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Castille (Principia Moderni II Map Game)

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Crown of Castille
Castille
Timeline: Principia Moderni II (Map Game)

OTL equivalent: Center of Spain
Estandarte del Reino de Castilla.svg Kingdom of Castile Arms.svg
Flag Coat of Arms
Castille
The Crown's territories in yellow
Capital Toledo
Largest city Toledo
Other cities Burgos, Murcia, Palencia and Valladolid
Language Castillian
Religion Roman Catholic
Ethnic Group Castillian
Demonym Castillian
Government Hereditary Monarchy
  legislature Council of Castille
King Alfonso XIX
  Royal house: Manrique de Lara
Population 4,000,000 
Established 850 (as county of Castille)
931 (Unification of the counties in Castille)
1037 (union with León)
1065 (reestabilishemnt)
1157 (divided from León
1230 (union with León)
1586 (personal union with Portugal)
Currency Spanish real

Castille is currently a kingdom integrant of the Spanish Empire under the House of Manrique de Lara with a hereditary monarchy government located in the Iberian peninsula.

History

According to the chronicles of Alfonso III of Asturias; the first reference to the name "Castile" (Castilla) can be found in a document written during AD 800. The name reflects its origin as a march on the eastern frontier of the Kingdom of Asturias, protected by castles, towers or castra.

The County of Castile, bordered in the south by the Montes de Toledo, was re-populated by inhabitants of Cantabria, Asturias, Vasconia and Visigothic and Mozarab origins. It had its own Romance dialect and laws. The first Count of Castile was Rodrigo in 850, under Ordoño I of Asturias and Alfonso III of Asturias. Subsequently, After his son, Diego Rodríguez,'s death, the region was subdivided, separate counts being named to Alava, Burgos, Cerezo & Lantarón, and a reduced Castile. In 931 the County was reunified by Count Fernando González, who rose in rebellion against the Kingdom of León, successor state to Asturias, and achieved an autonomous status, allowing the county to be inherited by his family instead of being subject to appointment by the Leonese king.

The minority of Count García II Sánchez led Castile to accept Sancho III of Pamplona, married to the sister of Count García, as feudal overlord. García was assassinated in 1028 while in León to marry the princess Sancha, sister of Bermudo III of León. Sancho III, acting as feudal overlord, appointed his younger son (García's nephew) Fernando as Count of Castile, marrying him to his uncle's intended bride, Sancha of León. Following Sancho's 1035 death, Castile returned to the nominal control of León, but Ferdinand, allying himself with his brother García V of Pamplona, began a war with his brother-in-law Bermudo. At the Battle of Tamarón Bermudo was killed, leaving no surviving offspring. In right of his wife, Ferdinand then assumed the royal title as king of León and Castile, for the first time associating the royal title with the rule of Castile.

When Ferdinand I died in 1065, the territories were divided among his children. Sancho II became King of Castile, Alfonso VI, King of León and García, King of Galicia, while his daughters were given towns, Urraca, Zamora, and Elvira, Toro.

Sancho II allied himself with Alfonso VI of León and together they conquered, then divided Galicia. Sancho later attacked Alfonso VI and invaded León with the help of El Cid, and drove his brother into exile, thereby reuniting the three kingdoms. Urraca permitted the greater part of the Leonese army to take refuge in the town of Zamora. Sancho laid siege to the town, but the Castilian king was assassinated in 1072 by Bellido Dolfos, a Galician nobleman. The Castilian troops then withdrew.

As a result Alfonso VI recovered all his original territory of León, and now also became the king of Castile and Galicia. This was the second union of León and Castile, although the two kingdoms remained distinct entities joined only in a personal union. The sworn oath taken by El Cid before Alfonso VI in Santa Gadea de Burgos regarding the innocence of the Alfonso in the matter of the murder of his brother is well known.

Under Alfonso VI, there was an approach to the rest of Europeans kingdoms, including France. He gave his daughters, Elvira, Urraca and Theresa, in marriage to Raymond of Toulouse, Raymond of Burgundy and Henry of Burgundy respectively. In the Council of Burgos in 1080 the traditional Mozarabic rite was replaced by the Roman one. Upon his death, Alfonso VI was succeeded by his daughter the widowed Urraca, who then married Alfonso I of Aragon, but they almost immediately fell out, and Alfonso tried unsuccessfully to conquer Urraca's lands, before he repudiated her in 1114. Urraca also had to contend with attempts by her son (offspring of her first marriage), the king of Galicia, to assert his rights. When Urraca died, this son became king of León and Castile as Alfonso VII. During his reign, Alfonso VII managed to annex parts of the weaker kingdoms of Navarre and Aragón which fought to secede after the death of Alfonso I of Aragon. Alfonso VII refused his right to conquer the Mediterranean coast for the new union of Aragón with the County of Barcelona (Petronila and Ramón Berenguer IV).

