947 to 1991
The Cold War was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II(1939–1947), primarily between three major factions: Nazi Germany and its allies, the Soviet Union and its allies, and the United States and its allies. Although the primary participants' military forces didn't officially clashed directly until 1990, they expressed the conflict through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, extensive aid to states deemed vulnerable, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, a nuclear arms race, and economic and technological competitions, such as the Space Race.
After the Ceasefire of 1947 and the passing of the Great Terms, the United States and the Soviet Union worked together to keep Germany in check. During crises like the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Italian War, the Greek Civil War, and the Suez Crisis, the Soviets and Americans were on the same side. But differences were already forming. The East and West disagreed over the configuration of the post-war world. The Soviet Union wanted to spread Communism throughout Asia, the Middle East, and the Near East, starting with Greece. Even though the US supported the communist insurgency against the Fascist Greek government, it would turn against it later on. Throughout the 1950s, all three factions lived with the common fear of nuclear war and hysteria. In 1949, the Soviet Union developed weapons, so now all three sides had them. Worldwide competition, the Space Race, as well as disputes over European Integration had already severely hurt the American-Soviet alliance. The USSR and USA were on the verge of war by the late 1950s.
Cold War Conflicts
- Greek Civil War
- First Czechoslovakia Rebellion
- Marshall Plan Crisis
- Rome Blockade and airlift
- Chinese Civil War
- Italian War
- Hungarian Rebellion
- 1953 Iranian Revolution
- Soviet-American Split
- Rome Crisis of 1961
- Second Czechoslovakia Rebellion
- Vietnam War
- Argentine Civil War
- Six Day War
- Arab War of Unification
- 1979 Iranian Revolution
- Nicaraguan Civil War
- First Afghan Civil War
- Arab-Persian War
- Excercise 38 Crisis
- Eastern Independence War
Several such countries also coordinated the Marshall Plan, especially in South Italy, which the USSR opposed. Elsewhere, in Latin America and Southeast Asia, the USSR assisted and helped foster Communist revolutions, opposed by several Western countries and their regional allies; some they attempted to roll back, with mixed results. Some countries aligned with NATO, the Warsaw Pact, and the newly-created German-led Pact of Steel. Meanwhile, the doctrine of "detente" was successful in relieving American-Soviet tensions. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Cold War was again focused on an American-Soviet balance of power against Germany.
Cold War Continued
The Cold War featured periods of relative calm and of international high tension – the Arab-Israeli War (1948), the Italian War (1950–1953), the Suez Crisis (1956), the Vietnam War (1959–1975), the War of Arab Unification (1973) the Soviet War in Afghanistan (1979–1989), and the Taiwan War (1983-1985). Both sides sought detente to relieve political tensions and deter direct military attack, which would probably guarantee their mutual assured destruction with nuclear weapons.
Middle Eastern Unification
After the Six Day War, Germany's alliance with the Muslim nations of the Middle East solidified. Talks began to unite the Muslim nations, and to convert the "Arab League" into a "Second Arabian Empire." The nations of Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Yemen, Sudan, Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania, Somalia, and the United Arab Emirates all moved towards integration from 1967 to 1973. The Greater Islamic Republic, or GIR, was established in September, 1973. Israel was infuriated. Later that month, the GIR announced that it would have to unite itself (As of 1973 the GIR was split in half, because of Israel) and a war with Israel was inevitable. When the GIR demanded that Israel hand over Eden, connecting the two halves, Israel refused. Following an Arab mobilization in northeastern Egypt and southwestern Syria, Israel launched a pre-emptive strike and invaded the Greater Islamic Republic.
The four-month long Arab War of Unification ensued. Israel's greater goal to break up the GIR and prevent the Arab nations from uniting against Israel, but this was already happening. The GIR wanted to keep its existence, take back territory, and possibly even conquer Israel itself. Israel advanced quickly, capturing the western bank of the Suez Canal and beginning a siege of Cairo. Meanwhile, in the north, Israel invaded the densely-populated region of southwest Syria. But the consolidation of Arab nations, as well as massive German aid, led to the Israeli offensive eventually being curved. In November, the tide was turned, and Israel was on the retreat. The Egyptians re-captured the Suez Canal and the Syrians liberated the Golan Heights. In December, Israel declared it would agree to an armistice as long as the GIR never invade and/or attack Israel for the next 50 years. This was agreed to, and the Greater Islamic Republic secured its existence. Meanwhile, a bridge was built at the northern tip of the Gulf of Aquaba linking Aquaba (in Jordan) with Ras el Marsi (in Egypt).
