President of Mexico Venustiano Carranza



In 1914 Venustiano Carranza became president of Mexico. But against them were right-wing reactionaries, former supporters of Porfirio Díaz and Victoriano Huerta. At the same time, began anti-government revolt of proponents of agrarian reform and leftist led by the Pancho Villa, and the rebels managed to seize most of the country, including Mexico. They formed a government of President Eulalio Gutiérrez, consisting of leftists and left-wing liberals. In real history, Carranza, first went to the concessions promised agrarian reforms that benefit the common people, and then put down the rebellion of Villa and Zapata by Army

But in reality, returning to power, Carranza had not spent much of the promised reforms. What if Carranza did not go to the trick, promising reform, but instead sought the aid of the German Empire, with which Mexico has been linked economically and politically?


492px-President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912

President of U.S. Woodrow Wilson

At this time the U.S. was headed by President Woodrow Wilson, who enjoyed support from both Democrats and many socialists who carried out social reforms aimed at improving people's lives. One of his president campaign promises was that he would draw the U.S. into the war, especially the war in Europe (WWI). But in reality, as we recall, the United States in 1917, even if Wilson, joined the Entente against Germany. War against the German Empire demanded that Republicans, in addition, it was interested in the American economy and foreign policy - WW-I has allowed the United States economically and politically, to spread his influence throughout the world.

Sure, a U.S. entry into the war would be finished much earlier, and WW-I would have saved millions of lives. But how could this happen?

Point of Divergence (POD)

Германский флот в Веракрусе

German Navy in Veracruz

December 12, 1914 (the day when the true story of Carranza issued a decree on agrarian reform), he asked for help from Germany, the Germans decided to build on, rather than on popular support. He promised the Germans for helping create a German-Mexican military and economic union. Even raising the issue was discussed on the Mexican throne one of the German princes. Soon, in Veracruz, Carranza's residence and one of the largest ports in Mexico, began redeployment of German military advisers (on ships of neutral countries). This news, reports by British (seeking to draw the U.S. into the war on their side) caused a storm of indignation in the United States. Republicans have demanded immediate intervention in Mexico and the war against Germany

First Mexican Crisis

Сarranza offensive on Mexico

With help from the German Empire, Carranza sent troops under the command of General Alvaro Obregon, manned by German advisers, the assault on Mexico City. Government of Eulalio Gutiérrez immediately declared that against him war "German mercenaries", which immediately reprinted by American newspapers. American army was mobilized in January. At President Wilson began to openly pressure, demanding to go to war against Germany. Already in April, Mexico City has fallen. Carranza returned to power. The new edict, he openly proclaimed the German-Mexican alliance

Reaction of U.S.

The U.S. government was outraged. The German military presence in Mexico and the German-Mexican alliance directly violated the Monroe declaration and threatened U.S. influence in the region. Woodrow Wilson sent a note to the Emperor Wilhelm II and President Carranza, demanding to withdraw German troops from Mexico and to break the German-Mexican alliance. At the same time, the U.S. government has recognized the legitimate president of Mexico Eulalio Gutierrez and sent him to military aid and volunteers. In late April, troops under the command of Pancho Villa launched a counter-offensive. Mexico was the scene of fierce fighting, passing from hand to hand

Flooding of "Lusitania"

May 7 the German U-boat flooded "Lusitania", a British ship carrying weapons, and on the ship were American citizens, sparking outrage in the U.S.. May 12 British cryptographers intercepted a telegram to President Carranza German government, with a proposal to transfer the new German troops for combat operations against the U.S. During that Mexico had been promised the territory formerly alienated from her by United States (Texas, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada). May 12 United States declared war on the German Empire

Fall of Carranza

May 13, American troops under the command of general John Pershing invaded Mexico. May 15 Mexico City came under control government of Gutierrez, after which the troops of Pancho Villa and the Americans launched a joint offensive on Veracruz. In this situation, general Alvaro Obregon joined the government of Gutierrez and arrested German advisers in his army. Soon after, in early June after a short battle of Veracruz fell. Carranza was executed "for treason to the people of Mexico" and the German military advisers were arrested

Emergence of Mexican People States

The fall of Veracruz has completed the civil war in Mexico. The government of Gutierrez finally approved their power. Were declared Mexican People States and held the distribution of land among the peasants. Eulalio Gutiérrez became president of Mexico, Pancho Villa- Mexican army commander, Alvaro Obregon - commander of the Mexican Expeditionary Force in Europe. June 5, Mexico declared war on Germany


Landing at Gallipoli

In the spring of 1915 the Allies made ​​an unsuccessful operation for the landing at Gallipoli in order to capture Istanbul, capital of the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Central Powers. However, the August 6 Entente renewed attempt to land at Gallipoli. At this time, except for the Anglo-French troops in the assault took part in the Mexican-American units formed from soldiers who had combat experience against the Germans during the Mexican crisis, under command of John Pershing and Alvaro Obregon. After the transfer of additional American and Anglo-French forces at Gallipoli, Istanbul fell on October 1.