The centuries of Moorish rule had confirmed the high central tableland of Castile as a vast sheep pasturage; the fact that the greater part of Spanish sheep-rearing terminology was drawn from Arabic underscores the debt.

During the 12th century, Europe enjoyed a great advance in intellectual achievements sparked in part by the kingdom of Castile's recovery of the great cultural center of Toledo (1085). There Islamic classics were discovered, and contacts established with the knowledge and works of Muslim scientists. In the first half of the century a program of translations, traditionally called the "School of Toledo", was undertaken which rendered many philosophical and scientific works from the classical Greek and the Islamic worlds into Latin. Many European scholars, including Daniel of Morley and Gerard of Cremona travelled to Toledo to gain further education.

The Way of St. James further enhanced the cultural exchange between the kingdoms of Castile and León; and the rest of Europe.

The 12th century saw the establishment of many new religious orders, after the European fashion, such as Calatrava, Alcántara and Santiago; and the foundation of many Cistercian abbeys.

Alfonso VII restored the royal tradition of dividing his kingdom among his children. Sancho III became King of Castile and Fernando II, King of León.

The rivalry between both kingdoms continued until 1230 when Fernando III of Castile received the Kingdom of León from his father Alfonso IX, having previously received the Kingdom of Castile from his mother Berengaria of Castile in 1217. In addition, he took advantage of the decline of the Almohad empire to conquer the Guadalquivir Valley whilst his son Alfonso took the taifa of Murcia.

The Courts from León and Castile merged, an event considered as the foundation of the Crown of Castile, consisting of the kingdoms of Castile, León, taifas and other domains conquered from the Moors, including the taifa of Córdoba, taifa of Murcia, taifa of Jaén and taifa of Seville.

The House of Trastámara was a lineage that ruled Castile from 1369 to 1504, Aragón from 1412 to today, Navarre from 1425 to today, Brandenburg from the 1470's until today, and Naples from 1453 to 1476.

Its name was taken from the Count (or Duke) of Trastámara. This title was used by Henry II of Castile, "lo de las Mercedes", before coming to the throne in 1369, during the civil war with his legitimate brother, King Pedro of Castile. Juan I of Navarra ruled from 1441 to 1453 and upon his death, his son became king of both Navarra and Aragon, later becoming Elector of Brandenburg.

In 1474, The House of Habsburg came into power on Castille, after the death of King Alfonso XII, and the previous marriage of now Queen Isabel to Frederick Constantine von Habsburg, also known as Fadrique I of Castille, son of Frederick VII of Austria, the then Holy Roman Emperor.the connections with the Emperor were crucial for the Castillian victory on the First Galician War.With the death of Fadrique in 1513, Austria and Castille went to different sons of his, the eldest, Maximilian, receiving Castille.

The House of Habsburg in Castille eventually was toppled in 1586, following Garcia I of Portugal's acquisition of the titles associated with the Castillian crown, on the peace negotiations after the Second Galician War.

Subjects And Colonies

Toledo

  • Name: Reino de Toledo (Castillian)/Kingdom of Toledo (English)
  • Flag:
    • Coat of Arms:
  • Capital: Toledo
  • Language: Castillian
  • Religion: Roman Catholicism
  • Regime: Monarchy
  • Currency: Real
  • Established: 1085

In April 1065 Emir Al-Muqtadir of Zaragoza besieged Barbastro, aided by 500 Sevillian knights. The governor, Count Ermengol II of Urgel, was killed, and a few days later the city fell, whereupon the Spanish and French garrison was put to the sword, thus bringing an end to Pope Alexander II's prototype crusade.

At around the same time Emir Al-Muqtadir broke off relationships with Castile, and Ferdinand I lead a punitive expedition into Zaragoza - taking Alquezar - and then into Valencia. Despite being a tributary of Castile, emir Al-Mamun of Toledo lead a force in support of his son-in-law Emir Abd al-Malik. Mamun subsequently dethroned Abd al-Malik and incorporated Valencia into the Kingdom of Toledo. Ferdinand fell dangerously ill and retired from the field. Ferdinand died in December 1065, and his empire was divided between his three sons: Sancho II in Castile, Alfonso VI in León, and Garcia in Galicia.