Second Eastern Question
Tensions escalated further and further with Germany. The Soviet Union went bankrupt, and couldn't keep up with US and German space programs. With the Soviet Union losing influence and world power throughout the 1980s, Germany and the United States competed to fill the gaps. This was sometimes referred to as the "Second Eastern Question" throughout the late 1980s. The First Eastern Question was a political rivalry between Russia, Austria and Balkan states, for when the Ottoman Empire declined and lost more territory, which nations would control it? This was the First Eastern Question, the Second Eastern Question was similar, just with the Soviet Union instead of Turkey. The USA and Germany both had space-shields completed by 1989 that would defend both sides and their allies from nuclear war.
Then, in 1989, something extraordinary happened that would alter the course of history forever.
World War III (1990-1996)
|World War II|
|Commanders and leaders|
Road to War
In 1990, world tensions are at their peak. The United States and Germany had both recently constructed anti-nuclear missile shields to protect their own countries throughout the 1980s. The Soviet Union, finding itself bankrupted, couldn't keep up with Germany and the West. The Soviet Union collapsed the previous year, with most of its members breaking away from Russia. As Communism decays, Germany and the West compete to fill in the gaps.
Long lasting tensions between Germany and the West were re-ignited after the Allies and Axis made peace in 1947, ending World War II. With Soviet-western relations breaking down in the 1950s, a three-war Cold War spurred tensions between Germany, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Germany lead the race into space, using rocket tech to put German citizens in orbit in 1954. The Soviets often found themselves behind both Germany and America, and already showed signs of losing the Cold War in the 1960s. Meanwhile, the nations fought several "Cold War Conflicts" between each other. By the 1980s, the Soviets were about to go bankrupted. In 1988, following the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, fascist and democratic forces in Afghanistan fought a civil war over control. Germany backed the fascist Taliban, and the USA backed the weak Republic of Afghanistan. Similar proxy wars have also broken out in Iran, Lebanon, and Cambodia.
Meanwhile, resistance movements in Poland, Hungary, Austria, and Czechoslovakia (all under German occupation following the ceasefire) have been encouraged by the Glasnost policies in the Soviet Union to try to gain their own independence from Germany. But the Germany refused her eastern satellites any form of independence. On June 4th, 1989, Poland declared its independence from Germany. Followed by Hungary, then Czechoslovakia and Austria. German troops cracked down, and from the summer of 1989 to the spring of 1990, the "Eastern War" was fought between Germany and Polish, Austria, Czech, and Hungarian rebels, which fought a guerrilla war against the Germans.
In November, 1990, German forces caught Russian secret agents smuggling arms into Poland in support of the insurgency. From there, German-Russian relations deteriorated. The west took advantage of this. On Christmas Day, 1989, US president George H.W. Bush took signed the "Pact of New Winds" with the Russian politburo. This agreement not only symbolized an end to the Cold War, but the beginning of a Western-Russian alliance to counter Germany, which was rising in power once again.
The Pact of New Winds left Germany furious. In January, 1990, Germany aggressively pursued claims on Kaliningrad, a disputed area Nazi-ruled Poland and Lithuania. On January 15th, Berlin issued an ultimatum to Moscow, demanding that Russia stop aiding Polish insurgents. Russia complied, but a month later, German leaders announced to the international media: "We know there still backing the insurgents, and we won't let them get away with it." With Russian-German relations reaching a breaking point, President Bush announced on February 19th that he would support Russia if war ever broke out. On February 22nd, 1990, Germany demanded that Russia cede Kaliningrad to Germany. Russia refused, and on March 1st, 1990, Germany attacked Russia.
War! Germany attacks Russia
On March 1st, 1990, Germany attacked Russia. On March 3rd 1989 after Germany failed to withdraw in accordance with American and British demands, the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada declared declared war on Germany but provided little military support to Russia other then a toothless British bombing of Hamburg. On September 17th 1939 China launched its own invasion of Russia. By early October, Russia was divided among Germany, China, North Korea, and Mongolia. Despite the loss of territory, Russia never officially surrendered and continued to fight outside its own borders.
After a German-Chinese treaty governing North Korea, China forced the Southeast Asian countries to allow it to station Chinese troops under pacts of "mutual assistance." India rejected territorial demands and was invaded by China in April, 1939. The resulting conflict ended in September, 1990, with India conceding disputed territory to China. The US and UK, treating the Chinese attack on India a tantamount to entering the war on the side of the Germans, responded to the Chinese invasion by launching an embargo against China. In June, 1990, Chinese forces invaded and occupied Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
In April, 1990, Germany invaded Yugoslavia and Romania to secure the coasts of the Adriatic and Black seas. Romania immediately capitulated, and despite Allied support, Yugoslavia was conquered within two months. In Western Europe, American troops were deployed in France, but neither side launched any major operations against each other until April, 1940. China and Germany entered a trade pact in February of 1940.
