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Canadian Empire (officially Empire of the Canadian States), known commonly as Canada, is a country in North America consisting of 10 provinces and 3 territories. Extended from Alaska to Greenland, considered to be the world's second-largest countries by total area.
The land that is now Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French colonies were established on the region's Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various conflicts, the United Kingdom gained and lost North American territories until left, in the late 18th century, with what mostly comprises Canada today. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867, three colonies joined to form the autonomous federal Dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the new self-governing Dominion within the Imperial Federation. In 1931, Britain granted Canada near total independence with the Statute of Westminster 1931 and full sovereignty was attained when the Imperial Federation was partially dissolved and reconstituted as the Imperial Commonwealth of Nations in 1949.
Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy Queen-Empress Elizabeth II of the Imperial Commonwealth being the current head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries, with a population of approximately 36 million as of 2015. Its advanced economy is one of the largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
Canada is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the thirteenth highest per capita income globally, and the eighth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada is a member of the Imperial Commonwealth of Nations and also is the wealthiest nation among the member states of the Imperial Commonwealth.