In May 1085, after skilfully managing to pit the several Muslim kings against each other and defeating a coalition of the taifas of Seville, Badajoz and Zaragoza, Alfonso VI was able to enter the city of Toledo; the latter's taifa was incorporated with Castile and the city was made the capital of León and Castile. The former taifa lands remained subject to a long struggle with its Muslim neighbours, at least until the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212).

The "Kingdom of Toledo" is not actually independent of the Castillan kingdom, being just an official denomination for the so-called New Castile, differentiating the recent conquest from the Muslims from the previously held lands of "Old Castile". It did represent a distinct administrative unit, having its own court officers.

Jaén

  • Name: Reino de Jaén (Castillian)/Kingdom of Jaén (English)
  • Flag:
    • Coat of Arms:
  • Capital: Jaén
  • Language: Castillian
  • Religion: Roman Catholicism
  • Regime: Monarchy
  • Currency: Real
  • Established: 1246

The Kingdom of Jaén is a territorial jurisdiction of the Crown of Castile from the time it was won from Muslim rule in 1246 during the Reconquista until Jathe present day. This kingdom is not independent from the Castillian kingdom, basically serving the same purpose as Algarve on Portugal. the Crown of Castile consisted of several such kingdoms. Is Known also as the "Santo Reino" ("Holy Kingdom"). Jaén is one of the Three Kingdoms of Andalusia.

Murcia

  • Name: Reino de Murcia (Castillian)/Kingdom of Murcia (English)
  • Flag:
    • Coat of Arms:
  • Capital: Murcia
  • Language: Castillian
  • Religion: Roman Catholicism
  • Regime: Monarchy
  • Currency: Real
  • Established: 1258

As well as Toledo and Jaén, This kingdom is not independent from the Castillian kingdom.

Nobiliarchic divisions (as of 1748)

Titles with its associated lands located in Navarra and put here for convenience are in italic.

Duchies

  • Arjona - Manuel Yañez de Lara (1692-)
  • Escalona - Juan IV Pacheco (1713-)
  • Frías - Bernardino IV Fernandez de Velasco (1696-)
  • Huete - appanage of the crown.
  • Jaén - Francisco I de Habsburgo (1685-)
  • Maqueda - Rodrigo II de Cárdenas (1703-)
  • Medinacelli - Luis IV de la Cerda (1700-)
  • Nájera - José Manrique de Lara (1676-)
  • Pastrana - Maria Teresa Gómez de Silva (1705-) - Garcia Alfonso de Lara (1705-)
  • Peñafiel - appanage of the crown
  • Peñaranda de Duero - Antonio Chacón de Avellaneda (1699-)
  • Santillana - Diego XIII López de Mendoza (1706-)
  • Soría - appanage of the crown
  • Villalba - appanage of the crown
  • Villena - Enrique VI de Trastámara (1680-)

Marchessates

  • Aguilafuente - Manuel III de Zuñiga (1688-)
  • Aguilar de Campoo - Garcia IV Manrique de Lara (1695-)
  • Alconchel - Juan V de Silva (1685-)
  • Almazán - Francisco IV Garcia de Albornoz (1672-)
  • Aravaca del Monte - Rodrigo II Gaytán de Ayala (1696-)
  • Argüeso - Garcia XI Lasso de La Vega (1696-)
  • Auñón - appanage of the crown
  • Barajas - Juan V de La Lama (1695-)
  • Bedmar - Maria de La Cueva (1700-) - Arias Nuñez de Balboa (1699-)
  • Berlanga - Pedro III Fernandez de Tovar (1703-)
  • Cadreíta - Luis IV Aux de Armendariz (1690-)
  • Cañete - Garcia III de Carvajal (1688-)
  • Caracena - Fernando IV de Valdés (1700-)
  • Cardeñosa - Diego III Chávez de Guzmán (1687-)
  • Cartagena - Pedro VII Fajardo Chacón (1708-)
  • Casa Villavicencio - Lorenzo Villavicencio (1686-)
  • Castromonte - José de Baeza (1702-)
  • Cogolludo - held by the Dukes of Medinacelli
  • Espinardo - Juan IV de Guevara Fajardo (1706-)
  • Frómista - Luis VII de Benavides (1699-)
  • Fuente el Sol - Juan II de Bracamonte (1700-)
  • Fuentehoyuelo - Francisco II Cabeza de Vaca (1687-)
  • Jabalquinto - Juan VI de Benavides (1707-)
  • Jódar - held by the Marchesses of Cañete
  • La Adrada - appanage of he crown
  • La Guardia - Lope VIII García de Haro (1700-)
  • La Hinojosa - Juan VIII de Arellano (1697-)
  • La Laguna de Camero Viejo - held by the Dukes of Medinacelli
  • La Mota - Juan III de Ulloa (1685-)
  • Las Navas - Pedro IX de Ávila (1700-)
  • Leganés - Antonio Mesía Felípez de Gúzman (1680-)
  • Los Balbases - Carlos II Spínola (1693-)
  • Los Cameros - Garcia VIII Álvarez de los Cameros (1716-)
  • Lozoya - Luis II de Contreras (1711-)
  • Malagón - appanage of the crown.
  • Mondéjar - Sancho I de Olaya (1677-)
  • Montes Claros - Álvaro VI Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca (1681-)
  • Moya - Lope VI López de Madrid (1680-)
  • Navarmorcuende - Juan I Coello Dávila (1691-)
  • Olivares - Diego de Onís (1681-)
  • Ontoveros - Manuel IV de Bañuelos (1715-)
  • Poza - Diego V de Rojas (1698-)
  • Santa Cruz de Mudela - Álvaro VIII de Bazán (1734-)
  • Solera - Antonio de Benavides (1708-)
  • Uceda - Pedro IV Velásquez Dávila (1698-)
  • Taracena - Francisco IV de Ibarra (1699-)
  • Vallecerrato - Manuel de Acuña (1694-)
  • Velada - Gomez V Dávila (1688-)
  • Velamazán - Martín II González de Castejón (1690-)
  • Villar de Grajanejos - held by the Dukes of Escalona