Germany attacks the USA and the UK
On November 10th, Germany invaded the Netherlands and Great Britain. German forces swepped through the Netherlands with little resistance, and then from there, launched an amphibious assault on England's southeastern coast, an assault which the Germans have been preparing for and perfecting since the mid-1980s. On November 18th, German troops advanced from the beaches and into the British heartland. The Allies expected the Germans to invade France through Belgium, like they had in the last two wars. Three million Allied soldiers were on hold in northeastern France, leaving Britain almost entirely unprotected. By the beginning of December, Allied leaders knew the situation in Britain was un-winnable. UK and US authorities began a massive evacuation of Britain to Ireland, where the United States was racing to put together a new army to defend Ireland. On December 3rd, London fell to the Nazis, and on December 22nd, the United Kingdom surrendered.
The fall of Britain left the United States to stand alone. Fortunately for America, much of its army escaped capture from the Germans during the evacuation from Britain, and was on hold for action in Ireland. Later, many of the evacuated troops would form an important part and center of the army that landed at Normandy during Operation End of the Beginning.
The Americans rejected several covert German attempts to negotiate a peace. On January 10th, Germany invaded and occupied the American island of Nantucket, off the coast of Massachusetts. Once the island was secure, German forces flooded into Nantucket, and the island soon was famous for the densest concentration of stationed German troops throughout the war, with half a million soldiers occupying the little island. From Nantucket, the Germans built a massive air base and prison facility, and from there the German Luftwaffe was massed to begin an air superiority campaign over the skies of North America. The operations of the Luftwaffe against the American Air Force became known as the Battle for the Skies. Initially, the Luftwaffe concentrated on destroying American planes on the ground and in the air. They later switched to a bombing of major and large American cities, during the "Days of Fire in the Sky." Four million Americans were killed in the devastating attacks, but luckily, because of the Star Wars project Ronald Reagan completed in 1987, no nuclear devices were used in the attacks. Overall, the German air campaign over the United States was a failure, and the secret plans for an invasion of the United States were cancelled in March, 1991.
During the Days of Fire in the Sky, the United States' industrial, cathedral, and political cities were nearly destroyed. New York suffered particularly, being bombed each night for several months. On February 5th, 1991, a German bomb hit the Empire State Building and destroyed it. Yet, the Americans fought on. With no land forces in direct conflict in Europe, the war in the air attracted worldwide attention even as sea units fought the Battle of the Atlantic and a number of American commando raids hit targets in Britain.
War in the Air
The air war in the European Theatre commenced in 1990, with U.S. Army Air Forces units being deployed to England to join the assault on Germany on January 4th, 1993.
The main concentration of German raids on American cities was from March 7, 1991 until November 10, 1991. After that most of the strength of the Luftwaffe was diverted to the war against China. German raids continued on a smaller and less destructive scale for the rest of the war. However, the balance of bomb tonnage being dropped shifted greatly in favour of the American Air Force as it gained in strength. By 1992, the Americans could put 1,000 bombers over one German city. From 1942 onwards, the efforts of the United States were supplemented by the Canadian Air Force and the Japanese Air Force. On February 14, 1995, a raid on Munich produced one of the most devastating fires in history. A firestorm was created in the city, and between 18,000 to 25,000 people were killed. Only the bombing of Berlin killed more people in the war.
War in the Middle East and South Asia
The Greater Islamic Republic (also Arabia) invaded Algeria on October 7th, 1989, and annexed it the following month. Arabia declared war on the UK and the United States on December 10th, 1990, and invaded France on April 28th, 1991. The Arabs were claiming that they were "liberating" France from the "horrors of Western influence." However, the Arab forces were unable to match German successes in Europe.
The Arab navy began the long and unsuccessful attack on Gibraltar on December 12th. Following the occupation of Britain, Malta remained in British hands, supported by America. The naval Battle of the Mediterranean was a disaster for the Arab navy, which was effectively destroyed by fighting forces of the American Navy and the Canadian Navy during 1940, most notably at the Battle of Tunis (May 11th, 1991).