Capitulation of Ottoman Empire

At the same time the British took Baghdad, then passed under the control of Mesopotamia, and Russian troops landed on the Black Sea coast of Turkey and with the support of the Armenian rebels took the Erzurum. October 6th, Turkey surrendered. Under the terms of the armistice, she passed the Turkish Armenia, Russia, France, Syria and Lebanon, Britain, Mesopotamia, Ottoman Arabia, the Hijaz. Turkey is also provided to Yemen's independence. The Holy Land (Palestine and Transjordan) and Istanbul became a condominium of Great Powers (Britain-France-Russia-USA)

Serbian campaign

In a situation of falling in Istanbul, Bulgaria did not dare to enter the war on the side of the Central Powers, having received therefor Ottoman Thrace. Began transfer of troops to the aid of the Entente, Serbia, through Thessaloniki. Pro-German king of Greece Constantine deposed, Greece enters the war on the Entente side in return for accession to the Ottoman Ionia. With the help of the Entente troops Serbia repulsed Austro-German offensive in December and liberated Belgrade. However, since the Bulgarian army was demobilized, Romania didn't dare to enter the war on the Entente side, fearing that Bulgaria will take away her Dobrudja.

German revolution

By 1916 the U.S. army was fully deployed and transferred to the Western Front and the Balkan Front. In late January, began a general offensive of Entente on all fronts. On the German front, as in France, and Russia, the offensive ended in failure: the upcoming advanced only a few km, but both sides suffered heavy losses. Troops of Entente and Central Powers were totally demoralization, began at the front of fraternization. March 21 began the German revolution. Kaiser Wilhelm fled the country, was formed Provisional Government led by Friedrich Ebert. Due to the mutual distrust of the Social-Democrats, "wrenched from the hands of Germany's victory" and militarists, pact of Ebert-Grener wasn't signed.

Austro-Hungarian revolution

Much more successful was the offensive of the Entente against Austria-Hungary. Russian troops under the command of Brusilov during the "Brusilov offensive" occupied a large part of Austrian Galicia. Italian troops broke through the Austrian front on the Isonzo. The Serbian side, with the support of the Entente took parts of Bosnia and Vojvodina. Austro-Hungary collapsed in April 1916. In Zagreb, gathered in the National Assembly, announced the accession of Serbia. Czech Republic declared its independence. In Hungary, was created by the Government of the Hungarian' People's Republic, headed by Tibor Samuel, intruded into Slovakia and also installed the socialist government there. Czech Republic declared its independence. Came to power in Austria of Social Democrats.

End of WW-1

In September 1916, the first applying the tanks, the Entente troops broke through the German front at the Somme. By that time, in Bavaria, Thuringia and Saxony have been shaped far-left Socialist government. At this time, the troops of the Hungarian People's Republic established a socialist government in Austria. Ebert Government, unwilling to make peace, was overthrown. Came to power is extremely left-wing parties, Independent Social-Democratic Party of Germany and the Spartacus League. Theodore Liebknecht became president, Hugo Eberlein became Chancellor. Germany was proclaimed a German Workers Republic

Second Mexican Crisis

Mexican-American conflict

At this time, relations between the U.S. and Mexico worsened. The Mexican government under pressure from the far left, led by Pancho Viley, announced in July 1916 on the nationalization of much of the economy, including U.S. owned industries. U.S. began to pressure the government Gutierrez, demanding cancellation of the this decision. After the government agreed to Gutierrez, Pancho Villa made ​​a coup d'etat in September 1916. Mexico was proclaimed Mexican Socialist States. Villa Government has also announced withdrawal from the war and withdrew from the European Expeditionary Force of general Obregon and also recognized the government of Liebknecht in Germany and Samuel in Hungary. U.S. has also begun to withdraw its troops from Europe and pull them to the Mexican border

Second Mexican-American war

In October 1916 the American troops under the command of George Patton invaded Mexico, but they don't come to Mexico City. Occupied by U.S. territories, the Mexicans have launched a guerrilla war. By November 1916, due to the start of U.S. presidential elections, Americans have stopped the offensive. After returning from Europe Expeditionary Force of Obregon in 1917 Americans to withdraw his troops from Mexico. The official peace treaty was signed on February 7, 1917. Mexico agreed to pay compensation for property confiscated by the U.S.

Presidential elections in the U.S.

Before the election, November 7, 1916 Wilson's popularity rapidly declined. Many left-wing Americans who voted for Wilson, disappointed in him because he had dragged the country into war. Republicans, led by Charles Hughes, accused Wilson of pandering to the "red scare", the inability not solve Mexican crisis and other geopolitical errors. As a result, Wilson lost the election. President of the United States was Charles Hughes. The new Republican government formed a commission of Overman to fight with Socialists.

Belgrade Peace Treaty

"Red scare"

Initially, the Entente wanted to crush the socialist movement in Germany, Austria, Hungary and Slovakia. In addition, planned to tear away from Germany, many areas in favor of France, Belgium, Denmark and Poland, to eliminate her army and navy, and to put on her reparations. But due to the fact that many U.S. troops were withdrawn in America, and in the Entente countries were mass demonstrations in support of the socialist Germany, the Allies began to negotiate with Germany about a decent world. Germany, Austria, Hungary and Slovakia formed the International, the political alliance of socialist countries. Delegations and International Entente met in Belgrade for talks. Mediator were Bulgaria, Mexico and Commission of British economist Keynes, who was convinced that to maintain peace in Europe, Germany needed a decent world

Articles of the Peace

Germany ceded France Alsace-Lorraine, Belgium- Eupen-Malmedy, the future Polish State- Poznan, Russian Empire- Memelland. However, Germany retained the northern Schleswig and western Prussia (as opposed to OTL). States that have arisen in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria, Slovakia and Hungary) recognized fact that Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Vojvodina and Banat ceded Serbia (from this Mometna-Yugoslavia), Trieste and the Trentino- Italy, Galicia and Bukovina-Russian Empire. Also on the country's International left a pleasing size indemnity and demobilize the army (but are not allowed to keep the army more than a million soldiers in the future). The only point of agreement was unacceptable that he forbade the reunification of Germany and Austria, two countries, inhabited by Germans.

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