Counties

  • Álava - Juan IX de Landa (1694-)
  • Aguilar de Inestrillas - held by the Marchesses of La Hinojosa
  • Albornoz - held by the Marchesses of Almazán
  • Aramayona - Juan VIII Idiaquez de Butrón (1716-)
  • Ayala - Alfonso III López de Ayala (1696-)
  • Bañares - appanage of the crown.
  • Buendía - Lope VII de Herrera (1695-)
  • Caleruega - Álvaro VI Díaz de Caleruega (1690-)
  • Casarrubios - held by the Dukes of Peñaranda de Duero
  • Castilnovo - held by the Dukes of Frías
  • Castrillo - Cristóbal González de Avellaneda (1695-)
  • Castrojeriz - appanage of the crown
  • Chillón - Diego VII Fernández de Córdoba (1676-)
  • Chinchón - Juan II Fernandez de Cabrera (1700-)
  • Cifuentes - held by the Marchesses of Alconchel
  • Cobatillas - Fernando II Manuel de Contreras (1718-)
  • Escalante - Pedro IV de Arce (1696-)
  • Estella - Ramón IV des Baux (1710-)
  • Fuensalida - Pedro XI de Ayala (1682-)
  • Fuensaldaña - Francisco Pérez de Viveros (1720-)
  • Fuente el Salce - Manuel II de Salamanca (1688-)
  • Gor - Sancho VIII de Castilla (1695-)
  • Guipúzcoa - Vela V Aznar de Iturbide (1705-)
  • Hita - Iñigo IX López de Orozco (1695-)
  • La Revilla - María Francisca de Velasco (1715-) - Francico Díaz de Caleruega (1713-)
  • La Vega - held by the Marchesses of Argüeso
  • Labort - Garcia de Comminges-Guitaut (1712-)
  • Lara - Nuño VIII Yañez de Lara (1708-)
  • Las Amayuelas - Ignacio Manrique de Lara (1681-)
  • Lerín - Carlos II de Beaumont (1676-)
  • Lodosa - Juan V Hurtado de Mendoza (1703-)
  • Logroño - held by the Dukes of Frías
  • Los Arcos - Pedro III Lasso de La Vega (1683-)
  • Madrid - Juan VIII de Vargas (1720-)
  • Meneses - Alfonso VIII de Meneses (1678-)
  • Oñate - Pedro IV Vélez de Guevara (1702-)
  • Orgaz - Josefa Hurtado de Mendoza (1700-) - Manuel Yañez de Lara (1692-)
  • Oropesa - held by the Marchesses of Villar de Grajanejos
  • Osorno - held by the Dukes of Nájera
  • Nieva - Maria Manrique de Almansa (1700-) - Fernando Yañez de Lara (1695-)
  • Paredes de Nava - held by the Dukes of Nájera
  • Priego - Álvaro II Carrillo de Gamboa (1717-)
  • Puertollano - Luis I Lasso de La Vega (1700-)
  • Puñonrostro - Diego Arías (1680-)
  • Riocavado - Sancho de Comminges-Guitaut (1716-)
  • Santa Gadea - Pedro IV Manrique de Padilla (1699-)
  • Santistebal del Puerto - held by the Marchesses of Solera
  • Sobremazas - Alfonso IV de Cuetos (1696-)
  • Villalobos - appanage of the crown.
  • Villamediana - Felipe II de Taxis (1683-)
  • Villardompardo - Juan III Torres (1695-)
  • Villaverde de Madrid - Tello VI de Gúzman (1693-)
  • Villerias - held by the Counts of Escalante.
  • Vizcaya - Nuño V López de Haro (1699-)