Not only did the Arabs fail to conquer France, but under the supervision of the Fifth Republic of France, the French successfully counter-attacked in May. The imminent French victory over Arabia prompted German intervention. On October 6th, 1991, German forces, supported by the Arabs, invaded France. American forces were hastily dispatched from Israel to France, but the Allies lacked a co-ordinated strategy, and were comprehensively beaten. The Allies evacuated to Corsica. Advancing rapidly, German troops captured Paris, France's capital, on October 27th, 1991, effectively putting most of the country under German occupation.
After the mainland was conquered, Germany invaded Corsica in what was known as the Battle of Corsica (November 20th, 1991 - December 1st, 1991). Instead of an amphibious assault as expected, the Germans mounted a huge airborne invasion. The paratroopers suffered severe losses, and large scale airborne operations were given up after that. However, the Germans eventually prevailed on Corsica. Most of the Allies evacuated to Israel on December 1st.
Once the Mediterranean was secure, the largest land operation in history was launched, when Germany attacked China. The Mediterranean Campaign delayed the invasion, and subsequent resistance movements in Algeria, France, and Morocco tied up valuable German forces. This provided much needed and possibly decisive relief for the Chinese.
German Invasion of China
On December 22nd, 1991, Germany launched an invasion against the People's Republic of China. This invasion started the most bloody conflict the world has ever seen. The Asian Front was by far the largest and bloodiest theatre of World War III. It is generally accepted as being the costliest conflict in human history, with over 300 million dead as a result. It involved more land combat than all other World War III theatres combined. The distinctly brutal nature of warfare on the Asian Front was exemplified by an often willful disregard for human life by both sides.
The leader of the PRC, Yang Shangkun, had been warned repeatedly by outside sources and his own intelligence network of the impending invasion, but he ignored the warnings due to conflicting information presented to him by Chinese intelligence. The early weeks of the invasion were devastating for the People's Liberation Army. Enormous numbers of Chinese troops were encircled in pockets and fell into Nazi German hands. In addition to German troops, a few divisions of Arab troops were also involved in the campaign. India also sent troops, but oddly, the Indians initially declared neutrality, however with both German and Chinese troops on her soil, India was well prepared to join forces with Germany on December 25th. The following conflict from 1991–1995 is sometimes referred to as the Third Sino-Indian War.
The German attack suffered from several fundamental flaws. The most serious of these was the logistical situation of the attack. The sheer vastness of the distances in China meant that Germany could only advance so far before outrunning their supply chains. By the time the German attack froze to a halt before Shanghi on June 5th, 1992, it literally could not go any further. There simply were not enough supplies reaching the front to conduct proper defensive operations, let alone a proper offense. The timetable the invasion was planned to assumed that the Chinese would collapse before they could re-organize and shift their industry into wartime mode. The failure of that to happen also fatally affected Nazi German plans. Had the Germans not invaded France, earlier in the year, the invasion would have proceeded at that time, and China might have collapsed.
During their long retreat, the Chinese employed a scorched earth policy. They burnt crops and destroyed utilities as they withdrew before Germany. That helped to contribute to the logistical problems that Germany experienced. More importantly for them, the Chinese also succeeded in a massive and unprecedented removal of their industry from the threatened war zone to protected areas further south.
The extension of the campaign beyond the length that Germany expected meant that the German Army suffered hundreds of thousands of casualties from the counterattacks of Chinese units.
Even with their advance having ground to a halt due to a lack of supplies and the onset of winter, Germany had conquered a vast amount of territory, including three-quarters of the Chinese economy. Dislodging them proved difficult and eventually cost Germany dearly.
A few months after the invasion began, German troops laid siege to Beijing. German military leaders had ordered that the city of Beijing must "vanish from the surface of the earth", with its entire population exterminated. Rather than storming the city, the Wehrmacht was ordered to blockade Beijing so as to starve the city to death, while attacking it with bombers and artillery. About one million civilians died in the Beijing siege – 800,000 by starvation. It lasted 506 days.
During the fall of 1992, the German army prepared for further offensive operations. Germany decided to give up on Shanghai for the time being, and the Winter Offensive of 1992-1993, decided to focus on the war in the south, with the German forces advancing southeast towards Hong Kong taking on the most casualties. The Chinese military, with most of China overrun, fled to the parts of Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia) they still occupied. In a major blunder, Germany split its forces in southern China into two groups: Force A would strike to the south and destroy Chinese troops in Indochina, while Force B would continue on the primary target and attack the Guangzhou-Hong Kong area.
For Force B, the Chinese employed a strategy of a fighting retreat, luring German troops into Guangzhou. With most of its industry occupied by the Germans, the Chinese had little tanks or artillery, and thus could not match German superiority in the country. So the Chinese forced the Germans to fight in the streets of Guganzhou. Germany eventually occupied over 90% of the city, but in an attempt to defeat the remaining Chinese defenders almost all German soldiers in the area were funneled into the ruins of the city. Months of bitter hand-to-hand combat in the ruins of the city depleted the German forces, leaving only weak Indian troops to guard the flanks of the German forces in Guangzhou. Then, on May 5th, the Chinese easily defeated these minor axis forces as they performed an encirclement operation. The German troops remaining in the city were trapped – cut off from their supply lines and starving, they were ordered by Germany to fight to the last man, and they displayed incredible fortitude and bravery under unbearable conditions.
Starved of food, fuel, ammunition, and clothes, the pocket was gradually reduced, with the last portion surrendering on February 2, 1993. Heavy losses affected both sides in the Battle of Guananzhou, one of the bloodiest battles in history. An estimated 15 million people perished in this battle, including at least a million civilians in the city.
After Guangzhou, the initiative had passed from Germany but had not yet been seized by the Chinese. A desperate counterattack in the fall of 1993 by German temporarily halted the Chinese advance, and led to the largest tank battle in history, at Wuhai. Wuhai was the last major offensive by the German Army on the eastern front. The Chinese had intelligence of what was to come and prepared massive defences in huge depth in the Wuhai salient. They stopped the German armoured thrusts after a maximum penetration of 17 miles (27 km). After Wuhai the People's Liberation Army never ceased being on the offensive until Berlin was captured in November, 1995.
More Chinese citizens died during World War III than those of all other countries combined. Civilians were rounded up and burned alive or shot in squads in many cities conquered by the Nazis. Approximately 270 million Chinese people, among them more than 200 million civilians in Soviet cities and areas, were killed in the Nazi invasion of the People's Republic of China.
At least seven million PLA troops died facing the Germans and their allies in the Eastern Front. The Axis forces themselves suffered over 60 million soldier deaths, whether by combat or by wounds, disease, starvation or exposure; another several hundred thousand were seized as POWs and over half died in Chinese "isolation" camps because of disease, starvation, or shortage of supplies.
Military supplies from Japan and the United States made very important impact for Chinese military forces.
War Against Arabia
At the start of 1994 in the Middle East, Israel (with massive support from the United States and Britain) was still under siege by forces of the Greater Islamic Republic. With Israel as a strategic base in the region, the Allies needed to relieve their troops in Israel by opening a second front against the Arabs.
The Allies first action was the capture of Egypt, called Operation Gap, on January 10, 1994. American forces attacked from Israel in the northeast and from Sudan in the south. This brought to the fore a growing dissatisfaction with the leader of Arabia, Saddam Hussein. . On January 29, 1994, the King Abdullah of Arabia fired Hussein, and placed him under house arrest in Baghdad. His replacement negotiated an armistice with the Allies on March 8, 1994. Nazi Germany moved quickly into the confused situation, disarming Arab formations, taking military control of Arab areas, and preparing to defend the Middle East on her own.
Allied troops landed on mainland southwestern Italy on September 3, 1994, crossing the Red Sea from Egypt. This led the Greater Islamic Republic, already angry at its former leader Saddam Hussein, to join the Western Allies. Two days later, Sweden joined the Allies, but Germany was too tied up in other fronts to attack Sweden. This would become the largest military blunder in the war, for ten million Allied troops were secretly building up in Sweden, preparing for an invasion of German Poland. This would cut Germany off from its actions further east and south, and eventually win the Allies the war.
A German commando raid rescued the imprisoned Hussein. The Germans installed him as the "Head of State" and "Minister of Foreign Affairs" of a Nazi puppet state in German-occupied South Arabia.
Germany had built a number of defensive lines through the desert; the main one was called the Summer Line. The Allies came up against this in the summer of 1994 and were unable to break through. Amphibious landings at Ad Damman were made in an attempt to bypass the line: however the landing forces were contained by the Germans, and the Dunes Line (the core part of the Summer Line defences) remained intact. Finally, the line was broken in November, 1994, in the fourth major attempt in four months to open the road to Mecca.
The Allies finally captured Mecca on December 4, 1994, two days before the landings in Danzig. Germany made a fighting withdrawal to the Abha Line, south of that city. From March 10, 1995 till the summer of the year Allied forces attacked the line and in some of the fiercest fighting of the war, broke the Abha Line defenses but failed to break through to the Eastern Desert. The offensive by Allied and some Arabian forces resumed when the weather permitted in early October 1995 and continued until Germany surrendered in Italy on October 29th, two days after Hussein's Allied capture and one day before the dissolution of Germany.