Monarchs

Counts of Castille (unified and elective)

  • Rodrigo (860-873)
  • Diego Rodríguez Porcelos (873-885)

Counts of Castille (fragmented and elective)

Counts of Castile

  • Munio Nuñez de Castrogeriz (899-901/904-909)
  • Gonzalo Téllez (901-904) [also count of Cerezo and Lantarón]
  • Gonzalo Fernández (909-915) [also count of Burgos.his acquisition of Castille resulted in the union of Burgos with Castille, the two titles being used interchangeably after.]

Count of Burgos

  • Gonzalo Fernández (899-915)

Counts of Burgos and Castille

  • Fernando Ansúrez (915-920/926-929)
  • Nuño Fernández de Amaya (920-926)
  • Guterre Fernández (929-931)

Counts of Cerezo and Lantarón

  • Gonzalo Téllez (897-913)
  • Fernando Díaz (913-921)
  • Álvaro Herrameliz (921-931)

Counts of Álava

  • Vela Jiménez (870-887)
  • Munio Veláz (887-921)
  • Álvaro Herrameliz (921-931)

Counts of Castille (unified and hereditary)

House of Lara

  • Fernando I González (914-970)
  • Garcia I Fernández (930-995)
  • Sancho I Garcés (970-1017)
  • Garcia II Sanchez (1010-1027)

House of Jiménez

  • Muniadona (995-1057)/Sancho III of Pamplona (990-1035)

Kings of Castille

House of Jiménez

  • Fernando II (1016-1065)
  • Sancho II (III) (1038-1072)
  • Alfonso VI (1040-1109)
  • Urraca I (1079-1126)

House of Burgundy

  • Alfonso VII (1105-1157)
  • Sancho III (IV) (1134-1158)
  • Alfonso VIII (1155-1214)
  • Enrique I (1204-1217)
  • Berengaria (1180-1246)
  • Fernando III (1199-1252)
  • Alfonso X (1221-1284)
  • Sancho IV (V) (1258-1295)
  • Fernando IV (1285-1312)
  • Alfonso XI (1311-1350)
  • Pedro I (1334-1369)

House of Trastámara

  • Enrique II (1334[1366-1367/1369]-1379)
  • Juan I (1358-1390)
  • Enrique III (1379-1406)
  • Juan II (1405-1454)
  • Enrique IV (1428-1456)
  • Alfonso XII (1451-1474)

House of Habsburg

  • Isabel (1451-1504)/Fadrique I (1453-1513)
  • Maximiliano I (1484-1550)
  • Fernando V (1528-1552)
  • Maximiliano II (1510-1569)
  • Alfonso XIII (1534-1577)
  • Fadrique II (1560-[1577-1586]1614)

House of Avis

  • Garcia III (1557-1587)

House of Lara

  • Urraca II (1559-1630)/Nuño I (1559-1631)
  • Fernando VI (1612-1686)
  • Alfonso XIV (1638-1694)
  • Juan III (1662-1725)
  • Alfonso XV (1682-1748)
  • Garcia IV (1705-1767)
  • Nuño II (1737-1770)
  • Berengaria II (1723-1785)/Pedro II (1728-1792)
  • Alfonso XVI (1746-1816)
  • José I (1761-1788) [co-monarch]
  • Juan IV (1766-1826)
  • Alfonso XVII (1792-1831)
  • Alfonso XVIII (1816-1834)
  • Urraca III (1813-1836)/Nuño III (1817-1888)
  • Garcia V (1795-[1836-1837]1864)
  • Urraca IV (1790-1858)

House of Manrique de Lara

  • Garcia VI (1787-1850)
  • Alfonso XIX (1815-1881)
  • Fernando VII (1835-1889)
  • Fernando VIII (1853-1908)
  • Manuel I (1880-1910)
  • Garcia VII (1842-1912)
  • Alfonso XX (1864-1914)
  • Fernando IX (1866-1918)
  • Garcia VIII (1839-1919)
  • Manuel II (1860-1932)

Diplomacy

Allied

Enemies

  • Nothing

Truce

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